Raj Sharman

Raj Sharman
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York | SUNY Buffalo

About

195
Publications
37,758
Reads
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3,053
Citations
Citations since 2017
14 Research Items
1221 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200

Publications

Publications (195)
Article
Background Health care delivery and patient satisfaction are improved when patients engage with their medical information through patient portals. Despite their wide availability and multiple functionalities, patient portals and their functionalities are still underused. Objective We seek to understand factors that lead to patient engagement throu...
Conference Paper
Patients are increasingly turning to physician rating websites to help them make important healthcare decisions, such as selecting primary care doctors, specialists, and supplementary medical care providers. Previous research has identified a variety of topics and themes that emerge on these review platforms. However, there is little or no work tha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Chatbots have been used for basic conversational functionalities and task performance in today's world. With the surge in the use of chatbots, several design features have emerged to cater to its rising demands and increasing complexity. Researchers have grappled with the issues of modeling and evaluating these tools because of the vast number of m...
Conference Paper
Building automated text classifiers have assumed significant importance since the development of large online information platforms. Several compelling use cases have emerged in the field of artificial intelligence and analytics in recent years. However, building and training text classifiers become problematic in the healthcare context, which deal...
Conference Paper
Sexually transmitted diseases remain a significant public health issue with substantial cost and societal implications. Despite these grave concerns, individuals suffering from these disorders do not usually seek care early due to the STDs' taboo. In the article, we try to address such individuals' care needs by developing a chatbot application usi...
Article
Objective In 2018, California legislators passed the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), a digital privacy regulation conferring consumers more control over their online personal information. CCPA is a significant regulation overseeing technology companies’ data collection and usage practices in the United States. This article analyzes CCPA and...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Patients’ access to and use of electronic medical records (EMRs) places greater information in their hands, which helps them better co-manage their health, leading to better clinical outcomes. Despite numerous benefits that promote health and well-being, patients’ acceptance and use of EMRs remains low. OBJECTIVE This study aims to exam...
Article
Full-text available
Background Patients’ access to and use of electronic medical records (EMRs) places greater information in their hands, which helps them better comanage their health, leading to better clinical outcomes. Despite numerous benefits that promote health and well-being, patients’ acceptance and use of EMRs remains low. We study the impact of predictors t...
Preprint
BACKGROUND According to the World health organization (WHO), more than one million sexually transmitted infections are acquired each day across the world. The incidence rates of STDs in the US are at a record high for the fourth consecutive year. Due to the stigma associated with the incidence of STD, there is a general reluctance to seek informati...
Article
Background According to the World health organization (WHO), more than 1 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are acquired each day across the world. The incidence rates of STIs in the United States are at a record high for the fourth consecutive year. Owing to the stigma associated with the incidence of STI, there is a general reluctance...
Article
Full-text available
Background Health information technology (HIT) has been widely adopted in hospital settings, contributing to improved patient safety. However, many types of medical errors attributable to information technology (IT) have negatively impacted patient safety. The continued occurrence of many errors is a reminder that HIT software testing and validatio...
Article
Full-text available
Background: With an aging population and the escalating cost of care, telemedicine has become a societal imperative. Telemedicine alternatives are especially relevant to patients seeking care for sleep apnea, with its prevalence approaching one billion cases worldwide. Increasing awareness has led to a surge in demand for sleep apnea care; however...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Health information technology (HIT) has been widely adopted in hospital settings, contributing to improved patient safety. However, many types of medical errors attributable to information technology (IT) have negatively impacted patient safety. The continued occurrence of many errors is a reminder that HIT software testing and validatio...
Article
This paper aims to analyze the complementarity and substitutability relationships between information technology (IT) and unemployment benefits (B) and duration of unemployment (D), two important policy and macroeconomic variables, by using the partial adjustment (PA) approaches where the speeds of PA are fixed and time-varying. The proposed eight...
Article
Research problem: This study investigates the factors influencing students' intentions to use emergency notification services to receive news about campus emergencies through short-message systems (SMS) and social network sites (SNS). Research questions: (1) What are the critical factors that influence students' intention to use SMS to receive emer...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to examine the effects of both spam and the resulting lack of privacy on users' behavior with respect to e-mail usage. This study reveals that spam e-mail triggers concerns about privacy and in turn, these privacy concerns influence the way users cope with spam or junk mails. Upon receiving spam e-mail, users predominantly exhibit t...
Article
The increasing number of campus-related emergency incidents, in combination with the requirements imposed by the Clery Act, have prompted college campuses to develop emergency notification systems to inform community members of extreme events that may affect them. Merely deploying emergency notification systems on college campuses, however, does no...
Article
The objective of this research is to empirically explore the drivers of patients' consent to sharing of their medical records on health information exchange (HIE) platforms. The authors analyze a dataset consisting of consent choices of 20 076 patients in Western New York. A logistic regression is applied to empirically investigate the effects of p...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate whether the use of diabetes registries meeting Meaningful Use core objectives in primary care practices is associated with differences in quality of care and hospital utilization rates. A practice assessment survey was conducted to identify whether and how practices were using diabetes registries. Insurance claims data from 2010 were...
Article
This paper examines how an individual’s disaster experience affects his or her perceptions of sociotechnical safety factors (risk, information assurance, resilience) and perceived usefulness of hospital information systems (HIS). This paper consists of two studies focusing on different aspects: a quasi-field experiment conducted with employees in t...
Conference Paper
Collaboration is fundamental for cities and regions to meet the combined economic, environmental and social challenges of the 21st century. A broad array of stakeholders including citizens, non-profit organizations, private businesses, foundations, academic institutions and local governments, will need to make decisions together in order to realize...
Article
With the introduction of modern health technologies, the phenomenon of patients tracking health records has increased considerably in the recent past. The current study aims to examine the sharing of health-tracking records (HTR) by patients with different categories of acquaintances (spouse/partner, relatives, doctors, other). In this paper, we ex...
Article
Full-text available
Health Information Exchanges (HIE) are becoming integral parts of the national healthcare reform efforts, chiefly because of their potential impact on cost reduction and quality enhancement in healthcare services. However, the potential of an HIE platform can only be realized when its multiple constituent users actively participate in using its var...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Healthcare settings require a system that detects errors and near misses and learns from them to prevent their reoccurrence. Development of such a system requires engagement of all stakeholders. Retrospective reporting, analyzing and preventing future errors is currently the most prevalent approach to reducing harm to patients. It is im...
Article
The increasing number of campuses incidents has kindled a realisation among university officials of the need for better communication with students at such trying times. This study uses the technology, organisation and environment (TOE) framework and the theory of channel complementarity to develop an insight into the factors that contribute to soc...
Article
GTC's Cancer Targets & Therapeutics conference remains a premier event for those working to identify and exploit advances in the field of cancer therapeutics. This fifth annual conference brought together those involved in both research and commercial development to provide updates and insights on how to identify therapeutic targets and translate t...
Conference Paper
Medication non adherence reduces quality of care, causes unnecessary cost and negatively affects the quality of life of the patients. Using community engagement approach and adopting design science research guidelines, this research develops a prototype to motivate and improve patient prescription adherence.
Conference Paper
The number of mass shooting incidents have shown an increase from 2000 to now. With the increased number in this type of incident the number of victims has also increased. Post incident analysis reports suggest improvements in situational awareness could have reduced the number of deaths during the incidents. The application extends primary triage...
Article
People are increasingly using the Internet to access health information and the information obtained has an impact on their healthcare outcomes. This paper examines the impacts of IT enablers and health motivators on peoples' online health information search behavior. We characterize users' online health information search behavior along three dime...
Article
Online support groups (OSGs) have emerged to provide a venue for patients to communicate about specific conditions, medications, and other health-related topics including support. Using the Uses and Gratifications theory, this study investigated the critical factors that influence a patient's decision to use OSGs. The work contributes to existing w...
Article
Treatment non adherence is a growing concern for health care providers and policy makers. Mobile health (mhealth) has the potential to reduce treatment non adherence, cut the costs of providing healthcare, maintain and improve the quality of care. This research discusses the design of a mobile phone application to improve diabetic patients' adheren...
Article
It has been reported that about 113 million Americans has looked for health information on the internet. Patient safety can therefore be very easily compromised if the advice/information that people receive is incorrect. Particularly in case of a chronic and debilitating disease like Parkinson's disease, patients are very vulnerable to false inform...
Article
Identity management is the administration of an individual's access rights and privileges in the form of authentication and authorization within or across systems and organizations. An Identity Management system (IdM) helps manage an individual's credentials through the establishment, maintenance, and eventual destruction of their digital identity....
Article
Full-text available
We postulate that professional proximity due to common patients and geographical proximity among practice locations are significant factors influencing the adoption of health information exchange (HIE) services by healthcare providers. The objective of this study is to investigate the direct and indirect network effects of these drivers on HIE diff...
Article
Full-text available
The current state of emergency communication is dispatch-mediated (the messages from the scene are directed towards the responders and agencies through the dispatch agency). These messages are logged in electronic documents called incident reports, which are useful in monitoring the incident, off-site supervision, resource allocation, and post-inci...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of the Healthcare Information Exchange (HIE) in increasing healthcare quality and reducing risks and costs has led to greater interest in identifying factors that enhance adoption and meaningful use of HIE by healthcare providers. In this research we study the interlinked network effects between two different groups of physicians --...
Article
Meta-analysis is a quantitative methodology that allows for summarizing the results of primary research studies in a field to provide new insights in terms of the phenomenon observed or the outcomes reported. This paper attempts to answer the fundamental question, “Do methodological decisions in a meta-analytic study affect the conclusions drawn fr...
Article
Full-text available
While Information Systems continue to transform organizations, organizational IT infrastructures and business models are themselves beginning to change. There is an increased focus on service orientation and performance levels of IT infrastructures and systems. Outsourcing and off shoring strategies are evolving to include utility based approaches...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Due to differences in governance structure, training, applicable polices, legal requirements and culture, the nature of operations vary based on agency, county, population, leadership, etc. This leads to serious challenges during multi-agency response to emergencies. The different agencies are required to work together to effectively and efficientl...
Article
Data security breaches involving personal and sensitive information have significantly grown over the last few years. The stolen personal information—which includes social security number (SSN), medical records, date of birth, etc.—has been used to launch fraud against individuals and organizations. It already costs billions of dollars in the Unite...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The current state of emergency communication is dispatch-mediated i.e. the messages from the scene are directed to responders and agencies through the dispatch. Emergency dispatch provides essential support to emergency responders during emergencies. However, there are several problems associated with the dispatch-mediated communication. Utilizing...
Conference Paper
In the US healthcare alone over 25,000 patients are sickened, injured or killed each day. The associated huge, tangible and intangible, costs are crippling burdens on all stakeholders. In the USA the national health budget is 1/6 of the GDP, of which 1/3 is estimated to be wasted. The United Nations World Health Organization is working toward makin...
Article
The US government has initiated incentive programs to encourage the adoption of Electronic Medical Records (EMR). To qualify for the incentive payment, healthcare providers need to demonstrate “meaningful use” of EMR systems, which requires the use of certified EMRs and the implementation of a set of standard functionalities. In this paper, we exam...
Article
Improved quality and safety of care and patient satisfaction can be achieved with structured inter-unit and inter-setting communication with computers. Presented here is a new tool designed to implement a web-based innovative transitions improvement process for creation of situation-aware teams to monitor quality of transitions. The tool is designe...
Book
Organizations, worldwide, have adopted practical and applied approaches for mitigating risks and managing information security program. Considering complexities of a large-scale, distributed IT environments, security should be proactively planned for and prepared ahead, rather than as used as reactions to changes in the landscape. Strategic and Pra...
Article
Hospital emergency departments' capacities to deal with a patient surge play an important role in preparedness for natural or man-made disasters. This paper examines how emergency departments in healthcare facilities could optimise the workflow during extreme events when there is a patient surge. This paper proposes a framework to reconfigure the w...
Article
Full-text available
With journal impact factors becoming increasingly visible aspects of academia and doctoral edu-cation, it is important for researchers to understand the process of becoming published in a high-impact journal so that faculty members are able to prepare doctoral students for successful publi-cation. Using a sample of empirical manuscripts published o...
Article
Health Information Exchange (HIE) systems may not deliver their promised benefits unless used in a meaningful and carefully adopted way. We develop an analytical model to measure the enhancement in the efficiency of healthcare providers enabled through the use of HIE systems. We test our model based on a panel data set of HIE system logs over a per...
Chapter
Regulatory compliance in areas such as privacy has become a major challenge for organizations. In large organizations there can be hundreds or thousands of projects that involve personal information. Ensuring that all those projects properly take privacy considerations into account is a complex challenge for accountable privacy management. Accounta...
Chapter
As various information technologies are penetrating everyday life, private and business matters inevitably mingle. Separating private and business past records, public information, actions or identities may, however, be crucial for an employee in certain situations. In this chapter we review the interrelated areas of employee privacy, and analyze i...
Chapter
A comprehensive and integrated view on the security of an Information System considering all its parts (hardware, software, human factor, data, and the impact of real world) is presented in the chapter. The security of information systems cannot be solved only by management of Information Technologies, because Information Technologies constitute on...
Chapter
Network security is in a daily evolving domain. Every day, new attacks, viruses, and intrusion techniques are released. Hence, network devices, enterprise servers, or personal computers are potential targets of these attacks. Current security solutions like firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), and virtual private networks (VPN) are central...
Chapter
Herein we propose the concept of “Identity and Access Management Architectures” comprising a policy-oriented management system that enables the utilization of user identity-related data. This policy-oriented management system encourages users to take the initiative in providing their own identity-related data and encourages awareness of the usage o...
Chapter
Secure information splitting is used in many tasks of the intelligent sharing of secrets and key data in business organisations. The significance of information splitting depends on its nature, while the significance of information sharing may depend on its importance and the meaning it has for the organisation or institution concerned. This chapte...
Chapter
Due to the huge growth in the need for using Web applications worldwide, there have been huge efforts from programmers to develop and implement new Web applications to be used by companies. Since a number of these applications lack proper security considerations, malicious users will be able to gain unauthorized access to confidential information o...
Chapter
This chapter explores enterprise information security policies, standards, and procedures. It examines the existing resources, analyses the available options, and offers recommendations to the CIOs and other people that have to make decisions about policies, standards, and procedures to ensure information security in their enterprise. Additionally,...
Chapter
The role of human behaviour in enterprise security is one of the little studied aspects. The author proposes a reinforcement model of collaborative security employing basic concepts from game theory, socio-psychology, and probabilistic model-checking. The proposed model aims towards solving the problem of inducing positive network effect to enable...
Chapter
Security evaluation is a complex problem. As more and more software systems become available, more diversity and alternatives can be found to accomplish the same tasks. However, there is still a lack of a standard approach that can be used to choose among the available alternatives or evaluate their configuration security. In this chapter, the auth...
Chapter
The established legal value of digital signatures and the growing availability of identity-based digital services are progressively extending the use of smart cards to all citizens, opening new challenging scenarios. Among them, motivated by concrete applications, secure and practical delegation of digital signatures and decryptions is becoming mor...
Chapter
The expansion of electronic commerce (E-commerce) has become an increasing reality due to Internet’s rapid growth during the last few years. E-commerce is growing at an exceptional rate with more organizations offering their goods and services online every day. Importantly, this growth is being matched by the number of people gaining access to the...
Chapter
Authentication is probably one of the main security processes that almost everybody has at one point used. Currently, the most widespread authentication mechanism is based on textual passwords, a well-established approach that, with the growth of users and services, has increasing and serious drawbacks. With the rise of high quality displays and mo...
Chapter
Though embedded applications were originally built on standalone devices, nowadays these devices require a growing integration with other systems through their interconnection with TCP/IP networks. Web Services, which provide a service oriented distributed architecture for the interconnection of systems through TCP/IP networks, have been widely ado...
Chapter
In this chapter, first the authors discuss the current trends in the usage of formal techniques in the development of e-voting system. They then present their experiences on their usage to specify and verify the behaviors of one of currently deployed e-voting systems using formal techniques and verification against a subset of critical security pro...
Chapter
One cannot develop effective economic models for information security and privacy without having a good understanding of the motivations, disincentives, and other influencing factors affecting the behavior of criminals, victims, defenders, product and service providers, lawmakers, law enforcement, and other interested parties. Predicting stakeholde...
Chapter
Today, Peer-to-Peer SIP based communication systems have attracted much attention from both academia and industry. The decentralized nature of P2P might provide the distributed peer-to-peer communication system without help of the traditional SIP server. However, the decentralization features come to the cost of the reduced manageability and create...
Chapter
Embedded systems are extensively used in the field of pervasive computing. These systems are used to such an extent that embedded systems are now controlled and monitored from remote locations by using Web services. Internet authorities are able to assign every device a unique Internet protocol address with the introduction of IPv6 on the Web. Peer...
Chapter
Privacy for Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is required to gain the trust of those who would use the technology. Through the use of an independent Privacy Service (PS), the privacy policies of a service consumer and provider can be compared to create an agreed upon privacy contract. In this chapter, the authors further define a metamodel for pr...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors propose the expression and the modelling of the most important principles of privacy. They deduce the relevant privacy requirements that should be integrated in existing security policy models, such as RBAC models. They suggest the application of a unique model for both access control and privacy requirements. Thus, an...
Chapter
CAPTCHAs are employed on websites to differentiate between human users and bot programs that indulge in spamming and other fraudulent activities. With the advent and advancement of sophisticated computer programs to break CAPTCHAs, it has become imperative to continuously evolve the CAPTCHA schemes in order to keep the Internet network and website...
Chapter
Fine-grained malware analysis requires various powerful analysis tools. Chief among them is a debugger that enables runtime binary analysis at the instruction level. One of the important services provided by a debugger is the ability to stop execution of code at arbitrary points during runtime, using breakpoints. Software breakpoints change the cod...
Chapter
P2P networks have characteristics of decentralization, autonomy, and dynamicity. The security problems caused by these characteristics have seriously affected further development of P2P networks. The authors did research on CL-PKC key management schemes: 1) they propose a certificate-less-based key distribution scheme with multiple trusted centers...
Chapter
Security of wireless sensor networks (WSN) relates in many aspects to security of distributed systems. On the first sight WSNs form a large distributed ad-hoc system with lot of tiny devices that sense some phenomena and communicate wirelessly. Due to some limitations, among which the energy consumption problem is the most important one, security i...
Chapter
The arms race between cyber attackers and defenders has evolved to the point where an effective counter-measure strategy requires the use of an automated, distributed, and coordinated response. A key difficulty in achieving this goal lies in providing reliable measures by which to select appropriate responses to a wide variety of potential intrusio...
Chapter
One of the problems highlighted within the area of information security is that international standards are implemented in organisations without adopting them to special organisational settings. In this chapter the authors analyse information security goals found in hospital settings. They found that the CIA-triad fails to cover organisational spec...
Chapter
Organizations providing enhanced electronic services to their customers have exponentially increased in past years. The benefits of web-portals to companies and to customers are well evident and are considered an IT artifact manifested in entry points to Internet-based information presentation and exchange by communities of common interest. Despite...
Book
Digital identity and access management (DIAM) systems are essential to security frameworks for their ability to rapidly and consistently confirm identities and to control individuals access to resources and services. However, administering digital identities and system access rights can be challenging even under stable conditions. Digital Identity...
Chapter
Identity management (IdM) systems are information systems that help to manage an individual's credentials. This occurs through the establishment, description, maintenance, and eventual destruction of an identity. There are numerous IdM systems in place today that follow a general framework, yet provide users of the system with different solutions....
Article
Emergency management systems are a critical factor in successful mitigation of natural and man-made disasters, facilitating responder decision making in complex situations. Based on socio-technical systems, have which four components (people, technology, structure and task), this study develops a research framework of factors affecting effective em...
Article
Roles are convenient and powerful concept for facilitating access to distributed systems and for enforcing access management polices. Role-based access control (RBAC) is one of the most convenient and widely used role engineering models across enterprises. However, traditional role design process only factors in functional and job requirements of a...
Conference Paper
There has been a steady increase in the amount of information published on the internet in the past ten years. In the healthcare domain, patients are increasingly exchanging medical information on online social networks and engaging in self care as a result. This trend has concerned many researchers who have studied and confirmed the existence of m...