• Home
  • Rainer Schneider
Rainer Schneider

Rainer Schneider
RECON Research and Consulting

Doctor of Psychology

About

83
Publications
137,044
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,024
Citations
Citations since 2016
26 Research Items
352 Citations
201620172018201920202021202201020304050
201620172018201920202021202201020304050
201620172018201920202021202201020304050
201620172018201920202021202201020304050
Introduction
Current research interests: (1) Effectiveness and efficacy of medical and psychological interventions (2) Pseudoscience and pseudo-evidence in clinical and non-clinical interventions (3) Non-traditional, unorthodox therapies (4) Zetetic revisionism (science, history, religion, philosophy) Methods and techniques: (1) Empirical investigation (2) Qualitative assessment

Publications

Publications (83)
Article
Purpose: Although the exact prevalence of lipedema is unknown the number of women suffering from this condition is ever-growing. When treated conservatively, manual lymphatic drainage is regarded the gold standard. However, the rate of its effectiveness varies considerably with some women showing minimal to no improvement depending on severity of...
Article
Full-text available
Objective According to a series of recent meta‐analyses and systematic reviews, aromatherapy has shown to be effective in treating patients with different medical conditions. However, many of the clinical studies are of rather low methodological quality. Moreover, there is much conceptual ambiguity with regard to what aromatherapy actually constitu...
Article
Two recent publications demonstrated that specifically designed essential odor inhalers can enhance performance through (a) better selective attention and scanning speed and (b) physiological changes of increased heart rate variability and blood oxygenation. In this study, we compared two natural odor inhalers with a popular energy drink (Red Bull®...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The effectiveness of exogenously triggered serotonin increase (e.g. via dietary supplements, drugs) is varied. However, since urinary serotonin concentrations were found to correlate with those in the cerebrospinal fluid the olfactory system might be an efficient and testable pathway to quickly elevate serotonin levels due to its fast-a...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, it was shown that regular consumption of a standardized amount of filtered tap water over a period of three weeks improved the self-reported physical complaints. However, since individuals were fully aware of the type of water they consumed it was unclear to what extent this effect was ascribable to placebo effects. This paper tests the e...
Article
Introduction: Electric vehicles generate strong electromagnetic fields (EMF) which may have adverse health effects. No research has as yet addressed whether and how this stress can be countered. Objective: To investigate (a) the impact of EMF on heart rate variability and saliva cortisol and (b) whether a protective device made of shungite may coun...
Article
Full-text available
This work examines (a) the impact of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on heart rate variability (HRV), saliva cortisol, arterial blood oxygenation, and tympanic temperature, and (b) the potential effect of protective devices developed to counter EMF-induced stress. In a pilot study, recordings were taken during a 15-minute mobile phone call emitting a...
Article
Objective: Anosmia, a medical condition with a plethora of etiologies has shown to be notoriously challenging to treat. It is often reduced to the observation that odors cannot be “smelled” or identified. No research has so far been conducted to assess whether anosmia is only limited to a loss of smell or if the neural olfactory information process...
Chapter
Recently, it was shown that regular consumption of a standardized amount of filtered tap water over a period of three weeks improved the self-reported physical complaints. However, since individuals were fully aware of the type of water they consumed it was unclear to what extent this effect was ascribable to placebo effects. This chapter tests the...
Article
Full-text available
Background The emerging public concern regarding the quality of drinking water has led to an increased interest in household water treatment systems. Many systems reduce contaminants effectively in laboratory tests at least to some degree, but for the vast majority their effects in actual use are not investigated. Objective To test the effectivene...
Article
Background: Essential oils are among the preferred alternative remedies for treating sleep disturbance, but empirical evidence for their effectiveness is varied. According to a new line of research, an inhaler designed to deliver high concentrations of essential oil molecules directly into the nose effectively influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-...
Article
Background: A recent review article on an aromatherapeutic inhaler demonstrated clinical effects on a number of bodily systems, like the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, the nervous system and the endocrine system. Objective: This paper extends these findings and investigates whether specially designed essential oils inhalers are capa...
Article
Background: There are effective pharmaceutical agents to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis, but more and more individuals resort to alternative forms of treatment. One possible alternative candidate is essential oils. Recently, an inhaler specifically designed to deliver essential oil scents has proven very effective in treating various medical para...
Article
Background: A number of recent studies have shown that a specifically designed odor inhaler containing various scent compositions has the ability to decrease blood pressure, heart rate, and cortisol levels. Similar results were found for the reduction of chronic pain or the enhancement of selective attention and concentration. Objective: This paper...
Book
Selbstmanagement umfasst im weitesten Sinne alle psychologischen Prozesse, die Motivation und Selbststeuerung ermöglichen. Die Folgen eines beeinträchtigten Selbstmanagements zeigen sich im Erleben wie im Handeln. Im Erleben verliert man den Kontakt zu sich selbst; man weiß nicht, was man eigentlich wirklich will. Im Verhalten zeigten sich Anzeiche...
Article
Background: The prevalence of chronic back pain poses major challenges for all health care systems and patients worldwide. Myofascial trigger therapy (MT), although a very popular standard non-pharmaceutical form of treatment, only shows small to medium effectiveness. Objective: To test a new vibrotreatment (Cellconnect Impulse)® transmitting lo...
Article
Background: Recently, it was demonstrated in a series of experiments that a specifically designed odor inhaler outperformed well-known and popular stress relieving techniques. In another study it was shown that odor inhalers increased attention and concentration in a demanding cognitive task. Objective: This paper follows up on these experiments an...
Article
Background: A number of recent studies have shown that a specifically designed odor inhaler containing various scent compositions has the ability to decrease blood pressure, heart rate, and cortisol levels. Similar results were found for the reduction of chronic pain or the enhancement of selective attention and concentration. Objective: This pape...
Article
Background: Recently, it was demonstrated in a series of experiments that a specifically designed odor inhaler outperformed well-known and popular stress relieving techniques. In another experiment it was shown that odor inhalers increased attention and concentration in a demanding cognitive task. Aims: This paper follows up on these experiments a...
Article
Full-text available
Our sense of smell is intricately linked to appetite and enjoyment of food, and by extension, weight. With the ever-increasing obesity problem faced by society, this study investigated whether the use of aromas can be used to support weight loss efforts. Using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design, specially formulated scents...
Book
Düfte haben in unserem Leben einen viel höheren Stellenwert, als gemeinhin geglaubt wird. Tatsächlich ist der Geruchsinn in vielerlei Hinsicht überaus faszinierend. Sinnvoll eingesetzt können Düfte und Aromen beruhigen oder aktivieren, ausgleichen oder vitalisieren. Es gibt fast keine Erlebensqualität, die Düfte nicht verbessern können. Worauf es...
Book
Scents play a much greater role in our daily lives than most people would assume. In fact, the sense of smell is in many ways very fascinating. When properly applied scents and aromas may calm or activate, balance or invigorate. There is almost no experience which cannot be enhanced by the application of scents. In this compactly written E-Book, y...
Article
In recent years, aromatherapy has become increasingly popular for clinical treatment and therapeutic management of both acute and chronic stress. It targets distinct and unique neurobiological characteristics of the olfactory system, which is tightly linked to emotions and information processing as well as the autonomous nervous system. Yet, depend...
Article
Recently, a series of experiments demonstrated that direct stimulation of the olfactory system by means of an odor inhaler targets brain areas associated with stress reduction and pain relief. This paper follows up on these findings and investigates whether such effects can also be found for inhalers specially designed to increase attention and con...
Article
Objectives: A new information medicine device (Vita Chip) was tested regarding its ability to alter pain dynamics and wellbeing. The Vita Chip is designed to store healing information and to resonate with cells. Methods: Two prospective documentation studies were carried out with individuals suffering from various forms of chronic pain. In both stu...
Book
Was ist dran an Anti-Aging-Maßnahmen? Lässt sich das Unvermeidliche wirklich umgehen, der Alterungsprozess entschleunigen oder gar umkehren? Es ist paradox: Jeder will lange leben, nur altern will keiner. Wie das eine mit dem anderen zumindest teilweise doch geht, zeigt dieses Buch. Der Leser muss sich jedoch auf einige Überraschung gefasst machen....
Book
Angst ist eine Emotion, die jeden begleitet und der keiner entfliehen kann. Doch es fällt in zunehmendem Maße auf, dass es immer mehr Menschen schwer fällt, mit Ängsten richtig umzugehen. Der richtige Umgang mit Ängsten ist aber wichtig, weil sie auf Dauer krank machen können. Dieser Ratgeber zeigt zweierlei: Erstens, welche Ängste man (getrost) ni...
Book
Was zeichnet eine gute Führungspersönlichkeit aus? In diesem E-Book zeigt der Psychologe und Coach Dr. Rainer Schneider, dass Führungsqualitäten nicht unbedingt eine Frage von ideologischen Managementtheorien oder Leadership-Überzeugungen ist, sondern von relativ allgemeingültigen psychologischen Grundprinzipien. Dieser Ratgeber vermittelt praxisna...
Article
Full-text available
Placebo effects spark more and more interest in both medicine and psychotherapy. Neurobiological findings have helped to understand underlying biochemical and neurological mechanisms although many questions remain to be answered. One common denominator of empirical findings regarding placebo effects across a wide range of clinical conditions (e.g.,...
Article
Although much is known about the pharmacokinetics of caffeine (i.e., what the body does to the drug), its pharmacodynamics (i.e., what the drug does to the body) are less well understood. Specifically, the psychological effects associated with caffeine intake may often run counter to what might be expected pharmacologically. Being one of the most c...
Book
Kaum ein medizinischer Terminus wird so häufig verwendet wie „Placebo“. Fast jeder glaubt zu wissen, was man darunter versteht, ohne aber meist wirklich erklären zu können, was genau damit gemeint ist und - vor allem – wie Placebo funktioniert. Verschaffen Sie sich einen Überblick, z.B. über neueste Studien, ethische Problematik und rechtliche Rahm...
Article
Full-text available
Um Ärztinnen und Ärzte, ganz gleich, ob sie in klinischen Studi- en involviert sind oder in Kliniken und Praxen tagtäglich Patien- ten behandeln, auf die Erkenntnisse der sich dynamisch entwi- ckelnden Placeboforschung aufmerksam zu machen, hat der Vor- stand der Bundesärztekammer den Wissenschaftlichen Beirat im Juli 2007 gebeten, einen Arbeitskr...
Article
We employed the placebo-caffeine paradigm to test whether the presence or absence of a substance (caffeine) influences the placebo effect. Methods: In experiment 1 consisting of four conditions with n = 15 participants each (control, placebo, two double-blind groups, each with placebo only), we maximized the placebo effect through expectation. Effe...
Article
Full-text available
Homeopathy uses information gathered from healthy volunteers taking homeopathic substances (pathogenetic trials) for clinical treatment. It is controversial whether such studies produce symptoms different from those produced by placebo. To test whether homeopathic preparations produce different symptoms than placebo in healthy volunteers. Three arm...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted two parallel, blinded homeopathic pathogenetic trials conducted at two different sites to determine whether symptoms reported by healthy volunteers were significantly different for homeopathic remedies than for placebos. Study 1 used a two-armed design, testing ozone against placebo. Study 2 used a three-armed design, testing ozone and...
Article
Full-text available
Bei Personen, welche von der Alzheimer-Demenz (AD) betroffen waren, fanden sich z. T. erhöhte Quecksilberkonzentrationen in Gehirnproben und Blut. Experimentell konnte in Tierexperimenten und in vitro gezeigt werden, dass schon geringste Mengen von Quecksilber in der Lage sind, AD-typische Nervenzellveränderungen auszulösen. Andere Metalle wie Zink...
Article
Full-text available
The functional role of self-regulation in aggressive and violent behavior continues to be an important problem in the forensic field. Theoretically, self-regulatory functions should influence other dimensions known to be related to aggressive behavior, but as of yet there is no empirical test of this assumption. Emotional self-regulation, conflict...
Article
Präsentation der Ergebnisse einer homöopathischen Arzneimittelprüfung zweier Polychreste, Natrium muriaticum und Arsenicum album. Mit dem dreiarmigen, randomisierten, doppelblinden und placebokontrollierten Design gelang der hochsignifikante Nachweis, dass sich Placebo-Wirkung von Verum-Wirkung unterscheiden lässt. Summary The results of a Homeopat...
Article
Research on a wide range of medical and non-medical conditions has demonstrated the power of the placebo effect but also calls for the necessity to better understand its psychological mechanisms. The placebo effect appears to be elicited by meaning and expectation. However, expectations have been explored by accounts based on conscious thoughts (i....
Article
Full-text available
Computerized systems using instrumental biocommunication for treatment claim beneficial health effects. We set out a pilot study to test whether individuals treated with a program called QUANTEC report improvements in well-being, health, and fulfillment of prerecorded wishes. 34 volunteers from the University Hospital Freiburg participated in the s...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to determine the impact of expectation associated with placebo and caffeine ingestion. We used a three-armed, randomized, double-blind design. Two three-armed experiments varying instruction (true, false, control) investigated the role of expectations of changes in arousal (blood pressure, heart rate), subjective well...
Article
Full-text available
Die Ursachen für Autismus und neuronale Entwicklungsstörungen sind unbekannt. Anscheinend sind genetische und umweltbedingte Risikofaktoren beteiligt. Aufgrund des beobachteten Anstiegs von Autismusfällen in den letzten Jahrzehnten parallel zu einer steigenden Quecksilber- belastung wurde vermutet, Autismus könne teilweise durch Quecksilber hervorg...
Article
Full-text available
The causes of autism and neurodevelopmental disorders are unknown. Genetic and environmental risk factors seem to be involved. Because of an observed increase in autism in the last decades, which parallels cumulative mercury exposure, it was proposed that autism may be in part caused by mercury. We review the evidence for this proposal. Several epi...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung. Der Placeboeffekt (PE) beinhaltet bedeutsame Heilmechanismen, wenn Placebos nicht alleine als Kontrollsubstanz verwendet werden. Diese sind mit Effekten tatsachlicher Interventionen vergleichbar. Viele Fragen zu den Mechanismen sind allerdings ungelost. Dies liegt zu einem Teil in der Reduzierung psychologischer Mechanismen auf bew...
Article
Full-text available
The etiology of most cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is as yet unknown. Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental factors may be involved beside genetic risk factors. Some studies have shown higher mercury concentrations in brains of deceased and in blood of living patients with Alzheimer's disease. Experimental studies have found that e...
Article
Full-text available
According to homeopathic theory, symptoms provoked by the homeopathic remedy in a pathogenetic trial (PT) make up the remedy picture serving as the basis for the homeopathic treatment. Little is known whether the symptoms produced by the remedy differ from symptoms produced by placebo. This is because both homeopathic remedy and placebo also produc...
Article
Homeopathic pathogenetic trials (HPTs) (provings) are the pillar of homeopathy. Symptoms experienced by healthy volunteers are used to find the correct medicine for therapy. It is unclear whether these symptoms are specific or due to placebo noise. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether proving effects, if present at all, are due to a local or non-lo...
Article
Findings in parapsychology suggest an effect of distant intentionality. Two laboratory set-ups explored this topic by measuring the effect of a distant intention on psychophysiological variables. The 'Direct Mental Interaction in Living Systems' experiment investigates the effect of various intentions on the electrodermal activity of a remote subje...
Article
We tested the claim that individuals can interact without deploying orthodox means of communication. A conditional testing approach (CTA) was applied. In four experiments, 11–15 pairs each were physically isolated and one person (‘agent’) tried to mentally influence another person (‘receiver’). Indicators of autonomic arousal of the receiver (EDA,...
Article
Full-text available
When electrodermal activity (EDA) recordings are controlled for artifacts, i.e., electrodermal reactions [EDRs] elicited by breathing irregularities, several problems arise. For example, respiration is difficult to evaluate because there are no clear-cut criteria for its values, e.g., wave form, depth. Furthermore, respiration and EDA are rather co...
Article
The concept of perceptual defensiveness is related to subliminal perception and preconscious processing. Meta-analyses of earlier experiments, 6 in the United States and Holland and 10 in Iceland, on the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT)-ESP relationship had shown significantly higher ESP scoring by less defensive participants. In the present experiment...
Book
Wie verlaufen Selbststeuerungsprozesse in verschiedenen experimentellen Kontexten? Welche Auswirkungen haben dabei bestimmte Persönlichkeitsdispositionen? Grundlage der Untersuchung ist das parapsychologische Standardparadigma Direkte Mentale Interaktion mit Lebenden Systemen (DMILS), welches anhand der funktionsanalytischen Persönlichkeits-System-...
Article
Findings in parapsychology suggest an effect of distant intentionality. Two laboratory setups explored this topic by measuring the effect of a distant intention on psychophysiological variables. The 'Direct Mental Interaction in Living Systems' experiment investigates the effect of various intentions on the electrodermal activity of a remote subjec...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung: Personaler Optimismus reprasentiert die Erwartung positiver Ergebnisse fur die eigene Person und Sozialer Optimismus die Erwartungen bezuglich allgemeiner Ereignisse mit einer sozialen Komponente. Items fur die Erfassung von Personalem und Sozialem Optimismus wurden an den Daten von 462 Personen einer Itemanalyse unterzogen. Die Da...
Article
This article addresses methodological issues in current EDA-DMILS research. The authors conducted an exploratory DMILS pilot study with 26 sessions and found a medium size effect, No significant psi finding is claimed, as the experiment was not designed to find or investigate any; instead, the authors studied the variation of this effect as a funct...
Article
This study explores the role of the agent in Direct Mental Interaction With Living Systems (DMILS) experiments and examines the functional significance of various electrodermal activity (EDA) parameters. In a total of 70-81 sessions (depending on the physiological parameter), participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions. In the Conditio...
Article
The aim of this exploratory study was first, to confirm the results found in EDA-DMILS research and, second, to examine the role of experimenter-participant interaction, as this is viewed to play a crucial role in parapsychological experiments. In a total of forty sessions, a pair of participants was each randomly assigned to either a personal or a...
Article
Full-text available
An investigation of the cognitive bias observed in optimism and the influence of optimism on psychological well-being was conducted. The cognitive bias was assumed to be related to the repressive style of information processing, represented by the trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Social Desirability scale. Optimism and well-...
Article
Social optimism was defined as the generalized expectancy of a positive outcome concerning social and ecological issues. The social optimism score showed a high degree of consistency in a sample of young subjects (N = 246) as well as in a sample of older subjects (N = 78). A moderate positive correlation with personal optimism, and a moderate negat...

Questions

Questions (3)
Question
Although there is a bunch of books reporting various treatment effects of NGM, they are mainly anecdotal and descriptive in nature. The topic is controversial at least in school medicine but there appear to be hundreds of case reports attesting to the tenability of the laws described. I couldn't find any published paper (meta-analyses, systematic reviews), but maybe someone did or knows of any.

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (6)
Project
This projects aims at testing the effectiveness of POU water filter systems on health related outcome variables.
Archived project
Archived project