Rainer Malaka

Rainer Malaka
Universität Bremen | Uni Bremen · Faculty 03: Mathematics/Computer Science

Professor

About

303
Publications
60,264
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3,038
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Introduction
Rainer Malaka is head of the DIgital Media Lab at TZI, University of Bremen. Rainer does research in HCI, Data Mining, Artificial Intelligence. One of the current projects is 'first.stage - Fast and easy previsualisation for creative industries'.

Publications

Publications (303)
Preprint
Full-text available
Due to contact restrictions, closure of fitness centers and quarantine measures, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to a considerable decline of sporting activities. The first relaxation of these restrictions allowed German citizens to mostly return to their normal training and exercise behavior, yet the long-term impact of the recurring measures (i.e. th...
Article
Going from natural language directions to fully specified executable plans for household robots involves a challenging variety of reasoning steps. In this paper, a processing pipeline to tackle these steps for natural language directions is proposed and implemented. It uses the ontological Socio-physical Model of Activities (SOMA) as a common inter...
Conference Paper
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When playing sports in virtual reality foot interaction is crucial for many disciplines. We investigated how the visibility of the foot influences penalty shooting in soccer. In a between-group experiment, we asked 28 players to hit eight targets with a virtual ball. We measured the performance, task load, presence, ball control, and body ownership...
Article
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Purpose For complex cases, preoperative surgical planning is a standard procedure to ensure patient safety and keep the surgery time to a minimum. Based on the available information, such as MRI or CT images, and prior anatomical knowledge the surgeons create their own mental 3D model of the organ of interest. This is challenging, requires years of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The next major evolutionary stage for voice assistants will be their capability to initiate interactions by themselves. However, to design proactive interactions, it is crucial to understand whether and when this behaviour is considered useful and how desirable it is perceived for different social contexts or ongoing activities. To investigate peop...
Preprint
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Providing haptic feedback in virtual reality to make the experience more realistic has become a strong focus of research in recent years. The resulting haptic feedback systems differ greatly in their technologies, feedback possibilities, and overall realism making it challenging to compare different systems. We propose the Haptic Fidelity Framework...
Article
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Video game testing has become a major investment of time, labor and expense in the game industry. Particularly the balancing of in-game units, characters and classes can cause long-lasting issues that persist years after a game’s launch. While approaches incorporating artificial intelligence have already shown successes in reducing manual effort an...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper, we present foundations of the Socio-physical Model of Activities (SOMA). SOMA represents both the physical as well as the social context of everyday activities. Such tasks seem to be trivial for humans, however, they pose severe problems for artificial agents. For starters, a natural language command requesting something will leave m...
Chapter
Developing cooperative serious games has specific challenges of enabling players to achieve both gaming and learning goals in a cooperative fashion. The complexity of handling game and learning requirements leads to the lack of guidance for systematically developing cooperative serious games (SGs). To overcome the challenges, we propose a systemati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dealing with robotic actions in uncertain environments has been demonstrated to be hard. Many classic planning approaches to robotic action make the closed world assumption, rendering them inefficient for everyday household activities, as they function without generalizability to other contexts or the ability to deal with unexpected changes. In con...
Chapter
The increased availability of portable devices with high computational power gave birth to such phenomenon as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)—a situation when an employee uses his own device for accessing enterprise sensitive resources. This situation in turn created a new conflict—an employee wants to keep his data private, and an employer want to pr...
Conference Paper
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Although smart speakers support increasingly complex multi-turn dialogues, they still play a mostly reactive role, responding to user’s questions or requests. With rapid technological advances, they are becoming more capable of initiating conversations by themselves. However, before developing such proactive features, it is important to understand...
Preprint
Virtual reality (VR) is, by nature, excellent in showing spatial relationships, e.g. for viewing medical 3D data. In this work, we propose a VR system to view and manipulate medical 3D images of livers in combination with 3D printed liver models as controllers. We investigate whether users benefit from a controller in the shape of a liver and if th...
Preprint
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Subjective self-reports in VR user studies is a burdening and often tedious task for the participants. To minimize the disruption with the ongoing experience VR research has started to administer the surveying directly inside the virtual environments. However, due to the tedious nature of text-entry in VR, most VR surveying tools focus on closed qu...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Smart Home-Systeme finden eine immer weitere Verbreitung. Allerdings ergeben sich hieraus Fragen der IT-Sicherheit und des Datenschutzes für EndnutzerInnen. Oftmals ist nicht transparent, welche Daten wo verarbeitet werden und wie diese vor Missbrauch geschützt sind. Dieser Aufsatz beschreibt hierfür Lösungsansätze, die in dem Verbu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present foundations of the Socio-physical Model of Activities (SOMA). SOMA represents both the physical as well as the social context of everyday activities. Such tasks seem to be trivial for humans, however, they pose severe problems for artificial agents. For starters, a natural language command requesting something will leave m...
Article
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: An important phase in the process of visual design for the narrative media is previsualization (previs). Professionals use complicated 3D software applications that are not especially designed for the purpose of previs which makes it difficult for the artists and non-technical users to create previs content.OBJECTIVES: The aim is to e...
Preprint
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Measure user experience in MR (i.e., AR/VR) user studies is essential. Researchers apply a wide range of measuring methods using objective (e.g., biosignals, time logging), behavioral (e.g., gaze direction, movement amplitude), and subjective (e.g., standardized questionnaires) metrics. Many of these measurement instruments were adapted from use-ca...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper, we present foundations of the Socio-physical Model of Activities (SOMA). SOMA represents both the physical as well as the social context of everyday activities. Such tasks seem to be trivial for humans, however, they pose severe problems for artificial agents. For starters, a natural language command requesting something will leave m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While robotic proficiency excels in constrained environments, the demand for vast amounts of world knowledge to cover unforeseen circumstances, constellations and tasks prevents sufficiently robust real-world application. Human computation has shown to provide successful advances to close this reasoning gap and accumulate knowledge, yet being great...
Conference Paper
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Artificial intelligence (AI) is a frequently used term-and has seen decades of use-in the video games industry. Yet, while academic AI research recently produced notable advances both in different methods and in real-world applications, the use of modern AI techniques, such as deep learning remains curiously sparse in commercial video games. Relate...
Conference Paper
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Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is a promising approach in treating phobias such as fear of heights (acrophobia). VRET provides an effective, cost-efficient, scalable and individually adaptable alternative to traditional exposure therapy. To further foster the potential of VRET, a novel concept called Playful User-generated Treatment (PUT)...
Conference Paper
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Overcoming a range of challenges that traditional therapy faces, virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) yields great potential for the treatment of phobias such as acrophobia, the fear of heights. We investigate this potential and present playful user-generated treatment (PUT), a novel game-based approach for VRET. Based on a requirement analysis...
Conference Paper
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Verbal communication is a central component in collaborative multiplayer gaming and creates a feeling of companionship among the players. In single-player games, this aspect is often missing. Advancements in speech recognition now open new potentials for voice-activated single-player experiences. In this work, we integrated voice interaction to a s...
Conference Paper
While smart home devices are spreading rapidly, the privacy and security of users are key concerns. Many users struggle in acquiring and applying security recommendations to protect against malicious behavior in smart home systems, which can cause users to lose interest in this topic. Game-based learning is a powerful practice to increase the motiv...
Conference Paper
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One of the key reasoning tasks of robotic agents is inferring possible actions that can be accomplished with a given object at hand. This cognitive task is commonly referred to as inferring the affordances of objects. In this paper, we propose a novel conceptualization of affordances and its realization as a description logic ontology. The key idea...
Conference Paper
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Balancing the options available to players in a way that ensures rich variety and viability is a vital factor for the success of any video game, and particularly competitive multiplayer games. Traditionally, this balancing act requires extensive periods of expert analysis, play testing and debates. While automated gameplay is able to predict outcom...
Article
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Introduction: Bühler's anastomosis (or Bühler's arcade) is an embryonic relic and represents an arterio-arterial connection between the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk. It can be found as a variety in 1–2% of patients. Case Presentation: We present a case of a patient with metatastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The patien...
Preprint
Many application areas ranging from serious games for health to learning by demonstration in robotics, could benefit from large body movement datasets extracted from textual instructions accompanied by images. The interpretation of instructions for the automatic generation of the corresponding motions (e.g. exercises) and the validation of these mo...
Article
Informed by modern imaging techniques, current medical navigation systems support physicians during a variety of interventions, such as needle-based operations. During these, an abundance of information is often displayed on monitors placed in positions that are uncomfortable for the operator to view. In this article, we address these issues with t...
Conference Paper
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The case study presented in this paper is concerned with the applicability of natural user interfaces (NUI) in the context of previsualization (previs). For this purpose, we have developed a virtual reality (VR) based tool that includes NUIs as a novel way to perform previs-related tasks. For the application domains of animation, film, and theater,...
Conference Paper
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Many online games suffer when players drop off due to lost connections or quitting prematurely, which leads to match terminations or game-play imbalances. While rule-based outcome evaluations or substitutions with bots are frequently used to mitigate such disruptions, these techniques are often perceived as unsatisfactory. Deep learning methods hav...
Conference Paper
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Balancing games and producing content that remains interesting and challenging is a major cost factor in the design and maintenance of games. Dynamic difficulty adjustment (DDA) can successfully tune challenge levels to player abilities, but when implemented with classic heuristic parameter tuning (HPT) often turns out to be very noticeable, e.g. a...
Chapter
HCI, as the cooperation of humans and machines in socio-technical systems, is playing an increasingly important role in production technology and logistics applications. This cooperation will lead to a higher occurrence of interaction among these actors in production and logistics work. One of the central challenges in this context is the developme...
Chapter
Full-text available
The success of stroke rehabilitation therapy is highly associated with patient cooperation. However, the repetitive nature of conventional therapies can frustrate patients and decrease their discipline in working out the physical therapy program. Serious games have shown promising outcomes when applied to tasks that require human engagement. This r...
Chapter
Constantly evolving advances of smart home devices features require users to persistently keep up with safety concerns. While update reports and news articles are common ways to keep them informed, many users struggle in thoroughly understanding and applying available security recommendations. Educational games have proven to be an intuitive way to...
Conference Paper
During surgery, the surgeons often need to interact with the 2D radiological images. Due to sterility, surgeons are unable to interact with the system and depend on duty assistant. However, communication with the substitute might be complicated and error-prone if the operators and the surgeons do not have an equal level of communication skills whic...
Chapter
Full-text available
Procedural content generation (PCG) techniques have become increasingly established over the years in the context of video games. In terms of generating level layouts, PCG has proven to be a cost-efficient alternative to handcrafted design processes. However, previous research is mostly concerned with singleplayer experiences only. Since multiplaye...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper, we introduce the framework of MEANinGS for the semi-autonomous accumulation of world knowledge for robots. Where manual aggregation is inefficient and prone to incompleteness and autonomous approaches suffer from underspecified information, we deploy the human computation game Kitchen Clash and give evidence of its efficiency, comple...
Chapter
Full-text available
The design of cooperative games is challenging due to the requirements of cooperation between the players. The major need of the design is to provide an environment that enables players to achieve the game goal in a cooperative fashion. The game premise which is the story behind the game is one of the dramatic elements and impacts the engagement of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Outsourcing effortful problems as microtasks has been successfully implemented by various human computation serious games or GWAP. Still, most of the academic ap-proaches validate their results by conducting laboratory studies. While these have the potential to assess proposed techniques thoroughly with respect to quantitative and qualitative measu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Intrinsic motivation is a key factor in facilitating enjoyment and engagement in video games. In recent years, various approaches have been introduced by the industry to raise motivation of players. One of the most prominent methods in modern games comes in the form of Achievements which are defined as optional meta-objectives that players can obta...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Uninformed actions in privacy and security settings of mobile devices might cause data leaks. In many occasions, users may not be aware of such issues due to lack of knowledge on the topic. To raise interest and awareness towards this issue, extra effort might be needed. Game-based learning has proven to be an effective approach in terms of motivat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Computer-assisted surgery and the use of virtual environments in surgery are getting popular lately, as they provide numerous benefits, especially for visualisation of data. Yet, these tools lack features for direct and interactive discussion with remote experts and intuitive means of control for 3D data. Therefore, we present a concept to create a...
Conference Paper
Controlling a virtual character with your free hands is a useful task for many 3D applications such as games, computer puppetry, or emerging virtual reality applications. So far, only specialist controls have been established in the animation industry. Yet little is known about novices mental models for character control, a key to designing widely...
Conference Paper
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Granting permissions in different contexts to applications on mobile devices might pose a direct threat to the users' security and privacy by granting access to sensitive information. Although, Android permission dialogues already provide information about possible dangerous permissions, users might still not be aware of the consequences. Therefore...
Conference Paper
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Computer-und Videospiele sind ein äußerst vielfältiges Themengebiet, welches insbesondere für den Bereich der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in den letzten Jahren als Forschungsgebiet zunehmend an Relevanz gewonnen hat. Neben der wissenschaftlichen Theorie ist insbesondere die praktische Erfahrung mit der Konzeption und der technischen Realisierung vo...
Conference Paper
Professionals in domains like film, theater, or architecture often rely on physical models to visualize spaces. With virtual reality (VR) new tools are available providing immersive experiences with correct perceptions of depth and scale. However, these lack the tangibility of physical models. Using tangible objects in VR can close this gap but cre...
Preprint
Full-text available
Medical images contain important information for diagnosis and preoperative planning in modern medicine. Interacting with these images still happens mostly with a mouse, abstract gestures or handles. In a focus group with five surgeons, we evaluate the possibilities of 3D printed organ models for interaction in VR for the use case of surgery planni...
Preprint
Full-text available
Finding and maintaining the right level of challenge with respect to the individual abilities of players has long been in the focus of game user research (GUR) and game development (GD). The right difficulty balance is usually considered a prerequisite for motivation and a good player experience. Dynamic difficulty adjustment (DDA) aims to tailor d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dealing with fear of falling is a challenge in sport climbing. Virtual reality (VR) research suggests that using physical and reality-based interaction increases the presence in VR. In this paper, we present a study that investigates the influence of physical props on presence, stress and anxiety in a VR climbing environment involving whole body mo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Malicious Android applications can obtain user's private data and silently send it to a server. Android permissions are currently not sufficient enough to ensure the security of users' sensitive information. For a sufficient permission model it is important to account the target of the outgoing data flow. On the other hand, permission dialogues oft...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Previsualization (previs) is an essential phase in the visual design process of narrative media such as film, animation, and stage plays. In digital previs complex 3D tools are used that are not specifically designed for the previs process making it hard to use for creative persons without much technical knowledge. To enable building dedicated prev...