Rainer Hippler

Rainer Hippler
University of Greifswald · Institute of Physics

Prof. Dr.

About

375
Publications
34,875
Reads
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6,153
Citations
Introduction
Rainer Hippler currently works at the Institute of Physics, University of Greifswald. Rainer does research in Atomic Physics, Plasma Physics, and Thin Film Deposition. Their current project is Mass spectrometry of deposition plasmas.'
Additional affiliations
May 1995 - present
University of Greifswald
Position
  • University Professor (Chair)
September 1992 - April 1993
University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Perth, Western Australia
Position
  • Visiting Professor
October 1984 - September 1985
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)
Position
  • Rearch Associate
Education
October 1975 - June 1984
Bielefeld University
Field of study
  • Experimental Physics
January 1972 - May 1974
November 1966 - November 1971

Publications

Publications (375)
Article
Photoactive semiconducting crystalline films of non-stoichiometric tungsten oxides (WO3-x, 0 ≤ x ≤ 3) were deposited by DC hollow cathode discharge from a tungsten nozzle in a reactive Ar + O2 atmosphere. The ratio of tungsten to oxygen in the layer was driven by controlling the O2 flow. All layers were prepared on soda-lime glass substrate (SLG) a...
Article
A magnetron sputtering discharge with a positively biased anode in argon gas is investigated by Langmuir probe diagnostics and by energy-resolved mass spectrometry. The discharge is operated in continuous (direct current) and in pulsed (high power impulse magnetron sputtering, Hi) mode with a Ti target and in Ar gas. Singly-charged Ar +, Ti +, and...
Article
Full-text available
We report the surface stoichiometry of Tix-CuyNz thin film as a function of film depth. Films are deposited by high power impulse (HiPIMS) and DC magnetron sputtering (DCMS). The composition of Ti, Cu, and N in the deposited film is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). At a larger depth, the relative composition of Cu and Ti in t...
Article
Full-text available
The performance of a positively biased external ring anode in combination with a hollow cathode discharge or a magnetron sputtering discharge, both with a Ti cathode and with Ar as working gas, is investigated. Plasma and floating potential increase as function of anode voltage. Energy-resolved mass spectrometry reveals that the kinetic energy of a...
Article
Cobalt oxide films were deposited with the help of reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and mid-frequency pulsed magnetron sputtering (PMS) in argon gas at an argon gas pressure of 1 Pa and with different oxygen admixtures. The HiPIMS discharge was operated at a repetition frequency f=100 Hz with a duty cycle of 1%. Deposition...
Article
Bipolar high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) with a yttrium target is investigated with the help of time-resolved diagnostics. The bipolar HiPIMS discharge is operated with a negative pulse with a width of 100μs, which is immediately followed by a positive pulse (pulse voltage up to +60 V) with a duration of ∼310μs. The time-resolved fl...
Article
High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of a cobalt cathode in argon gas was investigated by time-resolved electrical (Langmuir) probe diagnostics and by time-integrated energy-resolved mass spectrometry. The HiPIMS discharge was operated with a bipolar pulsed power supply, providing a large negative voltage with a typical pulse width of 1...
Article
Full-text available
Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of a cobalt cathode in pure argon gas and with different oxygen admixtures was investigated by time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy and time-integrated energy-resolved mass spectrometry. The HiPIMS discharge was operated with a bipolar pulsed power supply capable of providing a large...
Conference Paper
We report the synthesis of Tix-CuyNz (here, x, y, z are integer) thin film deposited by magnetron plasma. In x-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) of the surface of the film shows shake up shake up satellite peak of Ti 2p, Cu 2p. The stoichiometric value of Ti, Cu and N in the deposited film is determined by XPS de-convolution method. Satellite peak i...
Article
Full-text available
Ternary carbide in metal matrix composites constitute a big challenge in the industry, and in this regard their surface treatment is one of the most important issues. Ternary carbide (CuxTiyCz, where x, y and z are integers) thin films are synthesized by magnetron sputtering and characterized with respect to the film depth. X-ray photoelectron spec...
Article
Ternary carbide in metal matrix composites constitute a big challenge in the industry, and in this regard their surface treatment is one of the most important issues. Ternary carbide (Cu x Ti y C z , where x, y and z are integers) thin films are synthesized by magnetron sputtering and characterized with respect to the film depth. X-ray photoelectro...
Article
Full-text available
Formation of singly and doubly charged Ar q + and Ti q + ( q = 1,2) and of molecular Ar 2 + , ArTi ⁺ , and Ti 2 + ions in a direct current magnetron sputtering discharge with a Ti cathode and argon as working gas was investigated with the help of energy-resolved mass spectrometry. Measured ion energy distributions consist of low-energy and high-ene...
Article
Generation of singly charged Ar + and Ti +, doubly charged Ar 2 + and Ti 2 +, and of Ar 2 + and Ti 2 + dimer ions in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge with a Ti cathode was investigated. Energy-resolved mass spectrometry was employed. The argon gas pressures varied between 0.5 and 2.0 Pa. Energy spectra of monomer ions ar...
Article
Formation of monoatomic Ar⁺ and Cu⁺, diatomic , ArCu⁺, and , and triatomic ions during 500 eV Ar⁺ ion bombardment of a copper surface in a dilute argon atmosphere was investigated by means of energy-resolved mass spectrometry. Energy spectra of (n = 1, 2), (), and ArCu⁺ ions show distinct features which are related to the specific formation process...
Conference Paper
We report the surface stoichiometry of cubic Cu3N films as function of nitrogen concentration (N/Cu). The film is deposited at 1Pa showing self-buckled (surface peels off) effect as it is exposed to ambient air at atmospheric pressure whereas at 5 Pa, the film shows no such effect. The spectroscopic (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) analysis...
Article
Iron oxide films were deposited using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of an iron cathode in an argon/oxygen gas mixture at different gas pressures (0.5 Pa, 1.5 Pa, and 5.0 Pa). The HiPIMS system was operated at a repetition frequency f = 100 Hz with a duty cycle of 1%. A main goal is a comparison of film growth during conventional...
Article
Formation of Ar⁺ and Ti⁺ monomers and of Ar, ArTi⁺, and Ti dimer ions in a magnetron sputtering discharge with a Ti cathode and at argon gas pressures of 0.3-2.1 Pa was investigated by means of energy-resolved mass spectrometry. An unbalanced 2 inch magnetron operated in direct current mode with a power of 150 W (typical operation voltage V) was em...
Article
Mass and energy distribution of positively and negatively charged small cluster ions consisting of up to six atoms sputtered from a GaAs(100) surface after 150 keV Ar⁺ ion bombardment are reported. Positively charged ions contain a larger fraction of Ga atoms while negatively charged ions are rich in As. Measured energy distributions display a maxi...
Article
Angular distribution measurements have been carried out during High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) of a titanium target and deposition of titanium and titanium oxide films. The HiPIMS system was operated at a repetition frequency f = 100 Hz with a duty cycle of 1%. Langmuir probe diagnostics has been carried out at a distance of 7.5 cm...
Article
Full-text available
We report the self-buckling (or peeling off) of cubic Cu3N films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering of a Cu target in a nitrogen environment at a gas pressure of 1 Pa. The deposited layer partially peels off as it is exposed to ambient air at atmospheric pressure, but still adheres to the substrate. The chemical composition of the thin film as in...
Article
Plasma chemical reactions in complex Ar/C2H2 and Ar/C2H2/O2 radiofrequency plasmas with formation of nano-particles are investigated. Growing nano-particles cause a growth instability, which leads to temporal variations and a cyclic behaviour of plasma properties. Mass spectrometric observations show the consumption of C2H2 and the formation of pol...
Chapter
The chapter is devoted to the basic processes during nanoparticle synthesis in a gas aggregation system. The kinetic energy of atoms and small aggregates is a key parameter that determines coagulation and growth processes. Cluster synthesis in the aggregation region is significantly enhanced if the kinetic energy is reduced and the particles have e...
Article
Optical emission and absorption spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the instability of acetylene-containing dusty plasmas induced by growing nano-particles. The density of Ar(1s5) metastable atoms was derived by two methods: tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and with the help of the branching ratio method of emitted spectral lin...
Article
Full-text available
Plasma polymerized a-C:H thin films have been deposited on Si (100) and aluminum coated glass substrates by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated at medium pressure using C₂H m /Ar (m = 2, 4, 6) gas mixtures. The deposited films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FT-IRRAS), Raman spectroscop...
Article
Full-text available
In the present article, the effect of magnetic field design on electron and ion properties in both a metallic Ti/Ar and a reactive Ti/Ar + O2 high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges is investigated. For the purpose, a variable magnetron with defined imbalance and geometrical coefficients K and &${{K}_{\text{G}}}$ ;, respectively...
Article
Metal nanoparticles embedded into a semiconductive matrix represent a promising material for widely sought advanced technological applications. We focused our interest on the preparation of TiO2 matrix with embedded Cu nanoparticles. In particular, we studied the effect of reactive discharge (Ar/O2) exposition on copper oxidation, which can result...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Organic polymer thin films have been deposited on Si(100) and aluminum coated glass substrates by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated at medium pressure using different C2Hm /N2 (m = 2, 4, 6) gas mixtures. The deposited films were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption...
Article
We report the difference in electronic bond structure and surface chemical property of amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) film as a function of N/C which has been deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and DC magnetron (dc-MS) plasma. The spectroscopic analyses suggest that the presence of oxide layer is the major cause for the...
Article
Full-text available
The atmospheric effect correction of the muon flux measured by ground level telescopes is of special importance for further study of cosmic ray variations. The Duperier method is used to correct atmospheric effects on the muon intensity observed by the MuSTAnG telescope. Linear multiple correlation and regression analysis are applied to the data re...
Article
Full-text available
Non-thermal plasma jets that are operated in ambient air are currently mostly investigated for applications in plasma medicine. However, plasmas that can be operated at atmospheric pressure in air also offer an appealing method for surface modifications and coatings. Low temperatures that are achieved with plasma jets encourage in particular the tr...
Article
Full-text available
The example of a gas flowing through an orifice into the surrounding rarefied space is used to demonstrate the possibility of using clusters for diagnosing gas flows. For the conditions studied (it takes a cluster velocity about the same time to relax to the gas velocity as it does to reach the orifice), information on the flow parameters inside th...
Article
Full-text available
Absolute cross sections for positive and negative ion fragments formed from O2 molecules following collisions with H+, H2+, He+, and Ar+ projectiles in the energy range 50–350 keV are presented. Cross sections for negatively charged secondary ions are much smaller ( cm2) compared to those for positively charged fragments. The non-dissociative forma...
Article
The paper is focused on investigation of enhanced metal (Cu) cluster growth in a source of Haberland's type using pulsed gas aggregation. The aggregation Ar gas was delivered into the cluster source in a pulse regime, which results in the formation of well pronounced aggregation pressure peaks. The pressure peaks were varied by varying the differen...
Article
Atmospheric pressure plasmas are an appealing alternative for surface treatments. An advantage offered by nonthermal plasmas in particular is the modification of temperature sensitive materials. Here, we present copper coatings on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene that were achieved with a nonthermal dc operated air plasma jet.
Article
Plasma chemical reactions in CH4/Ar and C2Hm/Ar (m = 2, 4, 6) gas mixtures in a dielectric barrier discharge at medium pressure (300 mbar) have been investigated. From mass spectrometry the production of H2 and formation of larger hydrocarbons such as CnHm with up to n = 12 is inferred. Hydrogen release is most pronounced for CH4 and C2H6 gas mixtu...
Article
Full-text available
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of \(\hbox {CH}_{4}/\hbox {N}_{2}\) and \(\hbox {C}_{2}\hbox {H}_{m}/\hbox {N}_2\) ( \(m = 2, 4, 6\) ) gas mixtures in a medium pressure (300 mbar) dielectric barrier discharge was performed. Consumption of the initial gas and formation of other hydrocarbon and of nitrogen-containing HCN and \(\hbox...
Article
Growth of Cu nanoparticles in a pulsed gas aggregation cluster source was studied. The cluster growth is enhanced by an energy transport inside the aggregation chamber fed by argon that is delivered in short pulses repeated with low frequency. The effect of pressure, varied during the pulse, on the cluster growth was estimated from time-resolved me...
Article
The metal ionized flux fraction and production of double charged metal ions Me 2+ of different materials (Al, Cu, Fe, Ti) by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) operated with and without a pre-ionization assistance is compared in the paper. The Electron Cyclotron Wave Resonance (ECWR) discharge was employed as the pre-ionization agent...
Article
We report the design and development of a simple, electrically low powered and fast heating versatile electron beam annealing setup (up to 1000 °C) working with ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber for annealing thin films and multilayer structures. The important features of the system are constant temperature control in UHV conditions for the temperatu...
Article
Formation of Ti–Cu thin films with regard to controlling the copper release is reported in the paper. Copper released from films can inhibit bacterial colonization and can be utilized as an implant surface modification. The copper release has to be controlled (i) to repress the bacteria growth and (ii) to balance the Cu level tolerated by osteoblas...
Article
Full-text available
Time-resolved measurements have been performed during dual High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (dual-HiPIMS) with two cathodes in a closed magnetic field configuration. The dual-HiPIMS system, operated at a repetition frequency f = 100 Hz and duty cycle of 1 %, was equipped with two different metallic targets (Ti, Cu). The effect of a delay bet...
Article
The binary collision-based two dimensional SDTrimSP-2D model has been used to simulate the erosion process of a Cu target and its influence on the operational limit of a planar DC magnetron nanocluster source. The density of free metal atoms in the aggregation region influences the cluster formation and cluster intensity during the target lifetime....
Article
The high power impulse magnetron sputtering deposition system (HiPIMS) equipped with 5 cm in diameter titanium target has been investigated by means of time-resolved modified Katsumata probe. The probe allows for determination of the ion velocity distribution function. However, the modified Katsumata probe is unable to resolve the mass of ions. On...
Article
Ambient air species, which are transported into the active effluent of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet result in highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Especially for the envisaged application field of plasma medicine, these RONS are responsible for strong biological responses. In this work, the effect of ambient air transport into...
Article
Full-text available
Reabsorption of the emitted light in the plasma volume has recently been used for density measurements of the lower level of optical transition by interpretation of emission spectra employing the escape factor concept. Following this idea, we apply this method to a radio-frequency argon discharge. By revising the theoretical background, the impact...
Article
Full-text available
The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) for mass-selected copper cluster ions with a diameter in the range 5–10 nm. The cluster ion beam is produced by a dc magnetron-based gas aggregation source. The measurements are carried out by means of a quadrupole mass filter combined with a basic r...
Article
Positively charged, branched polyethylenimine (PEI) adsorbed onto silicon wafers and silica surfaces are attacked by free hydroxyl radicals. With AFM colloid probe technique, the surface forces between PEI layers are measured. Force profiles show that an electrostatic repulsion dominates the surface forces between freshly deposited PEI layers. Afte...
Article
The effect of energetic ion bombardment on TiO2 crystallographic phase formation was studied. Films were deposited using high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) assisted by an electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) plasma. The ECWR assistance allows a significant reduction of pressure down to 0.075 Pa during reactive HiPIMS deposition an...
Article
The temperature effect of the muon cosmic ray (CR) component is studied using the MUSTANG super telescope data (Greifswald, Germany) from 2007 throughout its period of operation. The original hourly data obtained with the telescope are adjusted for the temperature effect using a vertical atmospheric temperature profile at standard isobaric levels d...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate directional sensitivity of MuSTAnG muon telescope by deriving the distribution of secondary muons, which create the counting rate of telescope, by asymptotic directions of primary protons. This distribution, defined as "directivity function", allows us to clarify protons appearing from which direction essentially contribute to counti...
Article
The paper focuses on time-resolved diagnostics of unipolar hybrid-dual-High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (hybrid-dual-HiPIMS) discharges. The newly developed sputtering system is based on a combination of dual-HiPIMS with a mid-frequency (MF) discharge. The most important feature of hybrid-dual-HiPIMS systems is the MF pre-ionization which ca...
Article
Full-text available
A research of the temperature effect of the muon cosmic ray (CR) component on the MuSTAnG super telescope data (Greifswald, Germany) for the whole period of its work (from 2007) was carried out. The primary hourly telescope's data were corrected for the temperature effect, using vertical temperature atmospheric profile at the standard isobaric leve...
Article
Full-text available
The formation of superoxide O2− anions by collisions of energetic Ar+ ions with oxygen molecules at impact energies of 50–350 keV is reported. Cross sections are about 2 orders of magnitude smaller compared to O2+ ion formation, which is attributed to the larger energy transfer required.
Article
Full-text available
Copper (Cu) could serve as antibacterial coating for Ti6Al4V implants. An additional cell-adhesive layer might compensate Cu cytotoxicity. This study aimed at in vitro and in vivo evaluation of low-temperature plasma treatment of Ti6Al4V plates with Ti/Cu magnetron sputtering (Ti6Al4V-Ti/Cu), plasma-polymerized ethylenediamine (Ti6Al4V-PPEDA), or b...
Article
We report the optical and electrical band gap energy of amorphous hydrogenated carbon nitride (a-HCNx) and carbon nitride (a-CNx) as a function of nitrogen concentration (N/C). The optical band gap of a-HCNx and a-CNx films has been determined by means of Ellipsometry and UV–VIS. Both optical and electrical band gaps increase with elevated nitrogen...
Article
Full-text available
Implants serve in orthopedic surgery first and foremost in the care of fractures, bone defects and degenerative changes in joints. Depending upon their purpose, the implants remain in the body either temporarily or permanently. In the case of permanent implants like an artificial joint replacement, permanent integration in the bone is necessary. Fo...
Article
The antibacterial effect of thin titanium-copper (Ti-Cu) films combined with sufficient growth of human osteoblastic cells is reported in the paper. Thin Ti-Cu films were prepared by three different plasma-assisted magnetron sputtering methods: direct current magnetron sputtering (dc-MS), dual magnetron sputtering (dual-MS) as well as dual high pow...