Rafael Labarca

Rafael Labarca
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile | UC · Facultad de Ciencias Sociales

Archaeologist, PhD

About

88
Publications
50,348
Reads
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968
Citations
Citations since 2017
25 Research Items
620 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Additional affiliations
March 2015 - December 2017
Universidad Austral de Chile
Position
  • Profesor Adjunto Ad Honorem
March 2013 - present
Universidad Austral de Chile
Position
  • Professor ad honorem
Education
July 2008 - December 2016

Publications

Publications (88)
Article
Taguatagua 1 is a late Pleistocene open-air archaeological site located on an ancient lakeshore in central Chile and dated to around 12,600 cal BP. It presents clear evidence of human and megafauna (Equidae, Gomphotheriidae and Cervidae) interaction that includes burned, fractured and cut-marked bones, as well as tusk and bone-made instruments. Mix...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Se presenta un nuevo yacimiento con vertebrados pleistocenos hallados en el interfluvio de los ríos Loa y San Salvador, Región de Antofagasta, y excavado durante el desarrollo del proyecto "Línea de Alta Tensión 2X500 KV Los Changos/Kimal". El hallazgo ocurrió en un lente de gravas arenosas perteneciente a la Formación Quillagua (Plioceno-Pleistoce...
Article
Full-text available
During the Formative period by the Late-Holocene (ca. 3000–1500 BP), semi-sedentary and sedentary human occupations had emerged in the oases, salares, and riverine systems in the central depression (2400–1000 masl) of the Atacama Desert, northern Chile (19–25°S). This hyperarid core was marginally occupied during the post-Pleistocene and middle Hol...
Article
Full-text available
This contribution presents preliminary ndings from on-going archaeological research work conducted at morro Vilcún, in the vicinity of Chaitén. Here, the midden strewn oor of two adjacent coastal caves (Cueva Grande and Cueva Alta) were excavated. For Cueva Grande, a basal radiocarbon date of ca. 700 yrs cal AP was obtained and provides a maximum a...
Article
South America is well known for its abundance of Quaternary fossiliferous deposits, but well-preserved fossil remains from well-dated sites are scarce in the Atacama Desert and adjacent arid Andes. Here we report on a partially complete skeleton (46%) of a single young (ca. 3–4 years old) extinct horse discovered in the Salar de Surire, a salt flat...
Article
Rallidae, which includes coots, crakes and moorhens, is one of the most speciose families among the Gruiformes. This family exhibits a pattern of diversification that has involved significant episodes of regional expansion and speciation resulting in the presence of members of this group in every continent with the exception of Antarctica. In this...
Article
The Laguna de Tagua Tagua has yielded two important late Pleistocene archaeological sites, Taguatagua 1 and Taguatagua 2, in which a clear early human exploitation of megafauna has been recorded. Particularly in Taguatagua 1 (TT-1), here re-dated around 12,600 cal yr BP, an abundant small faunal assemblage was also recovered, which had not been pre...
Chapter
Pilauco shows two distinct layers containing remains of Pleistocene mammals (PB-7 and PB-8). The site is spatially divided into two sectors, East (45 m²) and West (27 m²). The current study is centered in the Western sector, where the majority of the materials come from layer PB-7 (%NISP = 92.5). Overall, this layer does not show signs of weatherin...
Chapter
This chapter synthesizes the findings of fossil remains from equids and camelids at the Pilauco site, including the first discoveries from 1986, as well as the systematic excavations since 2007. The group of horses is exclusively represented by the genus Equus, as was identified on cranial and postcranial remnants. The findings from the eastern and...
Chapter
The site Los Notros, located just 60 m west of the site Pilauco in Osorno (Chile), was discovered in 2008, with excavations beginning in April 2016. The geology of Los Notros is similar to that of the Pilauco site where strata LN-1 and LN-2 are equivalent to layers PB-7 and PB-8 from Pilauco. However, Los Notros includes an additional stratum (LN-3...
Article
Objective: Re-evaluate the pathological lesions found on a gomphothere recovered from Quebrada Quereo (Late Pleistocene), Coquimbo region, Chile (31º55'41" S, 71º34'43" W, 20 masl). Materials: 227 axial and appendicular specimens from a young adult male individual (SGO.PV.267). Methods: Macroscopic and radiographic analysis. Results: Patholo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La antigua Laguna de Taguatagua (ca.34°30’S) desecada artificialmente a inicios del S XIX, es una de las localidades arqueo-paleontológicas más relevantes de Chile central. No solo alberga dos yacimientos clásicos donde se ha documentado interacción entre grupos humanos y fauna hoy extinta, Taguatagua 1 y 2 (Montane 1968, Núñez et al. 1994), sino q...
Article
Full-text available
Along the Atacama Desert coast, fish has always been a staple food and by the Formative period (500 cal B.C.-700 cal A.D.) it had become a product in high demand by the inhabitants of the inland valleys, oases and ravines of the desert. In this paper we explore the technologies used in coastal fishing activities, the diverse species caught, and fis...
Article
Full-text available
The Younger Dryas (YD) impact hypothesis posits that fragments of a large, disintegrating asteroid/comet struck North America, South America, Europe, and western Asia ~12,800 years ago. Multiple airbursts/impacts produced the YD boundary layer (YDB), depositing peak concentrations of platinum, high-temperature spherules, meltglass, and nanodiamonds...
Article
In this study we used a multidisciplinary approach, coupling morphological, geological, geochemical, and statistical analyses to investigate the provenance of rhyodacitic and dacitic glass knapped at the Pilauco site (40°34′11” S, 73°06′17” W; 13,570 ± 70–12,540 ± 90 14C year BP) in northwestern Chilean Patagonia. A morphotechnological analysis was...
Article
Full-text available
La arqueología del litoral del desierto de Atacama ha con-centrado sus estudios en un espectro reducido de animales, sobre representando los más tradicionales, conocidos y populares, como peces, camélidos y otáridos, en desmedro de otros con un registro más acotado pero igualmente significativo. Presentamos una reflexión acerca de las relaciones en...
Article
Full-text available
Significance The multiproxy approach represents a novel methodology and a unique opportunity to obtain a more detailed view of ancient resource use. Our multiproxy study, carried out on gomphotheres from Chile, widens potential occupied habitats to closed-canopy forests. This habitat variability supports the hypothesis that the diet of gomphotheres...
Chapter
Full-text available
Castillo, C., B. Ballester, E. Calás, R. Labarca y F. Gallardo 2017 La ruta de los peces más allá del litoral: sobre el ciclo del pescado seco en el desierto de Atacama (periodo Formativo). En Monumentos funerarios de la costa del desierto de Atacama. Los cazadores-recolectores marinos y sus intercambios (500 a.C.-700 d.C.), editado por F. Gallardo...
Article
Excavations associated with wastewater treatment facilities in the Santiago Basin of Chile uncovered remains of an adult male Stegomastodon platensis in Pleistocene fluvial sediments. The specimen included a skull with both tusks still in their alveoli. A small sample block of dentin and cementum was excised from the right tusk for analysis of comp...
Article
Full-text available
Studies on South American Gomphotheriidae started around 210 years ago and, 150 years later, the classic study “The mastodonts of Brazil” by Simpson and Paula Couto (1957) attempted to clarify the complex issues related to our understanding of these proboscideans. Here, we update state of knowledge regarding proboscideans in South America subsequen...
Article
Full-text available
This paper contextualizes, describes and taxonomically assigned cranial and dental Gomphotheriidae materials from the El Trebal 1, late Pleistocene form central Chile. Starting from metric and morphological variables fossils are included in Stegomastodon platensisStegomastodon platensis. Taxonomic implications of this finding as well as some region...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of a FONDART project aimed at describing the first rock art found on the coasts of the Northern Patagonian channels. The project involved exhaustive, systematic records of the wall paintings and engravings found. Forty-seven paintings were recorded (mostly lines, dots and spots, all in red) as well as nine engravings...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of a fondart project aimed at describing the first rock art found on the coasts of the Northern Patagonian channels. The project involved exhaustive, systematic records of the wall paintings and engravings found. Forty-seven paintings were recorded (mostly lines, dots and spots, all in red) as well as nine engravings...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present a detailed description of armadillo osteoderms recovered in the Caleta Huelén 20 cemetery (Late Formative), located at the mouth of Loa river. Based on studies of morphological and metric attributes of the carapace mobile bands, the materials are assigned to Chaetophractus vellerosus. Its presence at the site, beyond its p...
Conference Paper
Excavations at El Trebal 1 near Santiago, Chile in 2011 revealed late Pleistocene-age channel fill deposits containing the skull and tusks of an adult gompotheriid (Notiomastodon platensis). A sample was excised from near the proximal end of the tusk to evaluate the last years of life and assess season of death. The sample was broken into several p...
Article
Full-text available
Se realizaron excavaciones en el patio del Cuartel General de Bomberos de Santiago con el objetivo de localizar restos arquitectónicos y artefactuales de la presencia inca en el sector de Plaza de Armas, de la ciudad de Santiago. Se encontró evidencia cerámica de ocupación Tawantinsuyu en distintos niveles, los que aparecieron mezclados con restos...
Article
The archaeo-paleontological site of Pilauco (southern Chile) has one of the richest Late Pleistocene mammal records of the northern chilean Patagonia, with at least nine forms dominated by gomphothere remains. This site has a complex taphonomic history due to postdepositional processes that affected the integrity, frequency, and distribution of the...
Article
Full-text available
At present, there are only three native species of cervids in Chile: the huemul Hippocamelus bisulcus, the taruca Hippocamelus antisensis, and the southern pudu Pudu puda. The latter belongs to one of the most conspicuous genera within the family, which also includes the northern pudu Pudu mephistophiles. Both species, found only in the Neotropics,...
Article
Paleontological and archaeological sites have frequently been found in open locations of the Intermediate Depression of south-central Chile. This paper presents the results of two field sampling seasons carried out at the Pilauco Site (ca. 39°S) and compares them with those of three well known sites in Chile: Quereo, Tagua-Tagua and Monte Verde, ca...
Article
Full-text available
We present a preliminary description and taxonomic assignment of the Lamini fossil remains recovered from the paleontological site of Pilauco (late Pleistocene) in southern Chile. Based on metric variables the fossils are temporarily asigned to cf. Hemiauchenia paradoxa Gervais & Ameghino 1880, waiting for new and more diagnostic remains. We presen...
Article
The Middle Formative Cemetery of Topater 1 (ca. 500 bc–100 ad), located in the oasis of Calama, Northern Chile, presents an unusually diversearray and quantity of funerary offerings, distributed among the graves of more than 200 individuals. Among the offerings are the remains of several mummified camelids and camelid skeletal elements, primarily d...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabajo evalúa, desde una perspectiva tecnológica y conductual, tendencias a largo plazo de cambio y continuidad en las estrategias de aprovechamiento de recursos faunísticos y líticos en contextos de cazadores-recolectores cordilleranos de Chile central. Para esto, tomamos los datos procedentes de un contexto ubicado en la cuenca superior del...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
El sitio Pilauco está ubicado en la ciudad de Osorno (40º34’12’’S, 73º06’13’’W). En el Pleistoceno tardío estuvo dominado por una asociación vegetacional de parque norpatagónico, tal como Monte Verde. Se han recuperado 718 huesos de vertebrados extintos y extantes, 30 dientes y 11 coprolitos. Tafonómicamente se registran procesos de carroñeo, pisot...
Article
Full-text available
This article evaluates long-term trends in change and continuity of lithic and faunal use strategies in hunter-gatherer contexts in the central Chilean cordillera from technological and behavioral perspectives. The main objective of the analysis is to articulate both lines of evidence from a behavioral and technological perspective in order to infe...
Article
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Se proporcionan los resultados detallados de las excavaciones y análisis de laboratorio practicados en el sitio arqueológico de caverna Piuquenes. Se identificaron los siguientes cuatro componentes culturales: el más antiguo, Componente 1, estaba constituido por exploradores de la montaña que, aproximadamente entre el 11.670AP y el 10.240 AP, cazar...
Article
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There is an abundant fossil record of the family Gomphotheriidae in Chile, which is entirely ascribed to the late Pleistocene. Despite this, the lack of taxonomically diagnostic material has lead to an extended discussion, which has not reached a consensus regarding the number of forms of gomphotheres effectively present. This paper discusses the t...
Article
Full-text available
Presencia de Antifer ultra Ameghino (=Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela) (Artiodactyla, Cervidae) en el Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano de Chile central (30-35ºS) RESUMEN. El presente trabajo discute el estatus taxonómico de la especie Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela, 1984, definida a partir de astas completas procedentes de la laguna Taguatagua y l...
Article
Full-text available
Newly described outerops, excavations and sediment cores from the region of Última Esperanza, Magallanes, contain tephra derived from the large late-glacial explosive Rl eruption of the Reclús volcano in the Andean Austral Volcanic Zone. New radiocarbon dates associated to these deposits refine previous estimates of the age, to 14.9 cal kyrs BP (12...
Article
Full-text available
AbStRACt. Newly described outcrops, excavations and sediment cores from the region of Última Esperanza, Magalla-nes, contain tephra derived from the large late-glacial explosive R1 eruption of the Reclús volcano in the Andean Austral Volcanic Zone. New radiocarbon dates associated to these deposits refine previous estimates of the age, to 14.9 cal...
Article
Full-text available
En la presente nota se informa sobre la presencia de arte rupestre en el litoral de la Patagonia septentrional de Chile, absolutamente desconocido antes. Los registros fueron hallados en cuevas del morro Vilcún (42º49`S-72º50`O), sector Santa bárbara, y corresponden tanto a pinturas como a grabados. Estas cuevas están ubicadas aproximadamente a 15...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses the taxonomic status of Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela, 1984, defined from complete antlers from Taguatagua lake and Quereo canyon, both located in central Chile (30-35°S). From a detailed morphological and morphometrical study, it is concluded that Antifer niemeyeri should be considered synonymous with Antifer ultra Ameghino, 1...
Article
The presence of rock art in the northern Patagonian coast is reported for the first time. The findings correspond to caves on the Vilcun hill (42(sic)49S-7(sic)50O), Santa Barbara, close to the modern city of Chaiten and are both paintings and engravings. No surface archaeological materials were found.
Article
Full-text available
Southern Patagonia is rich in late Pleistocene mammals, especially herbivores such as Camelids, Equids and Xenarthrans. Carnivores, on the other hand, are not commonly found in the paleontological record. One genus, Smilodon, is of particular interest because its presence in the region has not been demonstrated. In this paper, we present new fossil...
Article
Full-text available
Southern Patagonia is rich in late Pleistocene mammals, especially herbivores such as Camelids, Equids and Xenarthrans. Carnivores, on the other hand, are not commonly found in the paleontological record. One genus, Smilodon, is of particular interest because its presence in the region has not been demonstrated. In this paper, we present new fossil...
Article
Full-text available
A partir de un análisis zooarqueológico se discute la posibilidad de detectar diferencias en las opciones dietarias de dos segmentos de la población, casados y solteros, del asentamiento minero histórico de Capote durante la primera mitad del s. XX. En base a la frecuencia de partes esqueletarias de taxones principalmente domésticos, así corno a la...
Article
Full-text available
Based on zooarchaeological analyses, we discuss the possibility of detecting differences in the dietary choices of two population segments, singles and married, at the mining settlement of Capote during the first half of XX Century. Keeping in mind the frequency of skeletal parts of domestic taxa, and their diversity, it is demonstrated that the ma...
Article
Full-text available
This contribution presents the results of single and multi-variable osteometric analyses performed on a sample of short bones and phalanxes assigned to Vicugna sp. from Lago Sofía Cave 4 site (13500 – 11000 BP), Región de Magallanes, Chile. The elements analyzed show a similar size to the reference collections for Vicugna vicugna, and do not exceed...
Article
The results of the taphonomic analysis of the fossil remains discovered in the paleontological site "Kamac Mayu" (Región de Antofagasta, Chile) are presented. The paleofaunistic record, represented by Macrauchenia cf. M. patachonica, Hippidion saldiasi, Camelidae and Xenarthra, was found in an exocarstic formation originated by dissolution, moulded...
Article
Full-text available
For nearly 60 years (1880-1940 A.D.), saltpetre was the main source of economic income in Chile. Despite its importance in the country's recent history, very scarce archaeological research was oriented to contrast and complement the abundant historical information on hand. This work aims in this direction, through the analysis of faunal remains of...
Article
Full-text available
The results of taxonomic and taphonomic analyses from the lowermost layers of the Cueva Las Guanacas archaeological site (XI Región, Chilean Central Patagonia) are presented. Eight major taxa have been identified, among them four extinct (Mylodon darwini Owen, Macrauchenia patachonica Owen, Hippidion saídiasi Roth and Camelidae indet.) and other fo...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents information related to archaeological sites with rock art known so far in the basin of Manso river (northern Patagonia), in Argentine territory, and two sites recently discovered in the valley of the same river in Chile. The stylistic relations between all the sites located en both sides of the Cordillera de los Andes permits th...
Article
Full-text available
The results of taxonomic and taphonomic analyses from the lowermost layers of the Cueva Las Guanacas archaeological site (XI Region, Chilean Central Patagonia) are presented. Eight major taxa have been identified, among them four extinct (Mylodon darwini Owen, Macrauchenia patachonica Owen, Hippidion soldiasi Roth and Camelidae indet.) and other fo...