Rajendra D Badgaiyan

Rajendra D Badgaiyan
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | UT HSC · Department of Psychiatry

Doctor of Medicine

About

256
Publications
33,186
Reads
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3,724
Citations
Citations since 2017
121 Research Items
1786 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
October 2014 - present
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Position
  • Professor of Psychiatry and Neuromodulation
January 2010 - December 2012
January 2000 - December 2009
Massachusetts General Hospital

Publications

Publications (256)
Article
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In this nonsystematic review and opinion, including articles primarily selected from PubMed, we examine the pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in order to craft a reasonable opinion to help forge a paradigm shift in the treatment and prevention of primarily opioid-induced NAS. Newborns of individ...
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Exercise, a proven method of boosting health and wellness, is thought to act as a protective factor against many neurological and psychological diseases. Recent studies on exercise and drug exposure have pinpointed some of the neurological mechanisms that may characterize this protective factor. Using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging tech...
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Scientific studies have provided evidence that there is a relationship between violent and aggressive behaviors and addictions. Genes involved with the reward system, specifically the brain reward cascade (BRC), appear to be associated with various addictions and impulsive, aggressive, and violent behaviors. In our previous research, we examined th...
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Scientific studies have provided evidence that there is a relationship between violent and aggressive behaviors and addictions. Genes involved with the reward system, specifically the brain reward cascade (BRC), appear to be associated with various addictions and impulsive, aggressive, and violent behaviors. In our previous research, we examined th...
Article
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This case series presents the novel genetic addiction risk score (GARS), which shows a high prevalence of polymorphic risk alleles of reward genes in a nuclear family with multiple reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) behavioral issues expressing a hypodopaminergic antecedent. The family consists of a mother, father, son, and daughter. The mother exper...
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Since 1990, when our laboratory published the association of the DRD2 Taq A1 allele and severe alcoholism in JAMA, there has been an explosion of genetic candidate association studies, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To develop an accurate test to help identify those at risk for at least alcohol use disorder (AUD), a subset of rew...
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Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) is defined as a breakdown of reward neurotransmission that results in a wide range of addictive, compulsive, and impulsive behaviors. RDS is caused by a combination of environmental (epigenetic) influences and DNA-based (genetic) neurotransmission deficits that interfere with the normal satisfaction of human physiol...
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The current addiction crisis has destroyed a multitude of lives, leaving millions of fatalities worldwide in its wake. At the same time, various governmental agencies dedicated to solving this seemingly never-ending dilemma have not yet succeeded or delivered on their promises. We understand that addictive behavioral seeking is a multi-faceted neur...
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Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with group A streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a concept that is used to characterize a subset of children with neuropsychiatric symptoms, tic disorders, or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), whose symptoms are exacerbated by group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. PANDAS has been known...
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Addiction is a complex multifactorial condition. Established genetic factors can provide clear guidance in assessing the risk of addiction to substances and behaviors. Chronic stress can accumulate, forming difficult to recognize addiction patterns from both genetic and epigenetic (environmental) factors. Furthermore, psychological/physical/chemica...
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Since 1990, when our laboratory published the association of the DRD2 Taq A1 allele and severe alcoholism in JAMA, there has been an explosion of genetic candidate association studies, including GWAS. To develop an accurate test to help identify those at risk for at least Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), Blum’s group developed the Genetic Addiction Risk...
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Cannabis is one of the most commonly used and abused illicit drugs in the world today. The United States (US) currently has the highest annual prevalence rate of cannabis consumption in the world, 17.9% in individuals aged 12 or older, and it is on the rise. With increasing cannabis use comes the potential for an increase in abuse, and according to...
Article
Excessive alcohol intake, e.g., binge drinking, is a serious and mounting public health problem in the United States and throughout the world. Hence the need for novel insights into the underlying neurobiology that may help improve prevention and therapeutic strategies. Therefore, our group employed a darkness-induced alcohol intake protocol to def...
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Background There is a shortage of clinical studies examining the efficacy of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide and Enkephalinase infusions (IV1114589NAD) in treating Substance Use Disorder (SUD). Objective This study aims to provide evidence that IV1114589NAD infusions significantly attenuate substance craving behavior. Methods The study cohort c...
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This brief commentary aims to provide an overview of the available and relatively new precision management of reward deficiencies manifested as substance and behavioral disorders. Current and future advances, concepts, and the substantial evidential basis of this potential therapeutic and prophylactic treatment modality are presented. Precision Beh...
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Epidemiological and phenomenological studies suggest shared underpinnings between multiple addictive behaviors. The present genetic association study was conducted as part of the Psychological and Genetic Factors of Addictions study (n = 3003) and aimed to investigate genetic overlaps between different substance use, addictive, and other compulsive...
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Many individuals in the United States are plagued by addiction, and the rate at which it is affecting people in the United States only seems to be increasing. Research shows that addiction is a preventable disorder rather than a flaw in one’s moral fiber. It is driven by the imbalance of dopamine and the brain’s reward system. Although medication-a...
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Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) encompasses many mental health disorders, including a wide range of addictions and compulsive and impulsive behaviors. Described as an octopus of behavioral dysfunction, RDS refers to abnormal behavior caused by a breakdown of the cascade of reward in neurotransmission due to genetic and epigenetic influences. The r...
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Background: The reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) integrates psychological, neurological, and genetic factors of addictive, impulsive, and compulsive behaviors. However, to date, no instrument has been validated to assess the RDS construct. Aims: The present study developed and tested a tool to assess RDS. Methods: Data were collected on two co...
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In the United States, amid the opioid overdose epidemic, nonaddicting/nonpharmacological proven strategies are available to treat pain and manage chronic pain effectively without opioids. Evidence supporting the long-term use of opioids for pain is lacking, as is the will to alter the drug-embracing culture in American chronic pain management. Some...
Chapter
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A variety of behavioral disorders are associated with addictions, impulsivity, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and some personality disorders, which are collectively known as reward deficiency syndrome. These disorders are also associated with diverse digestive disorders. The enteric nervous system, a complex subdivision of the peripheral nervous s...
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Kenneth Blum,1– 5 Bruce Steinberg,6 Marjorie C Gondre-Lewis,7 David Baron,1 Edward J Modestino,6 Rajendra D Badgaiyan,8– 10 B William Downs,11 Debasis Bagchi,11 Raymond Brewer,5 Thomas McLaughlin,12 Abdalla Bowirrat,13 Mark Gold14 1Center for Psychiatry, Medicine & Primary Care, Division of Addiction Research & Education, Graduate College, Western...
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Alcohol and other substance use disorders share comorbidity with other RDS disorders, i.e. a reduction in dopamine signaling within the reward pathway. RDS is a term that connects addictive, obsessive, compulsive, and impulsive behavioral disorders. An estimated 2 million individuals in the United States have opioid use disorder related to prescrip...
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Background: The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates a total obesity rate of 30% for 12 states and a 20% obesity rate nationwide. The obesity epidemic continues to increase in spite of preventative measures undertaken worldwide. Pharmacological treatments promise to reduce total fat mass. However, medications may...
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This commentary explores the neurobiology of spirituality and asks whether it is possible or desirable to apply genetic engineering to increase human spiritual and religious experience - (gene-spirituality) to deal better with the ever-increasing catastrophes that face humanity? Neurological connections between spirituality and reward genes, reward...
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Millions of Americans experience pain daily. In 2017, opioid overdose claimed 64,000 lives increasing to 84,000 lives in 2020, resulting in a decrease in national life expectancy. Chronic opioid use results in dependency, drug tolerance, neuroadaptation, hyperalgesia, potential addictive behaviors, or Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) caused by a hy...
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Background Conventional medical therapies for neurodegenerative diseases primarily target anti-inflammatory interventions, immune suppression of autoimmune pathologies, and, depending on the diagnosed pathological mechanisms, neurotransmitter reuptake inhibition, among other tactics. However, the incidence of neuroinflammatory pathologies appears t...
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Many US states now embrace the medical and recreational use of Cannabis. Changes in the laws have heightened interest and encouraged research into both cannabinoid products and the potential harms of Cannabis use, addiction and intoxication. The major active ingredient of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and it powerfully...
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This article describes a unique therapeutic precision intervention, a formulation of enkephalinase inhibitors, enkephalin, and dopamine-releasing neuronutrients, to induce dopamine homeostasis for detoxification and treatment of individuals genetically predisposed to developing reward deficiency syndrome (RDS). The formulations are based on the res...
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During Lucid Dreams, the dreamer is aware, experiences the dream as if fully awake, and may control the dream content. The dreamer can start, stop, and restart dreaming, depending on the nature and pleasantness of the dream. For patients with Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) behaviors, like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Tourette'...
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Background Understanding the risk for all addictive drug and non-drug behaviors, especially, in the unmyelinated Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) of adolescents, is important and complex. Many animal and human studies show the epigenetic impact on the developing brain in adolescents, compared to adults. Some reveal an underlying hyperdopaminergia that seems...
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In 2019, the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention provided vital statistics related to drug overdoses in the United State1. They concluded that in the USA the number of deaths at almost 72,000 was due to 66.6% of opioid overdoses. In fact, the rate is alarming and increasing yearly. To make 2021 even more scary is the daunting effect on inc...
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Treatment of severe chronic and acute pain in sickle cell disease (SCD) remains challenging due to the interdependence of pain and psychosocial modulation. We examined whether modulation of the descending pain pathway through an enriched diet and companionship could alleviate pain in transgenic sickle mice. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were...
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Background Repeated cocaine administration changes histone acetylation and methylation on Lys residues and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Recently Nestler’s group explored histone Arg (R) methylation in reward processing models. Damez-Werno et al. (2016) reported that during investigator and selfadministration exper...
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Introduction Polymorphic gene variants, particularly the genetic determinants of low dopamine function (hy-podopaminergia), are known to associate with Substance Use Disorder and a predisposition to PTSD. Addiction research and molecular genetic applied technologies supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have revealed the com-plex fun...
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Background: The overwhelming fatalities of the global COVID-19 Pandemic will have daunting epigenetic sequala that can translate into an array of mental health issues, including panic, phobia, health anxiety, sleep disturbances to dissociative like symptoms including suicide. Method: We searched PUBMED for articles listed using the search terms "C...
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Research into the neurogenetic basis of addiction identified and characterized by Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) includes all drug and non-drug addictive, obsessive and compulsive behaviors. We are proposing herein that a new model for the prevention and treatment of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) a subset of RDS behaviors, based on objective biolo...
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Background and aims: Changes in the nomenclature of addictions suggest a significant shift in the conceptualization of addictions, where non-substance related behaviors can also be classified as addictions. A large amount of data provides empirical evidence that there are overlaps of different types of addictive behaviors in etiology, phenomenolog...
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Background: A common neurological condition worldwide is Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) leading to both substance and non-substance addictive behaviors, that must be combatted by integrating both central nervous system and peripheral nervous system biological approaches. Integrity of hemoglobin is a crucial determining factor for the overall hea...
Article
Neuroscientists and psychiatrists working in the areas of “pain and addiction” are asked in this perspective article to reconsider the current use of dopaminergic blockade (like chronic opioid agonist therapy), and instead to consider induction of dopamine homeostasis by putative pro-dopamine regulation. Pro-dopamine regulation could help pharmaceu...
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A recent analysis from Stanford University suggested that without any changes in currently available treatment, prevention, and public health approaches, we should expect to have 510,000 deaths from prescription opioids and street heroin from 2016 to 2025 in the US. In a recent review, Mayo Clinic Proceedings (October 2019), Gold and colleagues at...
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In the face of the global pandemic of COVID 19, approaching 1.75 Million infected worldwide (4/12/2020) and associated mortality (over 108, 000 as of 4/12/2020) as well-as other catastrophic events including the opioid crisis, a focus on brain health seems prudent [1] (https://www.coronavirus.gov). This manuscript reports on the systemic benefits o...
Article
Background/Aims This case series presents the novel Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS®) coupled with a customized pro-dopamine regulator matched to polymorphic reward genes having a hypodopaminergic risk. Methods The proband is a female with a history of drug abuse and alcoholism. She experienced a car accident under the influence and voluntarily...
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Background The search for an accurate, gene-based test to identify heritable risk Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) was conducted based on hundreds of published studies about the role of dopamine in addictive behaviors, including risk for dependence; both drug and non-drug. The term RDS was first coined by Blum’s group in 1995 to identify a group of...
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe polygenic disorder triggered by environmental factors. Many polymorphic genes, particularly the genetic determinants of hypodopaminergia (low dopamine function), associate with a predisposition to PTSD as well as substance use disorder. Support from the National Institutes of Health for neuroimaging...
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In the face of the current Opioid crisis in America killing close to 800,000 people since 2004, we are proposing a novel approach to assist in at least attenuating these unwanted premature deaths. While we applaud the wonderful efforts of our governmental institutes and professional societies (NIDA, NIAAA, ASAM, ABAM ) in their extraordinary effort...
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Worldwide daily, millions of people are unable to combat their frustrating and even fatal romance with getting high; for some, “high” may be just experiencing feelings of well-being. The neuroscience community conducts and funds, outstanding research using sophisticated neuroimaging and molecular-genetic applied technology to improve understanding...
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The United States are amid an opioid overdose epidemic; we are challenged to provide non-addicting/non-pharmacological alternatives to assist in pain attenuation. There are proven strategies available to manage chronic pain effectively without opioids. Utilization review providers for insurance companies often ignore medicine based scientific peer-...
Chapter
In 1969 we used precision to land on the moon, so why can't we use precision medicine to stop the opiate/opioid epidemic in America? The genomics era has brought forth new hope for the future of medicine and, in particular, a better understanding of psychiatry. We now understand the important 296roles of DNA, polymorphic associations, and brain rew...
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It is well-known that Native Americans (NA) clinically present with a very high rate of alcoholism and other drugs of abuse. It is also known that NA also display a very high rate of suicide compared to other ethnic groups. Furthermore, individuals with various psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression) also have higher rates of suicide that are freq...