Rafaële J C Huntjens

Rafaële J C Huntjens
University of Groningen | RUG · Department of Psychology

Professor

About

72
Publications
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Introduction
The main focus in my work is on cognitive-behavioural processes in trauma-related disorders and dissociative disorders

Publications

Publications (72)
Article
Full-text available
Background: A substantial proportion of clinical World War Two survivor offspring reports intrusions about war events they did not experience themselves. Objective: To help identify factors that contribute to the development of such indirect intrusions (i.e. intrusions about non-self-experienced traumatic events), we examined the personal character...
Article
Background Dissociative experiences commonly occur in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). Yet little is known about how dissociative experiences in SSD are related to SSD symptoms. Accordingly, we investigated the relations between dissociative experiences and SSD symptoms, focusing on symptoms bridging these 2 symptom clusters as well as their...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Discontinuities in memory are the hallmark symptoms of most dissociative disorders but are also reported by patients diagnosed with related disorders, including PTSD. Memory discontinuity is most evident in dissociative identity disorder (DID), where patients may report amnesia in 1 identity for information available in other identities...
Article
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Background It is unclear whether people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms of complex PTSD due to childhood abuse need a treatment approach different from approaches in the PTSD treatment guidelines. Aims To determine whether a phase-based approach is more effective than an immediate trauma-focused approach in people with chil...
Article
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Background About 40% of rape victims develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within three months after the assault. Considering the high personal and societal impact of PTSD, there is an urgent need for early (i.e. within three months after the incident) interventions to reduce post-traumatic stress in victims of rape. Objective To assess th...
Article
Background and Objectives Anecdotal and research evidence suggests that individuals with dissociative symptoms exhibit hyperassociativity, which might explain several key features of their condition. The aim of our study was to investigate the link between dissociative tendencies and hyperassociativity among college students. Methods The study (n...
Article
Full-text available
Amnesia is a core diagnostic criterion for Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), however previous research has indicated memory transfer. As DID has been conceptualised as being a disorder of distinct identities, in this experiment, behavioral tasks were used to assess the nature of amnesia for episodic 1) self-referential and 2) autobiographical m...
Article
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Dissociative experiences have been associated with diachronic disunity. Yet, this work is in its infancy. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is characterized by different identity states reporting their own relatively continuous sense of self. The degree to which patients in dissociative identity states experience diachronic unity (i.e., sense of...
Article
Objective: A substantial number of sexual assault victims report experiencing some form of peritraumatic tonic immobility (TI). A self-report questionnaire that is widely used to assess TI retrospectively is the Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS). This study explored the factor structure of the TIS in a clinical sample of adolescent and young adults. M...
Article
Negative events may not only linger on in the form of intrusive memories in the minds of those directly exposed but also in those who are only indirectly confronted with these events. The aim of the present study was to investigate if intrusions referring to indirectly experienced traumatic events do indeed occur, and to compare their frequency and...
Article
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Background: The diagnosis of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) has been suggested for inclusion in the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), with support for its construct validity coming from studies employing Latent Class Analysis (LCA) and Latent Profile Analysis (LPA). Objective: The current study ai...
Article
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Objective: To review the safety and efficacy of early interventions after sexual assault in reducing or preventing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Systematic searches were performed on studies (1980–2018) that examined the efficacy of interventions for PTSD within 3 months after sexual assault. Results: The review identified 7 studies...
Article
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Exposure to war and violence has major consequences for society at large, detrimental impact on people’s individual lives, and may also have intergenerational consequences. To gain more insight into these intergenerational consequences, research addressing the impact of the Holocaust on offspring is an important source of information. The aim of th...
Article
Full-text available
Background: It is estimated that more than 40% of rape victims develops a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a statistic that is relatively high compared to other types of trauma. PTSD can affect the victims’ psychological, sexual, and physical health. Therefore, there is an urgent need for early interventions to prevent the onset of PTSD in thi...
Article
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Background: A category of disorders frequently associated with a history of trauma are the dissociative disorders, of which Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is the most severe and chronic form. DID is associated with high levels of impairment, treatment utilization, and treatment costs, yet systematic research into treatment effects is scarce....
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) often report having no access to autobiographical experiences encoded by other identities. This research used the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) to determine whether there was transfer of episodic self-referential memory events across amnesic identities. Nineteen DID individua...
Article
Derealization, depersonalization and schizotypal experiences are described as separate concepts but they can be hard to distinguish. One way to show the uniqueness of these concepts is by showing a dissociation between these experiences. The aim of this study was to experimentally induce derealization without inducing depersonalization or schizotyp...
Article
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Srull and Wyer (1979) demonstrated that exposing participants to more hostility-related stimuli caused them subsequently to interpret ambiguous behaviors as more hostile. In their Experiment 1, participants descrambled sets of words to form sentences. In one condition, 80% of the descrambled sentences described hostile behaviors, and in another con...
Article
Objectives: Patients with schizophrenia commonly suffer from impairments in various aspects of cognition. These deficits were shown to have detrimental effects on daily life functioning and might also impair car driving. This study is the first to examine driving behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using an advanced driving simulator, and to...
Preprint
Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) often report having no access to autobiographical experiences encoded by other identities. This research used the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) to determine whether there was transfer of episodic self-referential memory events across amnesic identities. Nineteen DID, 16 DID s...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to a history of sexual and/or physical abuse in childhood is the subject of international debate, with some favouring a phase-based approach as their preferred treatment, while others argue for immediate trauma-focused treatment. A history of (chronic) traumatisation during...
Article
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Previous work suggests that the estimated age in adults’ earliest autobiographical memories depends on age information implied by the experimental context [e.g., Kingo, O. S., Bohn, A., & Krøjgaard, P. (2013). Warm-up questions on early childhood memories affect the reported age of earliest memories in late adolescence. Memory, 21(2), 280–284. doi:...
Article
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Research on collaborative remembering suggests that collaboration hampers group memory (i.e., collaborative inhibition), yet enhances later individual memory. Studies examining collaborative effects on memory for emotional stimuli are scarce, especially concerning later individual memory. In the present study, female undergraduates watched an emoti...
Article
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Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) and dissociative disorders (DDs) are described in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and tenth edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) as 2 categorically distinct diagnostic categories. Howeve...
Article
This study investigates the causal role of dissociation in intrusive memory development, and possible underlying aberrant memory processes (e.g., increased perceptual priming). Using an audio-only adaption of the trauma film paradigm, 60 participants were divided into three conditions and presented with different visual tasks—mirror staring, dot-st...
Article
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De recente discussie rond het al dan niet bestaan van schizofrenie zal niemand in de geestelijke gezondheidszorg zijn ontgaan. Als onderzoekers naar de classificatie en differentiaaldiagnostiek van schizofrenie-spectrumstoornissen en dissociatieve stoornissen hebben we deze discussie met interesse gevolgd. Deze discussie is niet nieuw. Die woedt na...
Article
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Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current stu...
Article
Encoding of stressful experiences plays an important role in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. A crucial aspect of memory encoding is binding: the "gluing" of the temporal and spatial elements of an episode into a cohesive unit. This study investigated the effect of emotional arousal on temporal binding and examined whether temporal...
Chapter
Dissociative experiences are thought to occur acutely (e.g., during or immediately following trauma) or chronically and are considered to reduce the subjective distress accompanying stressful events. Growing evidence is consistent with a model that distinguishes between two qualitatively different types of phenomena—“compartmentalization” and “deta...
Article
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Sleep disturbances, fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, and dissociative symptoms are related to each other. However, the co-occurrence of these phenomena has been primarily studied in non-clinical samples. We investigated the correlations between these phenomena in dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients, post-traumatic stress disorder (P...
Article
Full-text available
A lack of adequate access to autobiographical knowledge has been related to psychopathology. More specifically, patients suffering from depression or a history of trauma have been found to be characterized by overgeneral memory, in other words, they show a relative difficulty in retrieving a specific event from memory located in time and place. Pre...
Article
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Reduced memory specificity is associated with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and some other forms of psychopathology. Reduced memory specificity is also associated with reduced specificity of envisioned future events. Research in this area has mostly relied on cue-word methods that include explicit instructions to develop specif...
Article
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According to the CaRFAX model (Williams et al., 2007), several processes may result in overgeneral autobiographical memory. The present study examined whether the type of cue used in the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) is important for illuminating relationships between autobiographical memory specificity and variables pertinent to the Functiona...
Article
Low trait self-control constitutes a core criterion in various psychiatric disorders. Personality traits such as low self-control are mostly indexed by self-report measures. However, several theorists emphasized the importance of differentiating between explicit and implicit indices of personality traits, Therefore, the present study examined the u...
Article
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A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive of dissociative amnesia. The aim of the current study was to...
Article
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Although intrusive imagery is a common response in the aftermath of a stressful or traumatic event, only a minority of trauma victims show persistent re-experiencing and related psychopathology. Individual differences in pre-trauma executive control possibly play a critical role. Therefore, this study investigated whether a relatively poor pre-stre...
Article
This study examined the specificity and content of autobiographical memories among bereaved individuals. Self-report measures of bereavement-related distress and a standard and trait version of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were administered to 109 bereaved people. We examined associations of memory specificity with (a) demographic and los...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assert that memory processes play a significant role in PTSD (see e.g., Ehlers & Clark, 2000). Intrusive reexperiencing in PTSD has been linked to perceptual processing of trauma-related material with a corresponding hypothesized lack of conceptual processing. In an experimental study that in...
Article
Many studies reported a positive correlation between self-reported traumatic experiences and self-reported dissociative symptoms. Critics postulated that this relation is mediated by the personality trait fantasy proneness. This was confirmed by a number of studies, that mainly used non-clinical samples. The present study was carried out in a clini...
Article
Relatively weak cognitive control existing prior to a stressful event may be associated with intrusive memories of that stressor afterwards. To test this possibility, we tested participants under circumstances that putatively decrease cognitive control and explored how this affected the relation between indices of cognitive control and intrusive me...
Article
Samengevat is er geen objectief bewijs voor het bestaan van dissociatieve amnesie. Het tegendeel lijkt eerder waar. Subjectief wordt dissociatieve amnesie echter wel beleefd door bijvoorbeeld DIS-patiënten. De ervaren geheugenproblemen van DIS-patiënten betekenen niet dat er iets mis is met hun geheugen, maar dat er iets mis is met hoe deze patiënt...
Article
The relevance of intrusive mental imagery to the understanding and treatment of psychological disorders is increasingly acknowledged. Little research has been done on intrusive imagery in grief. Using a sample of 131 mourners, recruited from professional and lay mental health care workers, the current study examined the frequency and correlates of...
Chapter
In Chapters 2, 3, and 4 inequality constrained analysis of variance was introduced and illustrated. This chapter contains an evaluation of inequality constrained analysis of variance. Section 5.2 contains an evaluation from the perspective of psychologists on the use of inequality constrained analysis of variance. The questions raised will be discu...
Article
The present study aimed to determine interidentity retrieval of emotionally valenced words in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Twenty-two DID patients participated together with 25 normal controls and 25 controls instructed to simulate DID. Two wordlists A and B were constructed including neutral, positive and negative material. List A was sho...
Chapter
Chapter 3 presents a review of the cognitive experimental findings on attention and memory functioning in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Starting with an overview of the attentional processes and memory systems that make up human information processing, Dorahy and Huntjens present the cognitive avoidance hypothesis, which has been proffered...
Article
Full-text available
Although included in the current edition of the DSM, there does not seem to be consensus among mental health professionals regarding the diagnostic status and scientific validity of dissociative identity disorder (DID). This study was aimed at the detection of simulation of inter-identity amnesia in DID. A sample of 22 DID patients was included, to...
Article
Patiënten met een dissociatieve Identiteitstoornis (DIS)rapporteren soms niet te weten wat er gebeurt als een andere identiteit de controle over het gedrag overneemt. Klinische rapportages van deze zogenaamde interidentiteit amnesie zijn talrijk. Gecontroleerd onderzoekbij deze patiënten is echter schaars. Vandaar dat we in dit artikel ingaan op re...
Article
Full-text available
Biased attention for threatening stimuli has been associated with many forms of psychopathology. Attention to threatening faces presented below perceptual thresholds was assessed in patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder using a pictorial emotional Stroop task. Patients were tested in two different identity states, in one of which t...
Article
Previous studies have shown that memories for positions are often distorted in systematic ways, indicating the influence of categorical positions codes which can bias responses in object-relocation tasks towards stored spatial prototypes. In the present study, we examined the time course of these categorical influences. Subjects had to relocate the...
Article
In a serial reaction time task, procedural memory was examined in Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). Thirty-one DID patients were tested for inter-identity transfer of procedural learning and their memory performance was compared with 25 normal controls and 25 controls instructed to simulate DID. Results of patients seemed to indicate a pattern...
Article
Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) frequently report episodes of interidentity amnesia, that is amnesia for events experienced by other identities. The goal of the present experiment was to test the implicit transfer of trauma-related information between identities in DID. We hypothesized that whereas declarative information may tra...
Article
Full-text available
Interidentity amnesia is considered a hallmark of dissociative identity disorder (DID) in clinical practice. In this study, objective methods of testing episodic memory transfer between identities were used. Tests of both recall (interference paradigm) and recognition were used. A sample of 31 DID patients was included. Additionally, 50 control sub...
Article
Full-text available
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is characterized by the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states that recurrently take control of the individual’s behavior. Between 95 and 100 % of DID patients report experiences of blank spells for periods of time when other identities are in control of their behavior. In this thesis,...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined implicit memory transfer in patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID). To determine priming impairments in DID, we included both several perceptual priming tasks and a conceptual priming task using neutral material. We tested a large sample of DID patients (n = 31), in addition to 25 controls and 25 DID simulator...

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