Rajmund Przybylak

Rajmund Przybylak
Nicolaus Copernicus University | umk · Department of Climatology

Professor

About

215
Publications
30,858
Reads
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2,339
Citations
Introduction
Rajmund Przybylak currently works at the Department of Meteorology and Climatology, Nicolaus Copernicus University. Rajmund does research in Climatology, Meteorology and Paleoclimatology. His current project is 'Causes of the Early 20th century Artic Warming (CEArc)'.
Additional affiliations
June 1982 - present
Nicolaus Copernicus University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
October 1997 - September 2006
Nicolaus Copernicus University
Field of study
  • Earth Sciences (climatology)
April 1988 - September 1997
Nicolaus Copernicus University
Field of study
  • Earth Sciences (climatology)
June 1982 - April 1988
Nicolaus Copernicus University
Field of study
  • climatology

Publications

Publications (215)
Preprint
The winter 1788/9 was one of the coldest winters Europe had witnessed in the past 300 years. Fortunately for historical climatologists, this extreme event occurred at a time when many stations across Europe, both private and as part of coordinated networks, were making quantitative observations of the weather. This means that several dozens of earl...
Article
Full-text available
The widely used Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) monthly temperature dataset is available in two formats - non-homogenized and homogenized. Since 2011, this homogenized dataset has been updated almost daily by applying the "Pairwise Homogenization Algorithm" (PHA) to the non-homogenized datasets. Previous studies found that the PHA can...
Article
Full-text available
The widely used Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) monthly temperature dataset is available in two formats—non-homogenized and homogenized. Since 2011, this homogenized dataset has been updated almost daily by applying the “Pairwise Homogenization Algorithm” (PHA) to the non-homogenized datasets. Previous studies found that the PHA can pe...
Article
Full-text available
A review of many studies published since the late 1920s reveals that the main driving mechanisms responsible for the Early Twentieth Century Arctic Warming (ETCAW) are not fully recognized. The main obstacle seems to be our limited knowledge about the climate of this period and some forcings. A deeper knowledge based on greater spatial and temporal...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Sprawozdanie z międzynarodowej konferencji naukowej POLAR CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN THE LAST MILLENNIUM z Torunia w dn. 30 VIII-1 IX 2021 r.
Article
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Research Highlights: This study used a 99-year time-series of daily climatic data to determine the climate-growth relationship for Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in Northern Poland. The use of daily climatic data improved the calculated climatic response of the trees. Background and Objectives: It was hypothesised that daily temperature a...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, instrumental observations have become increasingly important in climate research, allowing past daily-to-decadal climate variability and weather extremes to be explored in greater detail. The 18th century saw the formation of several short-lived meteorological networks of which the one organised by the Societas Meteorologica Palati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
On August 30 to September 1, 2021, the “3rd International Conference: Polar Climate and Environmental Change in the Last Millennium” was held in “hybrid mode” (both in person and on-line via the MS Teams platform). Forty-four scientists attended from Poland and around the world (incl. the USA, Russia, Peru, Iceland). On Day 1 (August 30), fourteen...
Chapter
The chapter “Climate change before instrumental measurements” is a review and compilation of papers concerning the reconstruction of Poland’s climate in the last millennium. Data for this period are gaining importance due to their comparability with modern instrumental data, which is possible thanks to their high temporal resolution (annual, season...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent years have seen early instrumental observations play an increasingly important role in climate research, allowing past daily-to-decadal climate variability and weather extremes to be explored in greater detail. The 18th century saw the formation of several short-lived meteorological networks of which the one organised by the Societas Meteoro...
Article
The Arctic has experienced prominent climate warming, at the beginning of the 20th century and currently. Comparing the driving mechanism during these periods helps to explain the causes of contemporary climate change. Our study explores the impact of regional circulation on Svalbard's surface air temperature (SAT, 2 m above ground). We used air te...
Article
Full-text available
The Early Twentieth Century Warming (ETCW) defined as the period 1921–50 saw a clear increase in actinometrical observations in the Arctic. Nevertheless, information on radiation balance and its components at that time is still very limited in availability, and therefore large discrepancies exist among estimates of total solar irradiance forcing. T...
Article
Full-text available
The performance of a new historical reanalysis, the NOAA-CIRES-DOE 20 th Century Reanalysis Version 3 (20CRv3), is evaluated via comparisons with other reanalyses and independent observations. This dataset provides global, 3-hourly estimates of the atmosphere from 1806 to 2015 by assimilating only surface pressure observations and prescribing sea s...
Article
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The Svalbard Airport composite series spanning the period from 1898 to the present represents one of very few long-term instrumental temperature series from the High Arctic. A homogenized monthly temperature series is available since 2014. Here we increase the resolution from a monthly to daily basis, and further digitization of historical data has...
Article
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The history of drought occurrence in Poland in the last millennium is poorly known. To improve this knowledge we have conducted a comprehensive analysis using both proxy data (documentary and dendrochronological) and instrumental measurements of precipitation. The paper presents the main features of droughts in Poland in recent centuries, including...
Article
Full-text available
Recent air temperature changes in the high Arctic (HA) have been investigated based on mean seasonal and annual data calculated for the period 1951–2015 and for two sub-periods 1976–2015 and 1996–2015. Two kinds of air temperature data (observational and reanalysis) have been used in the research. The observational data were compared with data take...
Article
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A global inventory of early instrumental meteorological measurements is compiled that comprises thousands of mostly nondigitized series, pointing to the potential of weather data rescue.
Article
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Instrumental meteorological measurements from periods prior to the start of national weather services are designated “early instrumental data.” They have played an important role in climate research as they allow daily to decadal variability and changes of temperature, pressure, and precipitation, including extremes, to be addressed. Early instrume...
Article
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The paper presents the variability of meteorological conditions: air temperature, wind speed and relative air humidity; and biometeorological indices: wind chill temperature, predicted clothing insulation and accepted level of physical activity on Franz Josef Land (in Teplitz Bay and Calm Bay) in the years 1899–1931. It employs meteorological measu...
Article
Full-text available
W niniejszym artykule dokonano przeglądu i podsumowania dorobku polskich badań meteorologicznych i klimatologicznych w obszarach polarnych. Ponieważ ich historia liczy już sto dwadzieścia lat, nie jest to pierwsza próba takiej syntezy. Niemniej nigdy wcześniej, nie licząc opracowania Przybylaka (2000a) ograniczonego terytorialnie tylko do Spitsberg...
Article
Historical reanalyses that span more than a century are needed for a wide range of studies, from understanding large‐scale climate trends to diagnosing the impacts of individual historical extreme weather events. The Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) Project is an effort to fill this need. It is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric A...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents the main features of droughts in Poland in recent centuries, including their frequency of occurrence, coverage, duration and intensity. For this purpose both proxy data (documentary and dendrochronological) and instrumental measurements of precipitation were used. The reconstructions of droughts based on all the mentioned sources...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews and summarises the achievements of Polish meteorological and climatological research in polar regions. In summarising the many years of organisational and publishing achievements of Polish polar researchers in meteorology and climatology, it should be emphasised that: 1. There have been four distinct periods (waves) of high ac...
Article
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The article presents a detailed analysis of changes in air temperature in Toruń in the period 1871–2010 on the basis of homogenised monthly, seasonal and annual air temperature series which have been newly constructed (i.e. extended by the 50 years of 1871–1920). Over the 140-year study period, a sizeable and statistically significant increase of 0...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the studies was to evaluate the usefulness of the microscopic features of wood in characterising the climatic conditions of a period for which only proxy data are available. Samples were taken from historical wood from Koronowo collegiate church and from a living Scots pine tree growing in the Toruń-Wrzosy site. All measurements were per...
Article
In the paper we focus on the notes of botanist and meteorologist Gottfried Reyger on the weather conditions in Gdańsk, Poland. In our estimation, this chronicle, covering the period from December 1721 to June 1786 (the longest weather chronicle recorded by a single person), is a reliable source of information with the potential to contribute to the...
Article
This article presents the results of an investigation into air temperature conditions in northern Nordaustlandet (NE Svalbard) based on meteorological observations made by German soldiers towards the end of World War II (1944/1945) and 4 months after its end. Traditional analysis using mean monthly data was supplemented by a detailed analysis based...
Article
Full-text available
Unique and independent historical observations, carried out in the central Arctic during the early twentieth century warming (ETCW) period, were used to evaluate the older (20CRv2) and newer (20CRv2c) versions of the 20th Century Reanalysis and the HIRHAM5 regional climate model. The latter can reduce several biases compared to its forcing data set...
Article
This article presents the variations in air temperature and humidity in the region of the Hornsund fjord for the period from 1 July 2014 to 30 June 2015. Based on measurements at 11 sites, it was established that significant topoclimatic differences were dependent on height above sea level, substrate type, distance from the sea, exposition, atmosph...
Article
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This article analyses the conditions affecting the incoming global solar radiation in Hornsund (Spitsbergen) in spring of 2015. Incoming solar radiation turned out to be average for the season under analysis, as compared with longer-term data. The clearness index (KT) was 0.46, and was mainly determined by the extent of cloudiness. As a result of d...
Article
In this article, the results of an investigation into the air temperature conditions in Novaya Zemlya Archipelago and Vaygach Island (NZR) from 1832 to 1920, on the basis of all available early instrumental data gathered during exploratory and scientific expeditions, are presented. Traditional analysis based on mean monthly data was supplemented by...
Article
The relationship between atmospheric circulation and climate in Svalbard has been described in dozens of studies. However, the data used for that purpose usually came from permanent stations on the coast. The influence of atmospheric circulation on topoclimatic diversity has not been explored so often, and hardly at all for other periods than the A...
Article
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The full surface energy balance of the sea water of the Arctic fjord was analysed for the period from May to November 2014 in Hornsund (SW Spitsbergen). The sensible and latent turbulent fluxes were measured with the aid of the open-path eddy covariance method. The measurement site was located in the Wilczek Peninsula (Wilczekodden) on the rocks, r...
Article
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We monitored leaf phenology and xylogenesis of 12 Pedunculate oaks in northern Poland in 2014. We hypothesized that the individual trees, which differed in size, age and habitat (tree stand or gap), also diverged in terms of the seasonal patterns of leaf phenology and xylogenesis. The samples used for wood formation observations were collected most...
Article
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In this article, the results of an investigation into the air temperature pattern and development (including the urban heat island (UHI)) in Toruń (central Poland) are presented. For the analysis, daily mean temperature (Ti) as well as daily maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures for 2012 gathered for 20 sites, evenly distributed in the are...
Article
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Rapid ecosystem transitions and adverse effects on ecosystem services as responses to combined climate and human impacts are of major concern. Yet few long-term (i.e. >60 years) quantitative observational time series exist, particularly for ecosystems that have a long history of human intervention. Here, we combine three major environmental pressur...
Article
Full-text available
W artykule przedstawiono charakterystykę warunków meteorologicznych w północnej części Kaffiøyry (NW Spitsbergen, rys. 1) w sezonach letnich (21 VII – 31 VIII) w okresie 2012-2014 (tab. 1, rys. 2-9). Pomiary i obserwacje meteorologiczne prowadzono w ogródku meteorologicznym zlokalizowanym w pobliżu stacji polarnej UMK na morenie czołowo-bocznej Lod...
Article
Full-text available
Daily temperature measurements from six meteorological stations along the coast and fjords of western Spitsbergen have been digitized and quality controlled in a Norwegian, Russian and Polish collaboration. Complete daily data series have been reconstructed back to 1948 for all of the stations. One of the station’s monthly temperature series has pr...
Article
Full-text available
Temperature and precipitation conditions in the Kaffiøyra region in the summer season (21 July–31 August) for the period from 1975–2014 are described based on data collected during 22 expeditions, in which meteorological measurements were carried out, and complete data series combining both original and reconstructed data. The latter ones were obta...
Article
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The article presents the results of ground temperature measurements taken at 1 cm to 100 cm below ground level on the Kaffiøyra Plain (NW Spitsbergen) from 1 September 2012 to 31 August 2014. Observations of thermal conditions were carried out at three sites located in characteristic polar ecotopes: on a beach, in tundra and on a moraine. The resul...
Article
Full-text available
W pracy dokonano oceny zróżnicowania przestrzennego warunków biometeorologicznych w Toruniu i w jego strefie podmiejskiej w 2012 r. Wykorzystano dane meteorologiczne z 10 stacji automatycznych zlokalizowanych w różnych typach pokrycia i użytkowania terenu. Do analizy użyto danych o rozdzielczości godzinnej następujących elementów meteorologicznych:...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The article presents preliminary results of studies into the spatial diversity of air temperature and relative humidity (overground layer, 2 m a.g.l.) in the area of the Hornsund fjord (S Spitsbergen, approx. 77 • N), based on data collected between 1 July 2014 and 30 June 2015. The Hornsund fjord runs latitudinal along approx. 40 km and its averag...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an overview of the results of research on changes in ground temperature down to 50 cm depth, on the Kaffiøyra Plain, Spitsbergen in the summer seasons. To achieve this, measurement data were analysed from three different ecotopes (CALM Site P2A, P2B and P2C) – a beach, a moraine and tundra – collected during 22 polar expeditions...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an overview of the results of research on changes in ground temperature down to 50 cm depth, on the Kaffiøyra Plain, Spitsbergen in the summer seasons. To achieve this, measurement data were analysed from three different ecotopes (CALM Site P2A, P2B and P2C) – a beach, a moraine and tundra – collected during 22 polar expeditions...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an assessment of the spatial diversity of biometeorological conditions in Toruń and its suburban area in 2012. The study makes use of meteorological data sourced from 10 automatic weather stations set up at locations differing in terms of land cover and use. The analysis was based on data of hourly resolution comprising the foll...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides the characteristics of meteorological conditions in the north of Kaffiøyra (NW Spitsbergen, Fig. 1) in the summer seasons (21 July - 31 August) of 2012-2014 (Table 1, Figs 2-9). The observations and measurements were carried out at a meteorological site located near the NCU Polar Station on the terminal-lateral moraine of the...
Chapter
In this chapter, a history of the development of views on atmospheric circulation in the Arctic is presented. A “permanent Arctic anticyclone” hypothesis existed in the scientific literature until about mid-twentieth century. Large-scale atmospheric circulation as one of the climatic processes is described in detail for all seasons. Yearly cycles o...
Chapter
In this chapter, the different aspects of air humidity in the Arctic are described using two standard characteristics (water vapour content and relative humidity). In the case of relative humidity, results are presented both for the expression of relative humidity in terms of the percentage of saturation with respect to ice and its expression in te...
Chapter
The chapter begins with a description of the history of actinometric measurements in the Arctic and a review of the literature describing radiation and energy conditions. Sunshine duration conditions are then described for some months of the year. Very detailed information is given about the spatial distribution of the radiation balance and all of...
Chapter
This chapter mainly offers a detailed look at the problem of “Arctic haze” as a well-defined case of air pollution in the Arctic, which influences climate through changes in the radiation balance of the atmosphere. Space and attention is also given to the main sources and pathways for the transport of pollutants between the mid-latitudes and the Ar...
Chapter
In this chapter, a complex description of air temperature parameters (mean, maximum, minimum, and diurnal temperature range) is presented. The analysis includes, among other spatial distributions of mean seasonal and annual values of these parameters in the Arctic, annual and daily cycles and year-to-year variability. In addition, the results of an...
Chapter
In the first part of this chapter, the results of model simulations of the present-day Arctic climate are presented and discussed separately, based on papers published prior to 2002 and on more recent ones. Scenarios for the future Arctic climate are presented in the second part of the chapter, based on results obtained from both the GCM method and...
Chapter
In this chapter, the factors influencing climate diversity in the area of the Arctic are discussed. Then literature describing climate regionalization in the Arctic is shortly summarized. Substantial part of the chapter is devoted to the description of most important features of climate in seven distinguished climate regions: the Atlantic region, t...
Chapter
In this chapter, the state of current knowledge of climate change and variability in the Arctic for three time periods (the Holocene, the last millennium, and the instrumental period) is presented. A synthesis is also separately conducted for three regions of the Arctic: Greenland, the Canadian High Arctic, and the Eurasian Arctic. For the latter r...
Article
This book is a new and revised second edition of the book ‘The Climate of the Arctic’, published in 2003. It presents a comprehensive analysis of the current state of knowledge related to the climate of the Arctic, using the latest meteorological data. All meteorological elements are described in detail and an up-to-date review of the available lit...
Chapter
In this chapter, a review of available literature presenting different aspects of occurrence of precipitation and snow cover in the Arctic is done. Moisture contents of the atmosphere in January and July are first described followed by a very detailed analysis including the spatial distribution of precipitation and its changes in the annual course....
Chapter
In this chapter, a comparison of surface-, satellite-, model-, and reanalyses-based cloudiness climatologies is presented. The surface-based climatology shows most reliable results. The annual cycle of cloudiness in different parts of the Arctic is described and discussed. The spatial distribution of cloudiness (amount, number of clear and cloudy d...
Article
Full-text available
W artykule przedstawiono historię badań polarnych prowadzonych w latach 1968-2015 przez pracowników Katedry Meteorologii i Klimatologii Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu. Omówiono i scharakteryzowano problematykę badawczą dominującą w opublikowanych w Polsce i za granicą artykułach i monografiach. Wskazano na główne obszary badawcze położon...
Article
Full-text available
Trees are sensitive to extreme weather and environmental conditions. This sensitivity is visible in tree-ring widths and cell structure. In our study, we hypothesized that the sudden frost noted at the beginning of May in both 2007 and 2011 affected cambial activity and, consequently, the number and size of vessels in the tree rings. It was decided...
Article
In this article, air temperature variability in the Svalbard region (74-82°N, 6-30°E) from 1865 to 1920 is presented based on a large amount of early instrumental land and marine data. Measurements were taken during many exploratory and scientific expeditions to the study area. In addition, changes of air temperature from historical times to the pr...