Rainer Köning

Rainer Köning
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt | PTB · Department 5.2 Dimensional Nanometrology

PhD

About

72
Publications
8,546
Reads
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598
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2000 - present
National Metrology Institute of Germany (PTB)
Position
  • Senior Researcher
February 2000 - present
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • Further developments of the Nanometer Comparator, Interferometry, Line scale, Registration and Linewidth measurements on photo masks, optical microscopy, measurement uncertainty
February 1997 - February 2000
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Position
  • Guest Scientist (Post Doc)
Description
  • Further development of C-AFM, calibration of capacitive displacement sensor, traceable step height and pitch measurements, related uncertainty estimations
Education
July 1993 - January 1997
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
Field of study
  • Nanolithography by STM
October 1987 - July 1993
Technische Universität Braunschweig
Field of study
  • Electrical Engineering

Publications

Publications (72)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on the design, implementation, and experimental results for the control of PTB's Nanometer Comparator. This length comparator is measuring the unidirectional distances of markers on scales and photomasks as well as displacements of encoders and interferometers with sub-nanometer resolution. The machine had been upgraded with a du...
Article
Full-text available
In this contribution, we emphasize the need for a sophisticated characterization of measurement devices in particular for optical bidirectional measurements. As an example, the ongoing characterization of the UV-microscope at PTB’s linescale comparator is presented. First results of spectroscopic measurements of the employed UV-LED are presented an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report on the development of a tactile sensor on a silicon flexure whose deflection is measured with two fibre interferometers. It will be used to realize one-dimensional tactile measurements, like step gauge calibrations, with the Nanometer Comparator of PTB. For repetitively probing a face of a gauge block, a standard deviation of less than 7...
Article
Industrial application versatility of interferometric encoders increases the urge to measure several degrees of freedom. A novel grating interferometer containing a commercially available, minimized Michelson interferometer and three fibre-fed measurement heads is presented in this paper. Moreover, the arrangement is designed for simultaneous displ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung In diesem Beitrag wird ein neues Antriebskonzept des an der PTB für Längenmessungen bis zu 0,55 m betriebenen Vakuumkomparators beschrieben. Dessen Positioniersystem auf Basis eines Direktantriebs wurde um eine sekundäre Steuereinheit erweitert, um auf Grundlage von Rückkopplungsdaten seines Vakuum-Interferometers einen zusätzlichen...
Article
A differential interferometric heterodyne encoder with spatially separated input beams was developed to minimize periodic nonlinearities resulting from polarization mixing. The laser beams with different frequencies were delivered by two polarization-maintaining fibers to the encoder head. Under laboratory conditions this encoder demonstrated a sys...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Zur Minimierung von Positionsschwingungen des Messschlittens am Nanometerkomparator wurden die Signale des Vakuum-Interferometers zur Feinregelung eines Lorentz-Aktuators genutzt. Dieses zusätzliche Stellelement erweiterte den Linearantrieb und wurde durch einen FPGA-gestützten Positionsregler angesteuert, der mithilfe eines PXI-Systems geschaffen...
Article
We report on results of high precision straightness measurements of a graduated scale and a comparison of two different error separation methods. One approach is based on the Traceable Multi-Sensor method. For this purpose, a sensor element consisting of three heterodyne interferometers was integrated at PTB's length reference comparator to measure...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We propose a compact heterodyne interferometer system for either angle, displacement or straightness measurements. It uses two offset-locked He-Ne lasers, fully-fibre coupled plane mirror interferometer optics and a self-developed phase meter. First measurement results show a standard deviation of 5 pm over 15 s at a filter bandwidth of 10 kHz whil...
Conference Paper
We report on results of straightness measurements of a graduated scale using the Traceable Multi-Sensor method. For this purpose, a sensor element consisting of three heterodyne interferometers was integrated at PTB’s length reference comparator. For a scale with a grating of 322 mm length a repeatability below 0.1 nm and an uncertainty below 1.5 n...
Article
Although the Heydemann correction is widely used to demodulate the phase of quadrature homodyne interferometer and encoder signals, the related measurement uncertainty is considered only in a few publications. The statistical uncertainty of the phase, which is the contribution of the high-frequency noise in the input signals, due to the use of a si...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This contribution describes an upgrade of the data acquisition and motion control of the PTB vacuum length interference comparator. The drive system based on a linear motor was extended by using a secondary motion controller, which drives a Lorentz actuator and is traced back on vacuum displacement interferometer data. First measurement results wit...
Conference Paper
The measurement signals of the quadrature homodyne interferometers (say x and y, usually called Sine/Cosine signals and/or quadrature signals) typically exhibit offsets, unequal amplitudes and a phase difference that is not exactly 90 degree as would be expected in the ideal/theoretical case. Moreover, frequently there is a significant component of...
Article
The paper describes recent improvements of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt's (PTB) reference measuring instrument for length graduations, the so-called nanometer comparator, intended to achieve a measurement uncertainty in the domain of 1 nm for a length up to 300 mm. The improvements are based on the design and realization of a new sample ca...
Article
Optical interferometers are widely used in dimensional metrology applications. Among them are many quadrature homodyne interferometers. These exhibit two sinusoidal interference signals shifted, in the ideal case, by 90 degree to allow a direction sensitive detection of the motion responsible for the actual phase change. But practically encountered...
Conference Paper
This contribution describes recent developments of the PTB in high precision position and size metrology as support for different nanotechnology applications. It will be shown how measurement uncertainties of about 1-2 nm for 1D-position of graduation lines on 152 mm photomasks (6’’), or on line scales and incremental encoders of about 300 mm lengt...
Conference Paper
The long-time stability of interferometer can be increased by separating heat sources using optical fibres. But the use of multimode fibres to transfer the superposed beams to the detectors can also increase the measured phase variations. A Mach-Zehnder setup, which represents a minimized realization of a heterodyne interferometer with spatially se...
Conference Paper
Inhomogeneous temperature fields are a source of error in precision dimensional measurements. To reduce these dimensional measurement errors, among other approaches, the complex measurement instrumentation can be thermally stabilized or cooled. At the example of the Measuring Microscope of the Nanometer Comparator at Physikalisch Technische Bunde...
Data
EllipseFit4HC is an ellipse fitting algorithm based on first order Taylor expansion (linearization) of the originally nonlinear model. EllipseFit4HC is suggested for uncertainty evaluation of the estimated phases and/or displacements, based on quadrature homodyne interferometer measurements (with the Heydemann Correction applied). See also http://w...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Dieser Beitrag beschreibt ein Mess- und Regelungssystem für einachsige Positionieranwendungen mit Stabilitäten im Sub-Nanometerbereich. Das Positioniersystem besteht aus einem luftgelagerten Linearschlitten, welcher mit einer Tauchspule gestellt, dessen Position laser-interferometrisch gemessen und unter Verwendung einer FPGA-gestüt...
Conference Paper
Optical vision systems require both unidirectional and bidirectional measurements for the calibrations and the verification of the tool performance to enable accurate measurements traceable to the SI unit Metre. However, for bidirectional measurements up to now the national metrology institutes are unable to provide internationally recognized calib...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This publication describes a single axis motion control system providing position stability in the sub-nanometer regime. The positioning system is driven by an electromagnetic actuator, guided by air-bearings and controlled with a high-bandwidth motion controller supplied with high-precision laser interferometric feedback signals. First measurement...
Article
The PTB developed a new optical heterodyne interferometer in the context of the European joint research project ‘Nanotrace’. A new optical concept using plane-parallel plates and spatially separated input beams to minimize the periodic nonlinearities was realized. Furthermore, the interferometer has the resolution of a double-path interferometer, c...
Article
Due to the introduction of double patterning schemes in the production processes of the semiconductor industry and the corresponding stringent specifications of the placement errors of the optical images of mask features (1.2 nm (3σ)) in the lithographic projection process, significant improvements of the registration measurements on photomasks are...
Article
In order to be able to resolve displacements of a picometer with widely used commercially available heterodyne interferometers, an advanced phase meter was developed at PTB. Key to this level of accuracy is the use of a state-of-the-art analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) board enabling the implementation of a phase-evaluation method by using embed...
Article
In order to be able to resolve displacements of a picometer with widely used commercially available heterodyne interferometers, an advanced phase meter was developed at PTB. Key to this level of accuracy is the use of a state-of-the-art analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) board enabling the implementation of a phase-evaluation method by using embed...
Article
We propose an implementation of the straight-line fit algorithm to evaluate data obtained as part of measurements of line structures, e.g. a grating line, which allows us to determine, at a conventional threshold value, the coordinates of the edges, the position and the width of its photometric profile as well as the related standard uncertainty co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The movement of a double-sided mirror was measured with two different interferometers aligned complying with Abbe's principle. The comparison of two interferometers with different wavelength allows a separation of their nonlinearities. Therewith the periodic nonlinearities of a novel compact Twyman-Green interferometer were determined to be smaller...
Article
Full-text available
Bidirectional measurements are to be performed for the calibrations and the reverification of the performance of optical coordinate measurement machines (CMMs). The national metrology institutes are challenged to provide internationally recognized calibrations of suitable standards at the required uncertainty level of 100 nm. Furthermore most users...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The lock-in principle is a preferred method to determine the phase difference between electrical signals of heterodyne interferometer. A phase meter based on this method was developed at PTB allowing to detect fractions of an optical fringe in the range of a few picometers, which is verified by experimental results.
Article
A heterodyne interferometer with spatially separated input beams is presented. The optical design realizes symmetric paths through glass and air, which results in a minimal dead path. An automatic correction of phase variations introduced by feeding the optics with fibers and by angle variations between the optics and the mirror is demonstrated. In...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate measurements of the true three-dimensional shape of nanometre-sized structures are required as input parameters in the process of modelling and refining other (fast) measurement methods that measure indirectly such as scatterometry, scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. For this purpose, atomic force microscopy is a promisin...
Article
Quartz is a common material for line scales and lithography photo masks. Compared to ultra low dilatation material like Zerodur, quartz has the advantage of a high transparency and exhibits a better long term stability. For an international line scale comparison, the so-called "Nano3" comparison [1], the Dr. Johannes Heidenhain GmbH manufactured in...
Article
Full-text available
The Nanometer Comparator is a high precision one-dimensional length measurement ma- chine for investigations and calibrations of line scales, linear encoders, length gauges, pho- tomasks and laser interferometers up to 610 mm using an interferometer in vacuum (1), which is currently enhanced for additional straightness measurement capability. In th...
Conference Paper
For traceable length measurements at the highest level of accuracy, interferometers are often indispensable. Nowadays measurement uncertainties in the sub-nm range and below are required in some applications. High resolution phase measurements of heterodyne interferometers have successfully been realized by means of digital lock-in amplifiers. A de...
Article
Full-text available
The Nanometer Comparator is the PTB reference length measuring machine for high precision calibrations of line scales and encoder systems. Up to now the Nanometer Comparator allows to measure the position of line structures in one dimension only. For high precision characterisations of masks, scales and incremental encoders, the measurement of the...
Article
We revisited the treatment of the influence of the support conditions and the resulting bending of a scale on the positions of its graduation lines. In contrast to earlier publications, we did not calculate the position deviation with respect to the case without any bending. Due to the production processes used today, this is inappropriate and lead...
Article
Zusammenfassung Der Beitrag stellt die messtechnischen Anforderungen vor zur präzisen Charakterisierung von mikro- und nanostrukturierten ebenen Substraten wie Strichmaßstäben, inkrementellen Encodern oder Masken hinsichtlich dimensioneller Messgrößen wie Positionen, Abstände, Koordinaten und Breiten von Strukturen sowie die hierzu in der PTB entwi...
Article
Due to current evolutions in positioning technology the uncertainty of the length measurement has to decrease continuously. Nowadays the PTB is developing measurement capabilities, which intend to reach uncertainties in sub-nanometer range. Interferometeric measurement systems are in some cases the only choice due to their direct traceability to th...
Article
To minimize the measurement uncertainty of one dimensional length measurements on line scales, linear encoders and interferometers the PTB in cooperation with the Dr. Johannes Heidenhain GmbH had built up a new length comparator. The Nanometer Comparator [1,2] has already proven its performance during the measurements of incremental encoders and li...
Article
The so-called Nanometer Comparator is the PTB vacuum length comparator which has been developed for high precision length metrology on measurement objects with micro- and nanostructured graduations, like e.g. line scales, incremental encoders or photomasks. The Nanometer Comparator allows to achieve smallest measurement uncertainties in the nm-rang...
Article
The German national metrology institute, a Japanese company, and a German company have conducted an international length comparison. A photoelectric incremental encoder with a measurement length of 280 mm served as transfer standard. The traceability of measurement results to the SI unit of the metre was uniformly realized through iodine-stabilized...
Article
The Nanometer Comparator is the PTB reference length comparator for line scales and encoder systems [1, 2]. The basic component of the comparator is the vacuum laser interferometer, which allows to achieve smallest measurement uncertainties for position measurements on line structures and gratings. The calibration capability of the comparator, e.g....
Article
Due to the discussed introduction of double patterning techniques the overlay and registration metrology requirements in advanced lithography will drastically increase so that reference metrology tools need to be developed further to be able to follow the resulting tightening of the specifications. Therefore, the PTB further develops the Nanometer...
Article
Full-text available
Often Abbe errors are the most important uncertainty sources in dimensional metrology applications aiming for measurement uncertainties of only a few nanometres. Abbe errors are caused by the angle deviations of relative translations between measurement object and sensing device—either in moving object or moving sensing device configuration—and the...
Chapter
The PTB nanometer length comparator was developed in cooperation with the Dr. Johannes Heidenhain GmbH and the Werth Messtechnik GmbH. The comparator was designed to be applied for calibrations of graduations on objects like line scales and photomasks, and for calibrations of length measurement systems like displacement probes, interferometers, and...
Article
Until today one dimensional length comparators or line scale interferometers are used to realize and disseminate the unit of length. The performance of the vacuum length comparator of the PTB, the Nanometer Comparator, was characterized by measuring photoelectric incremental encoders. In some respects the measurements were used to optimize the perf...
Article
The PTB in cooperation with the Dr. Johannes Heidenhain GmbH built up a new length comparator with a measurement range of 610 mm for 1D length measurements on line scales, linear encoders and interferometers. The PTB nanometer comparator was retrofitted and now allows a stable operation of the interferometer. To investigate the actual measurement p...
Article
Full-text available
This report describes the results of the international line scale comparison Nano3, which was carried out between 2000 and 2003 and which was accepted as supplementary comparison CCL-S3. This comparison was initiated by the BIPM working group on nanometrology as one of five international comparisons in the field of dimensional nanometrology. Two hi...
Article
This contribution will report on the results of the international line scale comparison Nano3, which was carried out between 2000 and 2003. The comparison was initiated by the BIPM working group on nanometrology as one of five comparisons in the field of nanometrology. Two high quality line scales of Zerodur and quartz with 280 mm graduations were...
Article
Due to increasing demands on the photolithography of integrated circuits and the progress of interferometric linear encoders, length measurement systems with a reproducibility under 3 nm are used in industry today, whereas the connection to the unit of length exhibits an uncertainty of about 25 nm. To resolve this problem a new one dimensional leng...
Article
Although the role of the periodic errors of optical heterodyne interferometers in displacement measurements is fairly well understood, their influence on the calibration of other types of displacement sensor does not seem to be studied as extensively. We have performed a careful analysis of the role of these errors on the calibration of a capacitan...
Conference Paper
The PTB nanometer length comparator was developed to be used as an universal measurement machine for one dimensional calibrations of photomasks, line scales, linear encoders, laser interferometers and long range probes. The software design must be flexible enough to handle different measurement objects and localisation sensors and complete measurem...
Article
Atomic force microscopes (AFMs) generate three dimensional images with nanometer level resolution and, consequently, are used in the semiconductor industry as tools for sub-micrometer dimensional metrology. Measurements commonly performed with AFMs are feature spacing (pitch), feature height (or depth), feature width (critical dimension), and surfa...
Article
The measurement of bump heights and pit depth on compact discs (CD) with atomic force microscopes (AFMs) is quite different from the measurement of step heights on step height calibration standards. Both the bumps and the pits show much larger transition regimes and more structural irregularities. The irregularities disqualify the effective use of...
Article
Atomic force microscopes (AFMs), which generate three dimensional images with nanometer level resolution, are increasingly being used as tools for sub-micrometer dimensional metrology in a wide range of applications. Measurements commonly performed with AFMs are feature spacing (pitch), feature height (or depth), feature width (critical dimension),...
Article
AFMs are increasingly used in the semiconductor industry as tools for sub-micrometer dimensional metrology. The scale of an AFM must be calibrated in order to perform accurate measurements. We have designed and developed the calibrated AFM (C-AFM) at the NIST to calibrate standards. Specifically, our primary calibrations are expected to be of combi...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the limitations of modern manufacturing technology, no commercial height artifact at the sub-nanometer scale is currently available. The single-atom steps on a cleaned silicon (111) surface with a height of 0.314 nm, derived from the lattice constant of silicon, have considerable potential as an atomic force microscope (AFM) calibration a...
Article
Because atomic force microscopes (AFMs) are capable of generating three dimensional images with nanometer level resolution, these instruments are being increasingly used in many industries as tools for dimensional metrology at sub- micrometer length scales. To achieve high accuracy, the scales of an AFM must be calibrated. Presently available stand...

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