Rafael Salvador Espinosa Ramirez

Rafael Salvador Espinosa Ramirez
University of Guadalajara | UDG · Departamento de Economía

PhD

About

37
Publications
2,621
Reads
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39
Citations
Citations since 2017
17 Research Items
18 Citations
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Additional affiliations
August 2002 - present
University of Guadalajara
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (37)
Article
Full-text available
We develop a theoretical model of partial equilibrium where firms, located in a country, compete and produce differentiated goods in a duopolistic market. Emission of pollution is related to production, and firms produce their output using different levels of polluting technology. To control pollution emission, the government applies discriminatory...
Article
Full-text available
In most developing countries, local companies have more expensive polluting production technology than those in developed countries. On the other hand, there is a growing concern to produce and consume ecological goods in the world. Based on this reality, and using environmental awareness as public policy, this article uses a theoretical model that...
Chapter
https://www.cucea.udg.mx/include/publicaciones/coorinv/pdf/Rebuilding%20the%20Economy.pdf#page=32 We present a theoretical model where foreign firms, in the form of Foreign Direct Investment, and domestic firms compete in an oligopolistic market. They produce a homogenous good with different technologies: foreign firms have a non-polluting technolo...
Article
Full-text available
http://panoramaeconomico.mx/ojs/index.php/PE/article/view/87 Desarrollamos un modelo oligopolístico en el que dos empresas competido-ras producen un bien homogéneo, pero los consumidores tienen preferencias diferentes por ellas. Un bien es producido por una tecnología contaminante y el otro es producido por tecnología no contaminante. El gobierno...
Article
We develop a theoretical model in which a country hosts foreign investment in the presence of a drug dealer, acting as a leader, and a drug seller, acting as a follower. A policy addressed to eradicate the drug trafficking encourages the kidnapping activity, and increase the security cost of firms. When the drug is not consumed in the host country...
Article
Full-text available
In an imperfect competition model of trade a domestic and foreign country establish a cooperative or non-cooperative subsidy schedule. The optimal subsidies are positive but different in size depending of the firm’s efficiency and the magnitude of the consumer market. After setting the subsidy, a fear shock in the domestic country caused by COVID-1...
Chapter
Full-text available
En un modelo de equilibrio parcial bajo condiciones de dumping recíproco, dos empresas contaminantes heterogéneas, situadas en dos países, compiten en un esquema de oligopolio. Cada gobierno debe implementar una serie de políticas ambientales estratégicas con el fin de maximizar el bienestar del país, considerando tanto las utilidades de las empres...
Article
Full-text available
p>El propósito de este trabajo, a partir de un modelo teórico, es determinar las políticas ambientales que maximicen el bienestar de un país receptor de inversión extranjera directa. En un mercado de un bien homogéneo las empresas foráneas compiten contra empresas nacionales bajo condiciones oligopolísticas. Se utiliza como instrumento de control l...
Chapter
Drug trafficking could be associated with the corrupt structures of governments and any anti-drug enforcement policy would be compromised. At the same time, it is perceived that the flow of foreign direct investment, which is inversely related with drug trafficking, drives the economy and the host government faces a dilemma between encouraging fore...
Article
Full-text available
Corruption impacts the competitive conditions among firms and the flow of foreign investment. Institutional reforms made for fighting against corruption are sometimes useless. We develop a model in which a corrupted government tries to set an optimal institutional level taking into account the cost of this policy on foreign investment, the benefit...
Article
Under imperfect competition model of trade, we analyze the impact of migration on the source and receiver economies which are different in size. Firms located in each economy are heterogeneous. Migration occurs due to wage differentials from the small economy to the large one. In the presence of a one-way trade with a tariff set by the small econom...
Preprint
En un modelo de equilibrio parcial bajo condiciones de dumping recíproco, dos empresas contaminantes heterogéneas, situadas en dos países, compiten en un esquema de oligopolio. Cada gobierno debe implementar una serie de políticas ambientales estratégicas con el fin de maximizar el bienestar del país, considerando tanto las utilidades de las empres...
Article
Full-text available
In a dynamic where international economic integration is constantly growing, multinational enterprises are important to understand the mechanisms that may induce productivity growth. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a response of multinational enterprises to take advantage of a foreign country’s economic structure. Using a panel analysis, this st...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we analyze the effects of mergers on welfare of a host foreign direct investment country. Using a partial equilibrium model with imperfect competition, domestic and foreign firms compete among them producing differentiated goods. The domestic government sets discriminatory subsidies between domestic and foreign firms. As a first resul...
Article
Full-text available
Using the principal-agent approach, a theoretical model is developed, in which dishonest government officers lobby authorities (in the form of a corrupted political contribution) for getting some advantage over honest officers. The government agency authority should maximize the welfare of the civil service officers by distributing an economic comp...
Article
In a reciprocal dumping model of trade we analyse the effect of environmental policy reform on welfare in the presence of unemployment and repatriated profits. Pollution quota, used by the government in each country, restricts the local production and reduces the social harmful pollution. However, this quota is a barrier of trade which inhibits the...
Chapter
The processes of economic integration in Latin American economies have logic that goes beyond the simple interest of trade creation. The governments focus on the benefit produced by Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as one of the most important reasons to formalize trade agreements. FDI differs in the way in which this investment relates with the loc...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the optimal non-cooperative and cooperative environmental policies in the case of foreign investment and cross border pollution. In the model there are two countries and each country has one domestic firm that produces a homogeneous product. It is assumed that there is intra-industry trade between the countries. Both countries a...
Book
Full-text available
With the rising public and political concern about greener production, there is unrelenting pressure on individual companies to mitigate and abate pollution and adopt cleaner technologies. Governments adopt several types of environmental policies and regulations that are aimed at protecting the environment and encouraging efficient use of natural r...
Article
Full-text available
Under a Cournot oligopolistic setting, foreign firms located in a host country compete when pollution quota as environmental policy is implemented. We develop a theoretical economic policy model where pollution promotes competitive disadvantage for the foreign firms. However, these firms offer political contribution/bribe to the government in order...
Article
Corruption impacts not only the domestic economic performance, but trade as well. Corruption works as a barrier of trade and institutional reforms seem to be the solutions to this disturbance. However, the benefit of institutional reforms is not clear as there is some structural inefficiency that hampers the positive effect of such reforms. We deve...
Article
Full-text available
A partir de un modelo oligopolístico de equilibrio parcial, modelamos los efectos de las fusiones y el cabildeo político doméstico para definir políticas nacionales de subsidio. Empresas locales y foráneas compiten en un mercado de bienes homogéneos en un país huésped de inversión. La producción óptima de las empresas va a depender de la política d...
Chapter
Full-text available
We develop here a model of Cournot oligopoly, of partial equilibrium under conditions of reciprocal dumping between two countries. We consider domestic and foreign companies producing for local consumption and to export. Companies generate pollution in their production processes, but in turn, they have appropriate technology to bring it down. We us...
Chapter
Full-text available
Resumen Desarrollamos un modelo microeconómico para explicar por qué las políticas de sanción usadas por países desarrollados han tenido efectos ambiguos para reducir el tráfico de drogas en los países en desarrollo. En el modelo, un país recibe inversión extranjera directa (IED) dependiendo del esfuerzo que haga su gobierno para reducir las export...
Article
Full-text available
We develop a model to analyze environmental policies in the presence of mergers and foreign direct investment. There are two countries and two type of firms (one type in each country). Firms in each country produce a homogeneous good to be consumed in both markets. Each firm creates pollution as a by product of output. Using the above specification...
Article
En este artículo se aborda el debate que hay entre la hermenéutica, la racionalidad y el discurso económico neoclásico. Se hace un recorrido por las corrientes y enfoques construidos en la ciencia económica y otras ciencias sociales; al mismo tiempo, se esbozan, entre otros temas, la manera en que la hermenéutica puede cambiar la perspectiva en el...
Article
Despite the claimed benefit argued by the implementation of institutional reforms in many economies, this benefit is not clear, as there are some structural inefficiencies that hamper the benefit of such reforms. We develop a political-economic model in which a government in a country tries to set the optimal institutional level taking into account...
Article
We examine the effects of mergers on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and on shaping national policies regarding FDI. In this work we develop a partial equilibrium model of an oligopolistic industry in which a number of domestic and foreign firms compete in the market for a homogeneous good in a host country. It is assumed that the number of foreig...
Book
Actualmente, se está gestando una auténtica conciencia mundial por la conservación del medio ambiente, debido principalmente a la presión creciente de la actividad económica sobre los recursos naturales, y específicamente la emisión de contaminantes que esta genera. En este sentido, los gobiernos nacionales deben atender satisfactoriamente esta leg...
Article
Full-text available
A Cournot oligopolistic setting model of trade is characterized by local and foreign firms competing in the presence of pollution quota and tax. Local firms are foreign-owned (FDI) and repatriate their profits. First, we analyze the impact on welfare given by the merger of the local firms, as a response to external firms’ competition and pollution...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the claimed benefit argued by the implementation of institutional reforms in many economies, this benefit is not clear as there are some structural inefficiencies that hamper the benefit of such reforms. We develop a political-economic model in which a government in a country tries to set the optimal institutional level taking into account...
Chapter
Full-text available
Despite the claimed benefit argued by the implementation of institutional reforms in many economies, there are some structural inefficiencies that hamper the benefit of such reforms. We develop a political-economic model in which a government in a country try to set the optimal institutional level taking into account the cost of this policy on a fi...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the effects of mergers and internal groups (lobbies) in shaping national policies towards foreign direct investment. Lobbying is modeled following the political contributions approach. In this work we develop a partial equilibrium model of an oligopolistic industry in which a number of domestic and foreign firms compete in the market for...
Article
Abstract In the second half of the last century the attitude with respect to foreign investment has changed, and the role of this investment on development of Latin-American economies has become crucial. A Þerce competition is taking place among these countries in a even more integrated region where environmental policies have become one of the sui...
Article
Full-text available
We develop a microeconomic model to explain why sanction policies used by developed countries have had ambiguous effects to reduce drug trafficking in developing countries. In the model, a country receives FDI depending on its government effort to reduce drug exports. However, local drug producers lobby and offer contributions whose impact depends...

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