Raghavendra U

Raghavendra U
Manipal Institute of Technology

B.E. M. Tech., Ph.D.

About

68
Publications
39,841
Reads
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2,325
Citations
Citations since 2017
53 Research Items
2295 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
Introduction
Raghavendra U currently working as Associate Professor in the Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal. His Research interests are Medical image analysis, Early detection of chronic diseases.
Additional affiliations
July 2014 - present
Manipal Institute of Technology Manipal
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
July 2014 - present
Manipal Institute of Technology
Position
  • Researcher
July 2014 - March 2016
Manipal Academy of Higher Education
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
November 2010 - June 2014
Manipal Academy of Higher Education
Field of study
  • Doctor of Philosophy
September 2008 - October 2010
NMAM Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Master of Technology
June 2002 - September 2006
Anjuman Institute of Technology and Management
Anjuman Institute of Technology and Management
Field of study
  • Bachelor of Engineering

Publications

Publications (68)
Article
Full-text available
Intracranial tumors arise from constituents of the brain and its meninges. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common adult primary intracranial neoplasm and is categorized as high‐grade astrocytoma according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The survival rate for 5 and 10 years after diagnosis is under 10%, contributing to its grave prognosis. Ea...
Article
The management of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) requires prompt diagnostic assessment and recognition. Accurate localization and categorization of ICH-type is crucial. There are two main categories of ICH: 1) hemorrhagic stroke (HS), which occurs in the deeper or subcortical regions of the brain, where the arterial network tapers to fine end-arter...
Article
Full-text available
Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. At least 45% of deaths due to heart disease and 51% of deaths due to stroke are the result of hypertension. According to research on the prevalence and absolute burden of HTN in India, HTN positively correlated with age and was present in 20.6% of men and 20.9% of women. It was...
Article
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Cardiac pacemakers are used in the treatment of patients with symptomatic bradycardia. The pacemaker paces the heart at the predetermined rate to maintain uninterrupted cardiac activity. Usually, pacemaker lead will be connected to the right atrium (RA) and right ventricle (RV) in dual-chamber pacemaker implantation and RV alone in single-chamber p...
Article
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The fetal echocardiogram is useful for monitoring and diagnosing cardiovascular diseases in the fetus in utero. Importantly, it can be used for assessing prenatal congenital heart disease, for which timely intervention can improve the unborn child’s outcomes. In this regard, artificial intelligence (AI) can be used for the automatic analysis of fet...
Article
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic disorder that exhibits a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, including sudden death. Early diagnosis and intervention may avert the latter. Left ventricular hypertrophy on heart imaging is an important diagnostic criterion for HCM, and the most common imaging modality is heart ultrasound (US). The...
Article
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The public health is significantly affected by development of brain tumors in human patients. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a relatively common, malignant form of brain tumor, which is currently challenging to treat and cure. In contrast, Lower Grade Gliomas (LGGs) originate from glial cells and can mostly be treated and cured in the initial stages if they...
Article
Background : Human emotions greatly affect the actions of a person. The automated emotion recognition has applications in multiple domains such as health care, e-learning, surveillance, etc. The development of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tools has led to the automated recognition of human emotions. Objective : This review paper provides an insi...
Article
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The present study evaluated a newly developed computational tool (CT) to assess the alveolar bone space and the alveolar crest angle and compares it to dentist assessment (GT). The novel tool consisted of a set of processes initiated with image enhancement, points localization, and angle and area calculations. In total, we analyzed 148 sites in 39...
Article
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Automated crowd behaviour analysis and monitoring is a challenging task due to the unpredictable nature of the crowd within a particular scene and across different scenes. The prior knowledge of the type of scene under consideration is a crucial mid-level information, which could be utilized to develop robust crowd behaviour analysis systems. In th...
Article
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Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a devastating and life-threatening medical condition that can result in long-term physical and mental disabilities and even death. Early and accurate detection of Intracranial Hemorrhage (ICH) in TBI is crucial for analysis and treatment, as the condition can deteriorate significantly with time. Hence, a rapid, relia...
Article
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Medical imaging is a useful tool for disease detection and diagnostic imaging technology has enabled early diagnosis of medical conditions. Manual image analysis methods are labor-intense and they are susceptible to intra as well as inter-observer variability. Automated medical image analysis techniques can overcome these limitations. In this revie...
Article
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Amongst the most common causes of death globally, stroke is one of top three affecting over 100 million people worldwide annually. There are two classes of stroke, namely ischemic stroke (due to impairment of blood supply, accounting for ~70% of all strokes) and hemorrhagic stroke (due to bleeding), both of which can result, if untreated, in perman...
Article
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The global pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused millions of deaths and affected the livelihood of many more people. Early and rapid detection of COVID-19 is a challenging task for the medical community, but it is also crucial in stopping the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Prior substantiation of artificial intelligence (AI) in var...
Article
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Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its underlying histopathology is the atherosclerotic plaque, which comprises lipid, fibrous and—when chronic—calcium components. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) performed during invasive coronary angiography are refe...
Data
In this paper, we have categorized the 300 video clips into 8 different categories: cross walk, escalator, market, mass movement, public walkway, shopping mall, station, and street. We also categorize the scenes into: structured-unstructured and indoor-outdoor. The file CUHK_300_category_info.xlsx contains all the category-wise details. The las...
Article
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Purpose: Accurate and early detection of breast cancer using effective imaging modalities is an active area of research in medical image analysis. Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) of breast cancer using digital mammograms may help in early diagnosis and can assist in maintaining patient health. The breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) is...
Article
Full-text available
Nearly 264 million people around the globe currently suffer from clinical depression, according to the World Health Organization. Although there are diagnostic techniques and treatments presently used by professionals, they are not always helpful. Herein, we suggest the use of advanced technological methods to diagnose depressed patients correctly....
Article
Full-text available
Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive disease affecting more than twenty million individuals in the United States. Disease progression is often characterized by complications such as cardiovascular diseases, anemia, hyperlipidemia and metabolic bone diseases etc., Based on estimated GFR values, the disease is categorized in 5 stages which s...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs due to the disruption in the normal functioning of the brain by sudden external forces. The primary and secondary injuries due to TBI include intracranial hematoma (ICH), raised intracranial pressure (ICP), and midline shift (MLS), which can result in significant lifetime disabilities and death. Hence, early diag...
Article
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Papillary breast lesions include a wide spectrum of pathologies ranging from benign to malignant. The word papillary originates from finger-like projections, or papules, which are seen when these lesions are projected under a microscope. Papillary breast lesions have an array of radiological features at presentations; hence differentiation between...
Article
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Brain stroke is an emergency medical condition which occurs mainly due to insufficient blood flow to the brain. It results in permanent cellular-level damage. There are two main types of brain stroke, ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic brain stroke is caused by a lack of blood flow, and the haemorrhagic form is due to internal bleeding. The affecte...
Article
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In the presence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the fetus is exposed to a hyperin-sulinemia environment. This environment can cause a wide range of metabolic and fetal cardiac structural alterations. Fetal myocardial hypertrophy predominantly affecting the interventricular septum possess a morphology of disarray similar to hypertrophic card...
Article
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Motion pattern segmentation for crowded video scenes is an open problem because of the inability of existing approaches to tackle unpredictable crowd behaviour across varied scenes. To address this problem, we propose a Spatio-Angular Density-based Clustering (SADC) approach, which performs motion pattern segmentation by clustering the spatial and...
Article
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An automated detection system for Parkinson’s disease (PD) employing the convolutional neural network (CNN) is proposed in this study. PD is characterized by the gradual degradation of motor function in the brain. Since it is related to the brain abnormality, electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are usually considered for the early diagnosis. In this...
Article
Retinal detachment (RD) is an ocular emergency, which needs quick intervention to preclude permanent vision loss. In general, ocular ultrasound is used by ophthalmologists to enhance their judgment in detecting RD in eyes with media opacities which precludes the retinal evaluation. However, the quality of ultrasound (US) images may be degraded due...
Article
Computer aided diagnostic (CAD) has become a significant tool in expanding patient quality-of-life by reducing human errors in diagnosis. CAD can expedite decision-making on complex clinical data automatically. Since brain diseases can be fatal, rapid identification of brain pathology to prolong patient life is an important research topic. Many alg...
Article
Background: Authors have been advocating the research ideology that a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system trained using lots of patient data and physiological signals and images based on adroit integration of advanced signal processing and artificial intelligence (AI)/machine learning techniques in an automated fashion can assist neurologists, ne...
Article
Breast cancer is a cancer that can form in the cells of breasts. It is much more common in females than in males. The most common periods of cancer development are during puberty, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. Thermography can be utilized for breast analysis, and provides useful data on the location of hyperthermia and the vascular state of the tis...
Article
Full-text available
Glaucoma is a type of eye condition which may result in partial or consummate vision loss. Higher intraocular pressure is the leading cause for this condition. Screening for glaucoma and early detection can avert vision loss. Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) is an automated process with the potential to identify glaucoma early through quantitative an...
Article
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure. Echocardiography, or cardiac ultrasound, is a helpful imaging tool to screen for PH. However, expert interpretation is required for successful screening. Development of a more automated method for diagnosis of PH would be useful to minimize error, thereby improvin...
Article
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Medical imaging and analysis are useful to visualize anatomic structure. However, analysis of pathologic substrate is difficult and inefficient when using simple imaging tools. The manual detection and classification of brain abnormality is particularly tedious. Moreover, the currently used methodology suffers from inter observer variability during...
Article
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Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is one of the significant modules of an intelligent transportation system. It instantly assists the drivers to efficiently recognize the traffic sign. Recognition of traffic sign is a large-scale feature learning problem with different real-world appearances. The main goal of this paper is to develop an efficient TSR...
Article
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Liver fibrosis is a type of chronic liver injury that is characterized by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix protein. Early detection of liver fibrosis may prevent further growth toward liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the past, the only method to assess liver fibrosis was through biopsy, but this examination is invasiv...
Article
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Neurological disorders are abnormalities related to the human nervous system, and comprise electrical, biochemical, or structural changes in the spinal cord, brain, or central nerve system that induce various symptoms. These symptoms may be in the form of muscle weakness, paralysis, and poor coordination, among other factors. Early diagnosis of the...
Article
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Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is an eye condition that affects the elderly. Further, the prevalence of AMD is rising because of the aging population in the society. Therefore, early detection is necessary to prevent vision impairment in the elderly. However, organizing a comprehensive eye screening to detect AMD in the elderly is laborious...
Article
A damage to the spinal cord can affect its natural functioning both temporarily or permanently resulting in loss of sensation and functioning of muscles. Spinal cord injury occurs due to vertebral fractures, especially in thoracolumbar junction. Early detection and treatment of spinal cord injury can help to improve the neurological status. Compute...
Article
Atherosclerosis is a type of cardiovascular disease which may cause stroke. It is due to the deposition of fatty plaque in the artery walls resulting in the reduction of elasticity gradually and hence restricting the blood flow to the heart. Hence, an early prediction of carotid plaque deposition is important, as it can save lives. This paper propo...
Article
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Ovarian cancer is one of the prime causes of mortality in women. Diagnosis of ovarian cancer using ultrasonography is tedious as ovarian tumors exhibit minute clinical and structural differences between the suspicious and non-suspicious classes. Early prediction of ovarian cancer will reduce its growth rate and may save many lives. Computer-aided d...
Article
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Glaucoma progressively affects the optic nerve and may cause partial or complete vision loss. Raised intravascular pressure is the only factor which can be modified to prevent blindness from this condition. Accurate early detection and continuous screening may prevent the vision loss. Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) is a non-invasive technique which...
Article
Ultrasound imaging is one of the most common visualizing tools used by radiologists to identify the location of thyroid nodules. However, visual assessment of nodules is difficult and often affected by inter- and intra-observer variabilities. Thus, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system can be helpful to cross-verify the severity of nodules. This...
Article
Full-text available
Glaucoma is the prime cause of blindness and early detection of it may prevent patients from vision loss. An expert system plays a vital role in glaucoma screening, which assist the ophthalmologists to make accurate decision. This paper proposes a novel technique for glaucoma detection using optic disk localization and non-parametric GIST descripto...
Article
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Heart is one of the important as well as hardest working organ of human body. Cardiac ischemia is the condition where sufficient blood and oxygen will not reach the heart muscle due to narrowed arteries of the heart. This condition is called coronary artery disease. Several non-invasive diagnostic tests fail to reveal exact impact of coronary arter...
Article
Full-text available
Heart is an important and hardest working muscular organ of the human body. Inability of the heart to restore normal perfusion to the entire body refers to cardiac failure, which then with symptoms results in manifestation of congestive heart failure (CHF). Impairment in systolic function associated with chronic dilation of left ventricle is referr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Crowd density estimation is an effective automated video surveillance technique to ensure crowd safety. In spite of various efforts being taken to estimate crowd density, it remains a challenging task. This paper proposes a new texture feature-based approach for the estimation of crowd density where two efficient texture features namely Local Binar...
Article
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Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VFib) are the life-threatening shockable arrhythmias which require immediate attention. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation are highly recommended means of immediate treatment of these shockable arrhythmias and to resume spontaneous circulation. However, to increase effic...
Article
Full-text available
Vision is paramount to humans to lead an active personal and professional life. The prevalence of ocular diseases is rising, and diseases such as glaucoma, Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) are the leading causes of blindness in developed countries. Identifying these diseases in mass screening programmes is time-c...
Article
Full-text available
Aging is the prime cause of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). There are primarily two types of ARMD: (i) dry, and (ii) wet. The dry ARMD is the common form of ARMD and caused due to the thinning of retinal pigment epithelial cells in the macula. It typically starts with the formation of small pale yellowish deposits called drusen under the r...
Article
Full-text available
Automatic detection and recognition of traffic sign has been a topic of great interest in advanced driver assistance system. It enhances vehicle and driver safety by providing the condition and state of the road to the drivers. However, visual occlusion and ambiguities in the real-world scenario make the traffic sign recognition a challenging task....
Article
Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is considered as one of the most important modules of driver assistance system (DAS). It can be used as a decision supporting tool for driver and autonomous vehicles. Eventually, TSR is a large-scale feature learning problem and hence attracted the attention of researchers recently. The essential parameters such as hu...
Article
Thyroid is a small gland situated at the anterior side of the neck and one of the largest glands of the endocrine system. The abrupt cell growth or malignancy in the thyroid gland may cause thyroid cancer. Ultrasound images distinctly represent benign and malignant lesions, but accuracy may be poor due to subjective interpretation. Computer Aided D...
Article
Source camera identification is one of the emerging field in digital image forensics, which aims at identifying the source camera used for capturing the given image. The technique uses Photo Response Non-Uniformity (PRNU) noise as a camera fingerprint, as it is found to be one of the unique characteristic which is capable of distinguishing the imag...
Article
Full-text available
Fatty liver disease (FLD) is reversible disease and can be treated, if it is identified at an early stage. However, if diagnosed at the later stage, it can progress to an advanced liver disease such as cirrhosis which may ultimately lead to death. Therefore, it is essential to detect it at an early stage before the disease progresses to an irrevers...
Article
Breast cancer is one of the prime causes of death in women worldwide. Thermography has shown a great potential in screening the breast cancer and overcomes the limitations of mammography. Moreover, interpretations of thermogram images are dependent on the specialists, which may lead to errors and uneven results. Preliminary screening method should...
Article
Full-text available
Breast cancer is one of the prime causes of death in women. Early detection may help to improve the survival rate to a great extent. Mammography is considered as one of the most reliable methods to prescreen of breast cancer. However, reading the mammograms by radiologists is laborious, taxing, and prone to intra/inter observer variability errors....
Conference Paper
Source camera identification process plays a major role in digital image forensics, which identifies the source camera used for capturing the given image. The state-of-the-art methods for source camera identification are mainly based on identifying the demosaicing artifacts, sensor noise based artifacts or by using image features from spatial/frequ...
Article
Steatosis or fatty liver disease (FLD) is characterized by the abnormal retention of large vacuoles of neutral fat in the liver cells, either due to alcoholism or metabolic syndrome. Succession of FLD can lead to severe liver diseases such as heptocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis and hepatic inflammation but it is a reversible disease if diagnosed ear...
Article
Evidently, Intelligent Transport System (ITS) has progressed tremendously all its way. The core of ITS are detection and recognition of traffic sign, which are designated to fulfill safety and comfort needs of driver. This paper provides a critical review on three major steps in Automatic Traffic Sign Detection and Recognition(ATSDR) system i.e., s...
Article
Real-time navigation of mobile robot in an unconstrained environment is a challenging area of research and it has several applications such as autonomous systems, military applications, security systems, etc. State-of-the-art stereo vision-based robot navigation system uses a specific stereo matching algorithm during complete navigation, which fail...