Rafał Kozik

Rafał Kozik
University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz · Institute of Telecommunications

Ph.D. Eng.

About

140
Publications
33,341
Reads
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1,050
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2008 - December 2011
University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz

Publications

Publications (140)
Article
Full-text available
Network flow-based cyber anomaly detection is a difficult and complex task. Although several approaches to tackling this problem have been suggested, many research topics remain open. One of these concerns the problem of model transferability. There is a limited number of papers which tackle transfer learning in the context of flow-based network an...
Article
In intelligent information systems data play a critical role. The issue of missing data is one of the commonplace problems occurring in data collected in the real world. The problem stems directly from the very nature of data collection. In this paper, the notion of handling missing values in a real-world application of computational intelligence i...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary cyberthreats continue to evolve, powering the neverending development arms race [...]
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to challenge the prevailing, stereotypical approach of the human aspect of cybersecurity, i.e. treating people as weakness or threat. Instead, several reflections are presented, pertaining to the ways of making cybersecurity human-centred. Design/methodology/approach This paper bases on the authors’ own experie...
Chapter
Currently, the doors are open to novel paradigms of the use of connected technologies. E-commerce and the Internet of Things devices experience substantial growth in popularity. However, this unprecedented increase in popularity comes at a price of a wide attack surface. This paper proposes an efficient Post Event Analysis and Incident Response pro...
Article
The goal of this systematic and broad survey is to present and discuss the main challenges that are posed by the implementation of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in the form of Artificial Neural Networks in Cybersecurity, specifically in Intrusion Detection Systems. Based on the results of the state-of-the-art analysis with a number o...
Article
In recent years, false information has acquired a new significance, with the (in)famous term fake news' entering the collective consciousness. False but controversial or sensational news tends to spread incomparably faster than genuine information. The world has already witnessed how Internet news can help raise the publica's doubt in the actions t...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary Artificial Intelligence methods, especially their subset-deep learning, are finding their way to successful implementations in the detection and classification of intrusions at the network level. This paper presents an intrusion detection mechanism that leverages Deep AutoEncoder and several Deep Decoders for unsupervised classificatio...
Article
Countering the fake news phenomenon has become one of the most important challenges for democratic societies, governments and non-profit organizations, as well as for the researchers coming from several domains. This is not a local problem and demands a holistic approach to analyzing heterogeneous data and storing the results. The research problem...
Article
Fake news detection is a challenging and complex task. Yet, several approaches to deal with this problem have already been proposed. The majority of solutions employ the NLP-based approach, where various architectures of a deep artificial neural network are proposed. However, as the experiments show, different NLP-based solutions have great perform...
Article
Full-text available
This Special Issue aimed to gather high-quality advancements in theoretical and practical aspects of computer recognition, pattern recognition, image processing and machine learning (shallow and deep), including, in particular, novel implementations of these techniques in the areas of modern telecommunications and cybersecurity [...]
Chapter
Cybersecurity is relevant to everyone, as cyberthreat concerns individuals and whole societies, and a precise cyberattack targeted at critical infrastructure may pose danger to millions of citizens. At a European level, several initiatives have aimed at protecting CI, one of them being InfraStress. This paper presents a part of the InfraStress arch...
Chapter
With the advancement of internet technologies, network traffic monitoring and cyber-attack detection are becoming more and more important for critical infrastructure. Unfortunately, there are still relatively few works in the literature that interpret the available benchmark data as data streams and take into account the dynamic characteristics of...
Article
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The ubiquity of social media and their deep integration in the contemporary society has granted new ways to interact, exchange information, form groups, or earn money—all on a scale never seen before. Those possibilities paired with the widespread popularity contribute to the level of impact that social media display. Unfortunately, the benefits br...
Article
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The number of security breaches in the cyberspace is on the rise. This threat is met with intensive work in the intrusion detection research community. To keep the defensive mechanisms up to date and relevant, realistic network traffic datasets are needed. The use of flow-based data for machine-learning-based network intrusion detection is a promis...
Article
Full-text available
Quality assessment of stitched images is an important element of many virtual reality and remote sensing applications where the panoramic images may be used as a background as well as for navigation purposes. The quality of stitched images may be decreased by several factors, including geometric distortions, ghosting, blurring, and color distortion...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet of Things (IoT) appliances often expose sensitive data, either directly or indirectly. They may, for instance, tell whether you are at home right now or what your long or short-term habits are. Therefore, it is crucial to protect such devices against adversaries and has in place an early warning system which indicates compromised devic...
Chapter
Handling the data imbalance problem is one of the crucial steps in a machine learning pipeline. The research community is well aware of the effects of data imbalance on machine learning algorithms. At the same time, there is a rising need for explainability of AI, especially in difficult, high-stake domains like network intrusion detection. In this...
Chapter
The aim of the article is to give the rationale behind employing AI tools to help Law Enforcement Agencies analyze data, based on the existing solution, i.e., the MAGNETO (Multimedia Analysis and correlation enGine for orgaNised crime prevention and investigation) platform. In order to do this, the challenges Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) face wi...
Chapter
E-commerce services have expanded tremendously in the recent years, with market value estimations for cross-border trade reaching well over a hundred billion euro just in the European Union. At the same time, e-commerce-related fraud rate and cybersecurity issues are staggering. With e-commerce clearly gaining the critical infrastructure status, an...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses the valuable role recommender systems may play in cybersecurity. First, a comprehensive presentation of recommender system types is presented, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, possible applications and security concerns. Then, the paper collects and presents the state of the art concerning the use of recommender s...
Article
Full-text available
Recent progress in the area of modern technologies confirms that information is not only a commodity but can also become a tool for competition and rivalry among governments and corporations, or can be applied by ill-willed people to use it in their hate speech practices. The impact of information is overpowering and can lead to many socially undes...
Article
Cybercrime and cybersecurity are like two sides of the same coin: They are opposites but cannot exist without each other. Their mutual relation generates a myriad of ethical issues, ranging from minor to vital. The rapid development of technology will surely involve even more ethical concerns, like the infamous example of a fitness tracking company...
Article
Full-text available
Cybersecurity is an arms race, with both the security and the adversaries attempting to outsmart one another, coming up with new attacks, new ways to defend against those attacks, and again with new ways to circumvent those defences. This situation creates a constant need for novel, realistic cybersecurity datasets. This paper introduces the effect...
Chapter
The article presents models for detecting fake news and the results of the analyzes of the application of these models. The precision, f1-score, recall metrics were proposed as a measure of the model quality assessment. Neural network architectures, based on the state-of-the-art solutions of the Transformer type were applied to create the models. T...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays,the use of digital technologies is promoting three main characteristics of information, i.e. the volume, the modality and the frequency. Due to the amount of information generated by tools and individuals, it has been identified a critical need for the Law Enforcement Agencies to exploit this information and carry out criminal investigatio...
Chapter
Nowadays, law enforcement agencies – LEAs – are forced to deal with extreme volumes of data, being in need to analyse from heterogeneous data sources, uncover hidden relationships, trends and patterns of incidents and ultimately reach solid evidence to be used in court. In this chapter, a system is presented that can assist LEA officers in fighting...
Chapter
In intelligent information systems data plays a critical role. Preparing data for the use of artificial intelligence is therefore a substantial step in the processing pipeline. Sometimes, modest improvements in data quality can translate into a vastly superior model. The issue of missing data is one of the commonplace problems occurring in data col...
Article
In this paper, the performance of a solution providing stream processing is evaluated, and its accuracy in the classification of suspicious flows in simulated network traffic is investigated. The concept of the solution is fully disclosed along with its initial evaluation in a real-world environment. The proposition features Apache Kafka for effici...
Article
The growing volume of cloud-based applications, services and cyber-physical IoT solutions presents vital challenges linked to resource allocation, misconfiguration, scaling, and running software updates. Various solutions and applications have different hardware and energy requirements of the involved elements. Hence, the recent technology trends s...
Article
Full-text available
Cybersecurity and cybercrime cannot exist without each other. They are not contraries, but rather two opposite poles of the same idea. Although it may seem that it is a rather black and white kind of relationship, the measures aimed at protecting innocent people raise a myriad of ethical dilemmas. This paper presents the results of a horizon scanni...
Chapter
Countering the fake news phenomenon has become one of the most important challenges for democratic societies, governments and non-profit organizations, as well as for the researchers coming from several domains. This is not a local problem, and demands a holistic approach to analyzing heterogeneous data and storing the results. The major contributi...
Chapter
Recent progress in the area of modern technologies confirms that information is not only a commodity but can also become a tool for competition and rivalry among governments and corporations, or can be applied by ill-willed people to use it in their hate speech practices. The impact of information is overpowering and can lead to many socially undes...
Chapter
Call Detail Records (CDRs) are one of the most popular information sources used in criminal investigations. They allow police officers to quickly identify the key actors and relations between them. Of course, the challenge for law enforcement officers is to process and understand the large volume of such data. Typically, the process is long and mos...
Chapter
Practitioners adopt software metrics programs to support their software development from the perspective of either overall quality, performance, or both. Current literature details and justifies the role of a metrics program in a software organization’s software development, but empirical evidence to demonstrate its actual use and concomitant benef...
Chapter
Using fake news as a political or economic tool is not new, but the scale of their use is currently alarming, especially on social media. The authors of misinformation try to influence the users' decisions, both in the economic and political sphere. The facts of using disinformation during elections are well known. Currently, two fake news detectio...
Article
Full-text available
Quality requirements (QRs) are a key artifact needed to ensure the quality and success of a software system. Despite their importance, QRs rarely get the same degree of attention as their functional counterpart in agile software development (ASD) projects. Moreover, crucial information that can be obtained from software development repositories (e....
Article
Full-text available
Currently, expert systems and applied machine learning algorithms are widely used to automate network intrusion detection. In critical infrastructure applications of communication technologies, the interaction among various industrial control systems and the Internet environment intrinsic to the IoT technology makes them susceptible to cyber-attack...
Chapter
Machine learning methods are now widely used to detect a wide range of cyberattacks. Nevertheless, the commonly used algorithms come with challenges of their own - one of them lies in network dataset characteristics. The dataset should be well-balanced in terms of the number of malicious data samples vs. benign traffic samples to achieve adequate r...
Chapter
The problem of fake news has become one of the most challenging issues having an impact on societies. Nowadays, false information may spread quickly through social media. In that regard, fake news needs to be detected as fast as possible to avoid negative influence on people who may rely on such information while making important decisions (e.g., p...
Chapter
Recent advances in machine learning (ML) and the surge in computational power have opened the way to the proliferation of ML and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in many domains and applications. Still, apart from achieving good accuracy and results, there are many challenges that need to be discussed in order to effectively apply ML algorithms in crit...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Agile software development has become commonplace in software development companies due to the numerous benefits it provides. However, conducting Agile projects is demanding in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), because projects start and end quickly, but still have to fulfil customers’ quality requirements. Objective: This paper aims at...
Article
Intrusion Detection and the ability to detect attacks is a crucial aspect to ensure cybersecurity. However, what if an IDS (Intrusion Detection System) itself is attacked; in other words what defends the defender? In this work, the focus is on countering attacks on machine learning-based cyberattack detectors. In principle, we propose the adversari...
Article
Full-text available
Ontologies have developed into a prevailing technique for establishing semantic interoperability among heterogeneous systems transacting information. An ontology is an unambiguous blueprint of a concept. For Artificial Intelligence, only the defined notions can be considered existent. Thus, in relation to AI, an ontology can be understood as part o...
Chapter
In this paper we have investigated the fault proneness of the software source code using artificial intelligence methods. The main contribution lies on improving the data pre-processing step. Before we put the data into an Artificial Neural Network, are implementing PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and k-means clustering. The data-clustering step...
Chapter
In this paper, we address the challenge of palmprint-based human verification in the mobile scenario. We propose a novel way of palmprint acquisition that will be used in order to create a new palmprint benchmark dataset. The palmprints are acquired by the handheld devices using an application dedicated to the Android operating system. The applicat...
Chapter
As the arms race between the new kinds of attacks and new ways to detect and prevent those attacks continues, better and better algorithms have to be developed to stop the malicious agents dead in their tracks. In this paper, we evaluate the use of one of the youngest additions to the deep learning architectures, the Gated Recurrent Unit for its fe...
Chapter
The problem of the fake news publication is not new and it already has been reported in ancient ages, but it has started having a huge impact especially on social media users. Such false information should be detected as soon as possible to avoid its negative influence on the readers and in some cases on their decisions, e.g., during the election....
Chapter
Machine learning algorithms found their way into a surprisingly wide range of applications, providing utility and allowing for insights gathered from data in a way never before possible. Those tools, however, have not been developed with security in mind. A deployed algorithm can meet a multitude of risks in the real world. This work explores one o...
Article
Full-text available
Hosting applications in the cloud has become very popular. In this context, automatic application scaling, health checking and bootstrapping required services has never been easier. However, there are some types of services that require direct communication between a server and a client, bypassing the cloud. Popular examples include data grids (dis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The extreme growth and adoption of Social Media, in combination with their poor governance and the lack of quality control over the digital content being published and shared, has led information veracity to a continuous deterioration. Current approaches entrust content verification to a single centralised authority, lack resilience towards attempt...
Chapter
The software development process is an intricate task, with the growing complexity of software solutions and inflating code-line count being part of the reason for the fall of software code coherence and readability thus being one of the causes for software faults and it’s declining quality. Debugging software during development is significantly le...
Chapter
Full-text available
Every single day more and more organizations face the challenge of finding a way to support their conduct with data. The flooding amounts of data currently available vastly outweigh human capabilities, thus Big Data processing becomes a pressing issue. This problem is especially prevailing for Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs), where massive amounts...
Chapter
Quality Requirements (QRs) are a key artifact to ensure the quality and success of a software system. Despite its importance, QRs have not reached the same degree of attention as its functional counterparts, especially in the context of trending software development methodologies like Agile Software Development (ASD). Moreover, crucial information...
Chapter
Intrusion Detection is crucial in cybersecurity. So is the ability to identify the myriad of attacks. Artificial Neural Networks are an established and proven method of accurate classification. There are approaches to make ANN models faster by applying Principal Component Analysis as a feature extractor. However, ANNs are extremely versatile, a wid...
Chapter
In this paper we have investigated the use of numerous machine learning algorithms, with emphasis on multilayer artificial neural networks in the domain of software source code fault prediction. The main contribution lies in enhancing the data pre-processing step as the partial solution for handling software related difficult data. Before we put th...
Article
Full-text available
The quality of software, in particular developed rapidly, is quite a challenge for businesses and IT-dependent societies. Therefore, the H2020 Q-Rapids project consortium develops processes and tools to meet this challenge and improve the quality of the software to meet end-users requirements and needs. In this paper, we focus on data analytics tha...