Raffael Kalisch

Raffael Kalisch
EU Horizon2020 project DynaMORE (Dynamic MOdelling of REsilience) · Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research (LIR) Mainz

PhD, Professor

About

167
Publications
59,999
Reads
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9,954
Citations
Introduction
I am interested in neuro-cognitive mechanisms contributing to resilience to the effects of trauma, stress, adversity. Knowledge of these protective mechanisms will show new ways to improve the prevention and therapy of stress-related mental dysfunction and disorders like PTSD, anxiety or depression. My focus is on safety learning mechanisms (e.g., fear extinction) and on cognitive emotion regulation processes (e.g., reappraisal). German readers, see "Der resiliente Mensch" (Piper-Verlag).
Additional affiliations
April 2018 - present
EU Horizon2020 project DynaMORE (Dynamic MOdelling of REsilience)
Position
  • Manager
September 2016 - September 2018
International Resilience Alliance, intresa
Position
  • Founding spokesperson
July 2016 - present
Johannes Gutenberg University
Position
  • Deputy Spokesperson
Education
November 1998 - February 2002
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry
Field of study
  • Neuroimaging
August 1997 - April 1998
Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris
Field of study
  • Diploma thesis (Biologie cellulaire)
October 1996 - June 1997
Université Paris VII - Denis Diderot
Field of study
  • Biologie Cellulaire et Physiologie

Publications

Publications (167)
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic events can engender persistent excessive fear responses to trauma reminders that may return even after successful treatment. Extinction, the laboratory analog of behavior therapy, does not erase conditioned fear memories but generates competing, fear-inhibitory "extinction memories" that, however, are tied to the context in which extincti...
Article
Full-text available
The well-replicated observation that many people maintain mental health despite exposure to severe psychological or physical adversity has ignited interest in the mechanisms that protect against stress-related mental illness. Focusing on resilience rather than pathophysiology in many ways represents a paradigm shift in clinical-psychological and ps...
Article
Full-text available
p>Consistent failure over the past few decades to reduce the high prevalence of stress-related disorders has motivated a search for alternative research strategies. Resilience refers to the phenomenon of many people maintaining mental health despite exposure to psychological or physical adversity. Instead of aiming to understand the pathophysiology...
Article
Full-text available
Fear extinction does not prevent post-traumatic stress or have long-term therapeutic benefits in fear-related disorders unless extinction memories are easily retrieved at later encounters with the once-threatening stimulus. Previous research in rodents has pointed towards a role for spontaneous prefrontal activity occurring after extinction learnin...
Article
It is a joyous relief when an event we dread fails to materialize. In fear extinction, the appetitive nature of an omitted aversive event is not a mere epiphenomenon but drives the reduction of fear responses and the formation of long-term extinction memories. Dopamine emerges as key neurobiological mediator of these related processes.
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic is a global stressor with inter-individually differing influences on mental health trajectories. Polygenic Risk Scores (PRSs) for psychiatric phenotypes are associated with individual mental health predispositions. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) and high PRSs are related to negative mental health outcomes. We anal...
Article
Full-text available
Stress-related psychopathology is on the rise, and there is a pressing need for improved prevention strategies. Positive appraisal style, the tendency to appraise potentially threatening situations in a positive way, has been proposed to act as a key resilience mechanism and therefore offers a potential target for preventive approaches. In this art...
Article
Full-text available
Background Healthcare workers (HCWs) from COVID-19 hotspots worldwide have reported poor mental health outcomes since the pandemic's beginning. The virulence of the initial COVID-19 surge in Spain and the urgency for rapid evidence constrained early studies in their capacity to inform mental health programs accurately. Here, we used a qualitative r...
Article
Full-text available
Substantial evidence shows that physical activity and fitness play a protective role in the development of stress related disorders. However, the beneficial effects of fitness for resilience to modern life stress are not fully understood. Potentially protective effects may be attributed to enhanced resilience via underlying psychosocial mechanisms...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Stress-related mental disorders are highly prevalent and pose a significant burden on individuals and society. Improving strategies of their treatment and prevention requires knowledge about risk and resilience. This multi-center study aims to contribute to this endeavor by investigating psychological resilience in healthy, but vulnerabl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recently, cross-sectional relationships between psycho-social resilience factors (RFs) and resilience, operationalized as an outcome of low reactivity of mental health to stressor exposure (low ‘stressor reactivity’) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, were reported. Extending these findings, we here examine prospective relationships an...
Preprint
Recently, cross-sectional relationships between psycho-social resilience factors (RFs) and resilience, operationalized as an outcome of low reactivity of mental health to stressor exposure (low ‘stressor reactivity’) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, were reported. Extending these findings, we here examine prospective relationships an...
Article
Full-text available
Deep learning approaches can uncover complex patterns in data. In particular, variational autoencoders achieve this by a non-linear mapping of data into a low-dimensional latent space. Motivated by an application to psychological resilience in the Mainz Resilience Project, which features intermittent longitudinal measurements of stressors and menta...
Preprint
The Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), which aims to assess state (STAI-S) and trait anxiety (STAI-T), is the most cited measure of trait anxiety and employed in a wide variety of research contexts over 50 years. Psychometric properties are key criteria for the assessment of questionnaires. For the STAI-T, data on reliability are cur...
Preprint
Background: Positive prospective mental imagery plays an important role in mental well-being, and depressive symptoms have been associated with difficulties in generating positive prospective mental images (PPMIs). We used a mobile app to gather PPMIs generated by young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and analyzed content, characteristics, and...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic might affect mental health. Data from population-representative panel surveys with multiple waves including pre-COVID data investigating risk and protective factors are still rare. Methods: In a stratified random sample of the German household population (n = 6684), we conducted survey...
Preprint
The dopamine precursor L-DOPA is a promising adjunct to exposure therapy in anxiety disorders. In two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies we previously showed that a post-extinction administration of L-DOPA reduces the return of fear. However, when aiming to replicate these results outside the MRI scanner, we found weaker effects – albeit with...
Preprint
Introduction: Robust sensitivity to reward may help preserve positive emotions in the face of adversity and has been proposed as a key resilience factor. We describe the development, feasibility, and efficacy of an mHealth application, Imager, which targets reward sensitivity by training individuals to create mental images of future rewarding exper...
Preprint
Full-text available
When modeling longitudinal biomedical data, often dimensionality reduction as well as dynamic modeling in the resulting latent representation is needed. This can be achieved by artificial neural networks for dimension reduction, and differential equations for dynamic modeling of individual-level trajectories. However, such approaches so far assume...
Preprint
Full-text available
Stress-related mental disorders are highly prevalent and pose a significant burden on individuals and society. Improving strategies of their treatment and prevention requires knowledge about risk and resilience. This multi-center study aims to contribute to this endeavor by investigating psychological resilience in healthy, but vulnerable young adu...
Article
Full-text available
Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic might affect mental health. Data from population-representative panel surveys with multiple waves including pre-COVID data investigating risk and protective factors are still rare. Methods In a stratified random sample of the German household population (n = 6684), we conducted survey-wei...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic might affect mental health. Data from population-representative panel surveys with multiple waves including pre-COVID data investigating risk and protective factors are still rare.Methods: In a stratified random sample of the German household population (n=6,684), we conducted survey-weighted multiple linear regres...
Article
Full-text available
Resilience is the maintenance and/or quick recovery of mental health during and after periods of adversity. It is conceptualized to result from a dynamic process of successful adaptation to stressors. Up to now, a large number of resilience factors have been proposed, but the mechanisms underlying resilience are not yet understood. To shed light on...
Article
Full-text available
Background In a recent cross-sectional study, we highlighted psychosocial resilience factors associated with good mental health during the first COVID-19-lockdown. However, dynamic concepts of resilience suggest that people’s response to adversity can change over time. To better understand the emergence of resilience, we here examined individual dy...
Article
Full-text available
The cell–cell signaling gene CDH13 is associated with a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, and major depression. CDH13 regulates axonal outgrowth and synapse formation, substantiating its relevance for neurodevelopmental processes. Several studies support the influence of...
Article
Full-text available
Resilience has been defined as the maintenance or quick recovery of mental health during and after times of adversity. How to operationalize resilience and to determine the factors and processes that lead to good long-term mental health outcomes in stressor-exposed individuals is a matter of ongoing debate and of critical importance for the advance...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting measures can be regarded as a global stressor. Cross-sectional studies showed rather negative impacts on people’s mental health, while longitudinal studies considering pre-lockdown data are still scarce. The present study investigated the impact of COVID-19 related lockdown measures in a longitudinal German sampl...
Article
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Einleitung Eine wachsende Zahl psychologischer Behandlungsangebote erfolgt über das Smartphone, bzw. über Apps. Viele der wissenschaftlich geprüften Apps basieren auf den Prinzipien der kognitiven Verhaltenstherapie (KVT), Goldstandard zur Behandlung vieler psychischer Problematiken. Ziel dieses Reviews war es, den Status Quo der Fo...
Article
Chronic social defeat (CSD) in mice has been increasingly employed in experimental resilience research. Particularly, the degree of CSD-induced social avoidance is used to classify animals into resilient (non-avoidant) versus susceptible (avoidant). Inspired by human data pointing to threat-safety discrimination and responsiveness to extinction tra...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, the authors show how studying stressor appraisal and resulting adaptive coping potentially provides a parsimonious explanation of psychological resilience. Extra-individual factors such as social support, favorable environmental conditions, or positive cultural influences have all been found to be associated with people maintaining...
Article
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Psychische Erkrankungen, insbesondere solche, in denen Stress ein wesentlicher pathogenetischer Faktor ist, gehören zu den häufigsten, belastendsten und kostenintensivsten Erkrankungen unserer Zeit. Andererseits ist psychische Gesundheit trotz häufiger Exposition durch allgegenwärtige Widrigkeiten und Stressoren das weitaus häufiger...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is not only a threat to physical health but is also having severe impacts on mental health. Although increases in stress-related symptomatology and other adverse psycho-social outcomes, as well as their most important risk factors have been described, hardly anything is known about potential protective factors. Resi...
Article
Full-text available
Animal studies have shown that the prediction error (PE) signal that drives fear extinction learning is encoded by phasic activity of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Thus, the extinction PE resembles the appetitive PE that drives reward learning. In humans, fear extinction learning is less well understood. Using computational neuroimaging, a previo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chronic social defeat (CSD) in mice has been increasingly employed in experimental resilience research. Particularly, the degree of CSD-induced social avoidance is used to classify animals into resilient (socially non-avoidant) versus susceptible (avoidant). Inspired by human data pointing to threat-safety discrimination and responsiveness to extin...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A growing number of psychological interventions are delivered via smartphones with the aim of increasing the efficacy and effectiveness of these treatments and providing scalable access to interventions for improving mental health. Most of the scientifically tested apps are based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) principles, which a...
Article
Full-text available
While DNA methylation patterns have been studied for a role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders, the role of the enzymes establishing DNA methylation—DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs)—has yet to be investigated. In an effort to investigate DNMT genotype-specific effects on dimensional anxiety traits in addition to the categorical phenotype of pan...
Article
Full-text available
In humans, monetary reward can promote behavioral performance including response times, accuracy, and subsequent recognition memory. Recent studies have shown that the dopaminergic system plays an essential role here, but the link to interindividual differences remains unclear. To further investigate this issue, we focused on previously described p...
Preprint
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is not only a threat to physical health but is also having severe impacts on mental health. While increases in stress-related symptomatology and other adverse psycho-social outcomes as well as their most important risk factors have been described, hardly anything is known about potential protective factors. Resilience refers...
Preprint
Introduction: A growing number of psychological interventions are delivered via smartphone with the aim to increase the efficacy and effectiveness of these treatments and provide scalable access to interventions for improving mental health. Most of the scientifically tested apps are based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles which are consid...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deep learning approaches can uncover complex patterns in data. In particular, variational autoencoders (VAEs) achieve this by a non-linear mapping of data into a low-dimensional latent space. Motivated by an application to psychological resilience in the Mainz Resilience Project (MARP), which features intermittent longitudinal measurements of stres...
Article
Full-text available
Background A growing number of psychological interventions are delivered via smartphones with the aim of increasing the efficacy and effectiveness of these treatments and providing scalable access to interventions for improving mental health. Most of the scientifically tested apps are based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) principles, which ar...
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence of daily hassles is associated with increased subsequent levels of negative affect. Neuroticism has been found to exacerbate this effect. So far, most research used single‐item measures for the assessment of daily hassles or relied on daily diary studies. This study aimed to examine the interrelations of daily hassles, negative affec...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The current Corona pandemic is not only a threat to physical health. First data from China and Europe indicate that symptoms of anxiety and depression and perceptions of stress rise significantly as a consequence of the pandemic. There are also anecdotal reports of increased domestic violence, divorce, and suicide rates. Hence, the Coron...
Preprint
Full-text available
Resilience has been defined as the maintenance or quick recovery of mental health during and after times of adversity. Such good longer-term mental health outcomes despite adversity presumably result from complex and dynamic processes of adaptation to stressor exposure (‘resilience processes’), which in many cases include changes in individual prop...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Many existing scales for microstressor assessment do not differentiate between objective (ie, observable) stressor events and stressful cognitions or concerns. They often mix items assessing objective stressor events with items measuring other aspects of stress, such as perceived stressor severity, the evoked stress reaction, or furth...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale A promising strategy to prevent a return of fear after exposure-based therapy in anxiety disorders is to pharmacologically enhance the extinction memory consolidation presumed to occur after exposure. Accumulating evidence suggests that the effect of a number of pharmacological consolidation enhancers depends on a successful fear reductio...
Article
Full-text available
Motivated by the recent replicability crisis we tested replicability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) group activations in two independent samples. An identical behavioral and fMRI test battery for the longitudinal investigation of stress resilience mechanisms was developed for the Mainz Resilience Project (MARP) and conducted in a d...
Article
Full-text available
Resilience is still often viewed as a unitary personality construct that, as a kind of antinosological entity, protects individuals against stress-related mental problems. However, increasing evidence indicates that maintaining mental health in the face of adversity results from complex and dynamic processes of adaptation to stressors that involve...
Article
Full-text available
(Accepted version before proof). Resilience is still often viewed as a unitary personality construct that, as a kind of anti-nosological entity, protects individuals against stress-related mental problems. However, increasing evidence indicates that the maintenance of mental health in the face of adversity results from complex and dynamic processes...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Many of the existing scales for microstressor assessment do not differentiate between objective (i. e., observable) stressor events as opposed to stressful cognitions or concerns and often mix these items with other aspects of stress, such as perceived stressor severity, the evoked stress reaction or further consequences on health. This...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many existing scales for microstressor assessment do not differentiate between objective (ie, observable) stressor events and stressful cognitions or concerns. They often mix items assessing objective stressor events with items measuring other aspects of stress, such as perceived stressor severity, the evoked stress reaction, or furthe...
Article
Dopamine dysfunction is associated with a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders commonly treated pharmacologically or invasively. Recent studies provide evidence for a nonpharmacological and noninvasive alternative that allows similar manipulation of the dopaminergic system: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In rodents, tDCS has be...
Article
Full-text available
Preclinical studies point to a pivotal role of the orexin 1 (OX1) receptor in arousal and fear learning and therefore suggest the HCRTR1 gene as a prime candidate in panic disorder (PD) with/without agoraphobia (AG), PD/AG treatment response, and PD/AG-related intermediate phenotypes. Here, a multilevel approach was applied to test the non-synonymo...