Rajaa A. Mahmoud

Rajaa A. Mahmoud
University of Basrah · Al Zahraa College of Medicine

MBChB- DCM- MPH- Ph.D. Community Medicine

About

108
Publications
117,244
Reads
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14
Citations
Citations since 2017
97 Research Items
13 Citations
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Introduction
Rajaa A. Mahmoud currently works as a Training & Development Manager in Basrah Directorate of Health - Iraqi Ministry of Health with partial affiliation for the University of Basrah, AL-Zahraa College of Medicine as Chair of the Community Health & Family Medicine Department. Rajaa does research in Public Health, Personal development & Health management/policy. Educational Background include a PhD in Community Medicine, a Masters in Public Health (Health management & policy) & MbChB in Medicine.
Additional affiliations
July 1994 - present
Iraqi medical association
Position
  • member
Education
October 2011 - October 2015
University of Basrah, College of Medicine
Field of study
  • Community Medicine
April 2006 - October 2008
American University of Beirut
Field of study
  • Health Management and Policy
July 2002 - October 2003
University of Basrah, College of Medicine
Field of study
  • Community Medicine

Publications

Publications (108)
Article
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Data on current colorectal cancer screening practices in Iraq are limited. This study aimed to better understand the current colorectal cancer screening practice and perceived barriers. The project also aimed to use UK expertise to introduce Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) in Basra, Iraq. The study consisted of two parts: A pre-visit online...
Article
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Antioxidants are substances within the cells that neutralize free radicals by providing them with an electron. Antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) are important for preventing damage to oocytes and embryos caused by reactive oxygen species. Hormones such as thyroid hormones, prolactin...
Conference Paper
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Chronic Non-communicable diseases are a primary cause of illness and death worldwide, that responsible for 41 million deaths out of 57 million each year that represent 71% of all causes of death worldwide. To estimate the cause-specific death rate due to noncommunicable diseases in Basra province during the period 2010-2019. This study is a descrip...
Article
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Background: Occupational hazards are defined as workplace issues that have likely to raise the hazard of our health, which can be categorized as biological and non-biological. Health care providers are challenged with a variety of these hazards including physical, chemical, and psychological ones. Material and method: a cross-sectional study was co...
Cover Page
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Article
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Despite the global crisis of antibiotic resistance, the problem is aggravated in developing nations and regions where antibiotics can be given or obtained without a prescription. In Iraq, the prevalence and motivations for self-medication using antibiotics have not been well investigated from a community perspective. The purpose of the study is to...
Presentation
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By the end of the session, students will be able to know: 1. What is a questionnaire? 2. Criteria of a good questionnaire 3. Steps of designing a good questionnaire
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: By the end of this session, Students will Know: LO1: What is "research“, Types, & importance? LO2: Steps for Scientific Researching
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At the end of this session, Students be able to:- LO1: know what is meant by being a doctor LO2: Know what to do, what to avoid & what to expect.. as a doctor. LO3: Identify the essential qualities of a good doctor
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: By the end of this session, Student's will be able to: 1- Discuss the impact of scarce resources on the work of doctors. 2- Explain the inevitability of rationing in health care systems. 3- Describe a range of approaches to resources allocation in healthcare. 4- Explain and distinguish between cost effectiveness, cost benefit,...
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: By the end of this session, students will be able to: 1- Describe the professionalization of medicine 2- Assess critically different approaches to the regulation of doctors 3- Describe evidence and theory about socialization of doctors into the medical profession 4-Critically evaluate evidence and theory on challenges to the me...
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: By the end of this session, students will be able to: 1. Outline in brief the history of (Iraqui Health System) IHS 2. Describe the current structure and functions of IHS 3. Give examples of doctor's management activities and functions
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: By the end of the session, students will be able to: 1-Describe different sociological approaches to understanding the patient-professional relationship. 2-Distinguish between explanatory model and aspirational approach of the doctor-patient relationship.
Article
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How to Cite this article: Abdul Ameer Rahmah S, Abdulrazak Hassan Alibraheem S, Ahmed Mahmoud R. Risk Factors’ estimation of Non Communicable Diseases in Al-Basrah Province/ Iraq During 2020-2021. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, January-March 2022. 2022;16(1):1405. Background: Non communicable diseases such as cardiovascular dise...
Presentation
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At the end of this session, students will be able to know: 1. Who is a “Patient” 2: Origin & Types of a “patient” 3: How do patients present?
Presentation
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By the end of the session, trainees will be able to: 1. Define “Problem” 2. Define “Problem Solving” 3. Describe & use the “Problem Solving approaches” 4. Know the advantages of Problem-solving as a “Team”
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: By the end of the session, students will be able to: 1- Describe sociological research on how chronic illness and/or disability impact on people's life and identity. 2- Explain what is meant by stigma. 3- Explain different ways of conceptualizing disability.
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: By the end of the session, students will be able to: 1.Define screening 2.List the criteria for implementing a screening programme, including those relating to the condition, the test, the treatment, and the programme 3.List the advantages and disadvantages of screening for disease 4. Describe difficulties of evaluating the e...
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: By the end of this session, student's will be able to: You should be able to: 1. Define what is meant by the terms ―lay beliefs”, ―sick role” and ―lay referral system” 2. Explain why understanding lay beliefs are important in medical practice 3. Distinguish between primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, and between thr...
Presentation
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HaDSoc - Session 3 - Inequalities in Health
Presentation
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Student Selective Components S5- 2021-2022 “Research writing”
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Student Selective Components S5- 2021-2022 “Research writing”
Presentation
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By the end of the session, participants will be able to: 1. Explain the role of evidence in clinical practice. 2. Define a systematic review. 3. Explain the purposes of systematic reviews. 4. Interpret a ‘Forest plot’. 5. List common difficulties in systematic reviews
Presentation
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By the end of the session, participants will be able to: 1.Understand how epidemiological evidence contributes to clinical practice. 2.Understand the role of epidemiological evidence and population health information in determining public health policy. 3.Make an assessment of whether there is sufficient evidence to act upon it.
Presentation
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By the end of this session, particcipants will be able to: 1. Define and describe the purpose of clinical trials. 2. Explain the disadvantages of non-randomised clinical trials and the use of historical controls. 3. Outline the steps involved in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). 4. Discuss the advantages of ‘random allocation’ and ‘blinding’ to...
Presentation
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By the end of this session, participants will be able to: 1.Discuss how to deal with ‘losses to follow-up’ and ‘non-compliance’ 2.Differentiate between ‘explanatory’ and ‘pragmatic’ trials and be able to explain the meaning of the term ‘intention-to-treat’ analysis. 3.Discuss the ethical principles involved in medical research involving human subj...
Presentation
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Learning Objectives By the end of this session, participants will be able to: 1. Distinguish between ‘observed’ epidemiological quantities (incidence, prevalence, incidence rate ratio, etc.) and their ‘true’ or ‘underlying’ values(LO1) 2. Discuss how ‘observed’ epidemiological quantities depart from their ‘true’ values because of random variation(L...
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: By the end of this session, participants will be able to: 1- Describe the logical basis of , and the practical problems involved in cohort studies in disease incidence. 2- Compare incidence rates or mortality rates between two groups of individuals within a cohort by calculating incidence rate ratio (Internal comparison). 3...
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: By the end of this session, participants will be able to: 1.Describe the principles underlying case-control studies.(LO1) 2.Describe the differences and similarities between case-control studies and other epidemiological study designs(LO2) 3.Outline the factors which suggest that a case-control study design might be suitable...
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: By the end of this session, participants will be able to: 1. Explain what is meant by a cause-effect relationship in an epidemiological context. 2. Recognise that associations may be present in the absence of a true cause-effect relationship. 3. Evaluate the strength of evidence in favour of a cause-effect relationship. 4. De...
Article
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Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women around the age of menopause. With an advice from WHO, screening programs are encouraged globally for detection of the breast cancer in early stage using mammography imaging technique that is used to understand the breast health and early detection of breast lumps. The study aimed to de...
Presentation
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Lecture objectives: by the end of this session, the students will be able to: 1. Define and differentiate between the terms ( incidence ) and ( prevalence ) and describe the inter-relationships between incidence and prevalence and changing patterns of death or cure . 2. Describe the importance of systematic variation in risk of disease between gro...
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: 1. Census : describe the features and relevance of a population census 2. Births : a. Define the Crude Birth Rate, General Fertility Rate and Total Period Fertility Rate and understand how they differ b. Discuss the main determinants of fertility 3. Deaths : describe the derivation and uses of mortality data 4. Population Esti...
Presentation
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By the end of this session, the participants will be able to: •To define & differentiate between Research Proposal, Research Protocol & Research Paper.
Presentation
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By the end of this session, the participants will: •Learn some Tips for Identifying Primary & Secondary Sources
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The participants will learn: • What is a journal Suggester/Finder ? With some examples on them & how to use them
Presentation
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By the end of this session, the participants will learn: The different types & styles for documenting Referencing & Citations with Practicing them (Practical Examples).
Presentation
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The participants will learn: • Constitutes of a good journal. • Journal Impact Factor. • ISI Journals & The Science Citation Index(SCI) • Journal citation report • Journals data base & search engines
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: Students will be able to: 1-Discuss the impact of scarce resources on the work of doctors. 2- Explain the inevitability of rationing in health care systems. 3- Describe a range of approaches to resource allocation in healthcare. 4- Explain and distinguish between cost effectiveness, cost benefit, cost utility, and cost minimi...
Presentation
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Session 10 Learning Objectives: Students will be able to: 1. Describe different sociological approaches to understanding the patient-professional relationship 2. Distinguish between explanatory model and aspirational approach of the doctor-patient relationship
Presentation
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Learning objective Students will be able to: 1- Describe the professionalization of medicine 2- Assess critically different approaches to the regulation of doctors 3- Describe evidence and theory about socialization of doctors into the medical profession 4-Critically evaluate evidence and theory on challenges to the medical profession
Article
Full-text available
High blood pressure is associated with chronic kidney disease, which makes it dangerous for cardiovascular disease . It increases directly with the severity of chronic kidney disease.The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease and find the relationship between them. A cross-sectional study, included a review o...
Presentation
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Health & Diseases in Society Module - Session 1
Presentation
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Methods and Evidence - (HaDSoc) Module
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health inequalities- HaDSoc Module
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Lay Beliefs & Health Promotion
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Chronic Illness & Quality of Life - HaDSoc session 5
Presentation
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Screening - HaDSoc - session 6
Presentation
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By the end of this session, the participants will learn: •What is Plagiarism, It’s types & how to avoid it
Presentation
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By the end of this session, the participants will Know: • 10 Tips for Writing Research Papers
Presentation
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The participants will learn: • The process of Publishing a research paper. • How to use a checklist for journal selection. • Writing an example of a submission letter • What leads to acceptance of your paper?
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By the end of this session, the participants will know some "Useful websites for: Plagiarism testing"
Presentation
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By the end of the session, the participants will learn: •How & where to search for your research paper’s references: “Useful websites for: References search & Citations”
Article
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Diarrhea is a serious disease in children, especially children under 5 years of age. Globally, an estimated 1.5 deaths occur in children under-5 years of age each year due to it. The main aim of this research is study the pattern of diarrheal diseases in under 5 years children during the covid-19 pandemic. The results revealed a monthly distributio...
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: By the end of this session, the participants will know: - What is Root Cause Analysis (RCA)? - Why we use RCA? (Advantages) - Steps of Root Cause Analysis - Tree diagram/Problem tree - Brain Storming Exercises
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: By the end of this session, the participants will know: - What is Prioritization - Why we do Prioritization - The “5 Whys” Strategy - Implementing Prioritization Matrix
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: By the end of this session, participants will be able to: 1.Describe the demographic components of Iraqi population. 2.Define & Identify the need for MCH services 3.Enumerate components of MCH services in Iraq. 4.Know some of the MCH indicators for Iraq.
Presentation
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Tips for Writing an Effective Research Paper Title
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Learning Objectives of Session 2: By the end of this session, the participants will know: - What is SWOT Analysis - Aims of SWOT Analysis - Who needs SWOT Analysis? - When & How to conduct SWOT Analysis? - Advantages/Disadvantages of SWOT Analysis - Brainstorming & Prioritization in SWOT Analysis - Tips & Exercise for SWOT Analysis
Presentation
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Performance Improvement “Tools and Approaches” Session 1: FOCUS PDCA- PDSA Learning Objectives: By the end of this session, the participants will know: • What is Performance Improvement? • Improvement Methodologies/Tools • What is FOCUS-PDCA -PDSA • Practical exercises
Presentation
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A training session for new education staff for improving their skills in writing test questions. By the end of this training session, the participants will be able to: • Differentiate between the different components of an MCQ. • Differentiate between Good/Bad MCQ (Practical Examples) • Know the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives • How...
Presentation
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Patients’ Evaluations of Healthcare Learning Objectives: By the end of the training session, participants will be able to: 1. Describe the policy background to the growth of interest in patients‟ views of health services. 2. Explain the options for accessing patients‟ views of healthcare, including qualitative and quantitative approaches. 3. Offe...
Presentation
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A training workshop for Graduate Students. Learning Objectives: By the end of this training workshop, the students will learn:  - Factors to successful study for a graduate student  - Myths Vs. Truth about Time Management  - Steps for Time Management  - Covey’s 4 Quadrant to do model  - What is procrastination and How to overcome it?
Presentation
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A training workshop for Graduate Students. Learning Objectives: By the end of this training workshop, the students will learn:  - Factors to successful study for a graduate student  - Myths Vs. Truth about Time Management  - Steps for Time Management  - Covey’s 4 Quadrant to do model  - What is procrastination and How to overcome it?
Research Proposal
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Research Objective: To examine the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of youth in Basra in relation to the effect of addiction on health. Introduction:
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: • What is extracted research paper. • Differences between thesis/dissertation & the extracted research paper. • Steps of converting thesis/dissertation into an extracted research paper.
Data
These results are part of a descriptive study to assess the causes of death among admitted newborns in Neonatal Care Units of Basra hospitals, 2018.
Research Proposal
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In developing countries, the real prevalence of chronic kidney disease is difficult to determine since medical facilities are limited. With increasing awareness, more patients are diagnosed with chronic kidney diseases. Unfortunately, there are no studies of the epidemiology and prevalence of chronic kidney diseases in Southern Iraq. This study is...
Presentation
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5-Days Training on "How to Efficiently Write Your Research Paper" for Health Care providers in Basrah, Iraq.
Presentation
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The objective of this presentation is to review the data available on Maternal Deaths in Basrah, Iraq during 2009-2010 with identifying the maternal mortality ratio and the causes of death in a comparison with the national trends & the other governorates in Iraq .
Presentation
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Training frontline clinicians from primary and secondary care, infectious disease and public health specialists on how to register to the CDS initiative through a dedicated portal, access BMJ Best Practice and BMJ Learning modules and guidelines in addition to live demonstration & practical case studies demonstrating how users are benefitting from...
Presentation
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The project goal is to educate and train health care providers and medical students in Southern Iraq on the best use of Evidence Based Practice supported by accurate, up-to-date clinical information and skills in order to achieve the best patient outcomes.
Preprint
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Objective of the study: Assessing the use of the Clinical Decision Support Initiative by the health care providers in Iraq, Basrah governorate. Methodology: Feedback and evidence were gathered by a using a questionnaire to assess the use and impact of BMJ products (BMJ Best Practice and BMJ Learning) by health care providers in Basrah governorate...
Article
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Introduction and Background: In Iraq, and due to the decades of wars and sunctions that affected people's accessibility to the health care services, maternal death was among the main health problems over the years. Thus, studying the factors influencing this important problem is a mandatory step for a better evidence based intervention in controlli...
Presentation
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The project goal is to educate and train health care providers and medical students in Southern Iraq on the best use of Evidence Based Practice supported by accurate, up-to-date clinical information and skills in order to achieve the best patient outcomes.
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: 1. Recognise quality and safety in healthcare as an important responsibility of doctors 2. Explain what clinical governance means and its implications for the work of doctors 3. Describe evidence demonstrating problems of quality and safety in healthcare 4. Describe ways of conceptualising quality in healthcare 5. Briefly de...
Presentation
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A training for post graduate students on how & where to search during writing their thesis referencing: Useful websites for: Plagiarism test, References search and Citations.
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By completing this training session, the participants will be able to: Learn what is communication process, types, levels and barriers.
Presentation
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Effective Communication in the Workplace “Basic Communication Skills”- 3: Express yourself. Learning Objectives: After completing this workshop, the participants will be able to: Express themselves in a more clear and specific way.
Presentation
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Learning Objectives: By the end of the session, the participants will be able to know the following issues: • What are the challenges of Health Service Delivery • Why we need to improve Health Service Delivery? • key characteristics of Health Service Delivery • Core indicators of Health Service Delivery
Presentation
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Thinking For a Change “11 Ways Highly successful People Approach Life and Work”. Chapter 2: Realize the impact of changed thinking. By the end of this training session, the participants will be able to know: • Why we should change our thinking? • The Impact of changed thinking
Presentation
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Chapter 3: "Master the process of intentional thinking" Learning Objectives: By the end of this training session, the participants will be able to know: How to become a better thinker How to cite this article: Maatook MA, Jawad AKM, Mahmoud RA (2019): Knowledge assessment of female students of Southern Technical University in Basrah-Iraq, regardin...
Presentation
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Part Tow: Eleven Thinking Skills Every Successful Person Needs. Skill 1: The mindset of Big-Picture Thinking Learning Objectives: By the end of this training session, the participants will be able to know: How to become a Big-Picture Thinker.
Article
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Patient satisfaction is defined as the total judgments made by the recipient of a healthcare as to whether -or not- their expectations have been met. It is an important measure of healthcare quality as it offers information on the provider’s success to meet the clients’ expectations. The Study Objectives: The study aimed at measuring patient's sati...
Article
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Globally, epidemiological statistics provide an evidence that breast cancer is the second common type of cancers and definitely the most common type among women with a fraction of 25% of the total registered cancer cases. And by reviewing the worldwide mortality rates, it is among the top ten killers worldwide with an estimated increase in the numb...
Article
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Medical records documentation is an important legal and professional requirement for all health professionals. They include information which describes all aspects of patient's care. But, despite the importance of medical records to support better quality service provided at the health facilities, incomplete documentation is very common all over th...
Article
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Introduction: Chronic “non-communicable” disease is a term that describes any disturbance in the function of the body structure and metabolism that results in chronic change of the individual’s usual life style. However, despite knowing the great importance of knowing the risk factors of chronic diseases, very little information is known about the...
Article
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In recent years, family medicine has been applied in primary health care centers and a number of family doctors have been working in these centers. However, the number of family doctors is not enough to cover all the centers and the rest of the experience is limited to specific centers in Iraq as well as in the province of Basra Aim of the study: i...
Article
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Background: In order to implement a better and high standard quality of reproductive health care services, customers should be ensured to have the appropriate needed service. Moreover, granting a better quality service encourage more beneficiaries in need, improve the coverage of reproductive health and family planning services and reduce maternal...
Technical Report
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Both quantitative and a qualitative methodology were used to do a health need assessment in Al-Rumeila & the Train village/ Basrah, Iraq.
Thesis
Reproductive health and maternal and child care are at the top of global and worldwide organizations being a key aspect of sustainable human progress and a requirement for attaining the Millennium Development Goals. However, even though reproductive health topic is very crucial in population Health in general, in Iraq little empirical data exists t...

Questions

Questions (34)
Question
Among the long list of the most important skills that any epidemiologist should have, “Data Analysis” is a top priority in my opinion.
In your opinion, how can you rank the top priority skills that the list should include?

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Projects

Projects (35)
Project
Here we are looking for an answer to how information and communication technology affects business. Are there ICT risks and how are they linked to business goal?
Project
“The United Nations (U.N.) announced that drought is at risk of becoming ‘the next pandemic’ if urgent action isn’t taken to tackle climate change through water and land management,” The Hill reported. “About 1.5 billion people have suffered from the effects of droughts this century, with the land devastation, food insecurity and other subsequent factors leading to economic costs of an estimated $124 billion.” “About 130 countries could face a greater risk of drought this century under a high-emissions scenario cited by the U.N.,” Reuters reported. “Another 23 countries will confront water shortages because of population growth, with 38 nations affected by both, it said. Drought — like a virus — tends to last a long time, have a wide geographic reach and cause knock-on damage.” This project aims to: - Contribute to achieving the sixth goal of sustainable development (ensure access to water and sanitation). - Contribute to achieving international water security. - Raising the awareness of decision-makers and the international civil society, Actors in the social and economic environment, about the risks of drought, through prospective studies. - Sensitizing decision-makers and the international civil society about ways to conserve blue gold. - Contribute to finding possible and alternative solutions to face drought. - How to cope with the next epidemic (drought).
Project
“Principles of Scientific Research” Course will provide medical students of Al Zahraa College of Medicine-University of Basra with knowledge and skills to understand the basic principles of scientific research. This will allow them to find their future scientific tasks easier. They will learn how research is conducted. The course is designed to expose them to the scientific research environment and gives them an opportunity to participate in the process of scientific research. The primary component of the course is the concept and structure of scientific research, with active research group activities within each session and providing them with an opportunity to gain experience in the field of scientific research. At the end of this course, students will be able to: - Understand some basic concepts of research and its methodologies - Identify appropriate research topics - Select and define an appropriate research problem - Organize and conduct a research - Write a research report.