Rafael de la Torre

Rafael de la Torre
IMIM Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute | IMIM · Neurosciences Research Programme

PharmD, PhD
Nutrition and cognitive performance in neurodegenerative diseases and intellectual disabilities

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575
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (575)
Article
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Impulsivity has been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and may negatively impact its management. This study aimed to investigate impulsive personality traits in an older adult population with T2D and their predicting role in long-term weight control and glycemic management, through glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), following 3 years of intervention...
Article
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RationaleEndocannabinoids are well poised to regulate crosstalk between energy sensing of hunger and satiety and reward-driven motivation.Objectives Here, we aimed to unravel associations between plasma endocannabinoids and brain connectivity in homeostatic and reward circuits across hunger and satiety states.Methods Fifteen participants (7 females...
Article
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Preclinical evidence suggests a main role of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling in drug addiction. Recently, we reported alterations in the plasma concentrations of LPA species in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). As there are sex differences in drug addiction, the main aim of the present study was to investigate whether relevant LPA spe...
Article
Background: In the last years, evidence that dietary vitamin K could have a role in the cognitive domain has increased. However, data from large trials are limited. The objective of this study was to assess the association of 2 year changes in the dietary intake of vitamin K with cognitive function measured through neuropsychological performance t...
Article
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Impulsive and compulsive behaviors have both been observed in individuals with obesity. The co-occurrence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more strongly associated with impulsivity, although there are no conclusive results yet. A multidimensional assessment of impulsivity and compulsivity was conducted in individuals with obesity in the abse...
Article
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Objectives. Administration of human growth hormone (hGH) is prohibited in competitive sport and its detection in an athlete's sample triggers an adverse analytical finding. However, the biological processes that are modulated by recombinant hGH are not well characterized and associated blood serum proteins may constitute new biomarkers for hGH misu...
Article
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Objectives Administration of human growth hormone (hGH) is prohibited in competitive sport and its detection in an athlete’s sample triggers an adverse analytical finding. However, the biological processes that are modulated by recombinant hGH are not well characterized and associated blood serum proteins may constitute new biomarkers for hGH misus...
Article
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Introduction Type 2 diabetes has been linked to greater cognitive decline, but other glycemic parameters such as prediabetes, diabetes control and treatment, and HOMA-IR and HbA 1c diabetes-related biomarkers have shown inconsistent results. Furthermore, there is limited research assessing these relationships in short-term studies. Thus, we aimed t...
Article
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Ceramides are a class of sphingolipids which have recently been shown to be better cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk predictors than traditional CVD risk biomarkers. Tyrosol (TYR) is a dietary phenolic compound known to possess cardioprotective effects per se or through its in vivo active metabolite hydroxytyrosol. The purpose of this study was to...
Article
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Background and Purpose: Both adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the use of metformin could benefit the cognitive performance of individuals with type 2 diabetes, but evidence is still controversial. We examined the association between metformin use and cognition in older adults with type 2 diabetes following a MedDiet intervention. M...
Article
Background Stressful episodes and high alcohol consumption during adolescence are considered major risk factors for the development of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Identification of mechanisms underlying these early events, which enhanced vulnerability to mental illness, is essential for both their prevention and treatment. Methods Male Wis...
Article
Carboxylic acid containing compounds (R-COOH) are involved in a large number of biological processes and they are relevant for several pathological processes such as neurodegeneration or cancer. Comprehensive methodologies for the quantitative determination of R-COOH in biological samples are required. In this study we have developed a LC-MS/MS met...
Article
Mobile device-assisted dietary ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) have emerged as a new tool allowing the evaluation of dietary intake in real time, in a real-world setting and in a continuous manner. They have the potential to minimize recall bias, participant, and investigator burden, and decrease economic and time investment while maximizin...
Article
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Considered the β-keto analogue of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), 3,4-Methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) is a synthetic cathinone. Over the years, methylone has been used as a substitute for conventional psychostimulants, such as MDMA. To date, little is known about the human pharmacology of methylone; the only available inf...
Preprint
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Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare genetic multisystemic disorder characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability and hypersocial phenotype, while the most life-threatening features are cardiovascular abnormalities. Nowadays, there are no available treatments to ameliorate the main traits of WBS. The endocannabinoid system (ECS), gi...
Article
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According to the food addiction (FA) model, the consumption of certain types of food could be potentially addictive and can lead to changes in intake regulation. We aimed to describe metabolic parameters, dietary characteristics, and affective and neurocognitive vulnerabilities of individuals with and without FA, and to explore its influences on we...
Article
The consumption of dietary phytochemicals has been associated with several health benefits and relevant biological activities. It is postulated that biotransformations of these compounds regulated by the microbiota, Phase I/II reactions, transport proteins, and deconjugating enzymes contribute not only to their metabolic clearance but also, in some...
Article
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Background Energy drinks (EDs) reduce sleepiness, fatigue and improve driving performance while alcohol does just the opposite. Although it is a trendy combination among young people, the effects of alcohol mixed with EDs on driving performance have been poorly studied. The aim was to assess if there is an interaction between the effects of both dr...
Article
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Purpose Coffee is rich in compounds such as polyphenols, caffeine, diterpenes, melanoidins and trigonelline, which can stimulate brain activity. Therefore, the possible association of coffee consumption with cognition is of considerable research interest. In this paper, we assess the association of coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine inta...
Article
Scope. The postprandial effects of virgin olive oils (VOOs) enriched with phenolic compounds and triterpenes from the olive fruit on plasma glucose and insulin (primary outcomes), and gastrointestinal hormones responses were evaluated in healthy adults. Methods and results Single doses (30 mL) of three oils were evaluated: optimized polyphenols-ri...
Article
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Background & aims Some cognitive profiles might facilitate successful weight loss and its maintenance. Also, weight reductions may result in cognitive benefits. However, little work to date has examined the interactions between cognition and weight changes in the context of interventions with the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). We studied the within-...
Preprint
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BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes was related with larger cognitive decline. However, other glycemic dysregulations showed inconsistent results. Our aim was to examine longitudinal associations between diabetes/glycemic status and cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a 2-year prospective cohort study (n=6,874)...
Article
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Rationale Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that lacks of an effective treatment. Isoflavones are a family of compounds present in different plants and vegetables like soybeans that share a common chemical structure. Previous studies have described that synthetic derivatives from the natural isoflavone daidzin can modulate cocaine a...
Article
Objectives High adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with a risk reduction on cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and osteoporosis among others. The aim of the present study is to use ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) as a tool to monitor and promote adherence to the MedDiet. Methods A set of dietary...
Article
Objectives Ceramides (Cer) are a class of bioactive lipids that are receiving increasing attention as biomarkers of cardiometabolic diseases. Tyrosol (Tyr) is a phenolic compound present in olive oil and wine. Once ingested, it is partially biotransformed into hydroxytyrosol (HOTyr). Tyr and its partial biotransformation into HOTyr promote cardiova...
Article
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This study examines if overweight/obesity are related to higher impulsivity, food addiction and depressive symptoms, and if these variables could be modified after 1 year of a multimodal intervention (diet, physical activity, psychosocial support). 342 adults (55–75 years) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) from the PREDIMED-Plus...
Article
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Cannabis is the third most commonly used psychoactive substance of abuse, yet it also receives considerable attention as a potential therapeutic drug. Therefore, it is essential to fully understand the actions of cannabis in the human brain. The olfactory neuroepithelium (ON) is a peripheral nervous tissue that represents an interesting surrogate m...
Article
Goals To explore affective and cognitive status, later in life, in individuals with and without previous history of eating disorder (ED), and also its association with higher risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) symptomatology. Methods A cross‐sectional analysis of 6756 adults, aged 55–75 years with overweight/obesity and MetS participating in the P...
Article
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Introduction: Subjects exhibiting subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are at an increased risk for mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Given the delay between risk exposure and disease onset, SCD individuals are increasingly considered a good target population for cost-effective lifestyle-based Alzheimer's disease prevention trials. Methods:...
Article
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Trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Down syndrome, DS) alters development of multiple organ systems, including the face and underlying skeleton. Besides causing stigmata, these facial dysmorphologies can impair vital functions such as hearing, breathing, mastication, and health. To investigate the therapeutic potential of green tea extracts containing...
Article
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A close epidemiological link has been reported between cannabis use and schizophrenia (SCZ). However, biochemical markers in living humans related to the impact of cannabis in this disease are still missing. Olfactory neuroepithelium (ON) cells express neural features and offer a unique advantage to study biomarkers of psychiatric diseases. The aim...
Article
In this article, we propose that differences in COVID-19 morbidity may be associated with transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and/or transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) activation as well as desensitization. TRPA1 and TRPV1 induce inflammation and play a key role in the physiology of almost all organs. They may augment senso...
Article
Background Neuropathic pain is a complex condition characterized by sensory, cognitive and affective symptoms that magnify the perception of pain. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms are largely unknown and there is an urgent need for the development of novel medications. The endocannabinoid system modulates pain perception and drugs targeting the...
Article
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COVID-19 is described in a clinical case involving a patient who proposed the hypothesis that Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-interacting nutrients may help to prevent severe COVID-19 symptoms. Capsules of broccoli seeds containing glucoraphanin were being taken before the onset of SARS-CoV-2 infection and were continued daily fo...
Article
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Our aim was to assess the combination of olive tree-related extracts with the most favorable profile of in vitro bioactive properties. We tested the antioxidant (increment of low-density lipoprotein resistance against oxidation), vasoactive (promotion of nitric oxide release and decrease of endothelin-1 production in human umbilical vein endothelia...
Article
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Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone with psychostimulant properties which remains one of the most popular new psychoactive substances (NPS). It is frequently used orally and/or intranasally. To date, no studies have evaluated the acute effects and pharmacokinetics after self-administration of mephedrone orally (ingestion) an...
Chapter
Olive oil is a functional food which besides a high level of monounsaturated fatty acid contains multiple minor components with biological properties. The most well-known minor olive oil components are the phenolic compounds mainly present in virgin olive oil. Phenolic compounds from olive oil are bioavailable in humans in a direct dose-dependent m...
Article
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We explored the impact of the Spanish COVID-19 strict home confinement on mental health and cognition in non-infected subjects (N = 16, 60–80 years) diagnosed with subjective cognitive decline and APOE ɛ3/ɛ4 carriers. Mental health was monitored for 2 months on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis, and compared to pre-confinement values. Emotional dis...
Article
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There are large country variations in COVID-19 death rates that may be partly explained by diet. Many countries with low COVID-19 death rates have a common feature of eating large quantities of fermented vegetables such as cabbage and, in some continents, various spices. Fermented vegetables and spices are agonists of the antioxidant transcription...
Article
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The effect of immunosuppressant treatments on the incidence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remains largely unknown. We studied the association between the pre-exposure to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) that decrease immunological responses and the incidence of COVID-19 to explore the possible effects of these treatments in early...
Article
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Introduction The Multidimensional Weight Locus of Control Scale (MWLCS) measures a person’s beliefs regarding the locus of control or lack of locus of control over his/her body weight. Purpose We aim to evaluate the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the MWLCS with Spanish normal weight, overweight and obese samples. Methods The r...
Article
Current evidence suggests that multimodal interventions with diet, physical activity and cognitive training could prevent cognitive decline in individuals at preclinical stages of Alzheimer’s disease. However, maintaining subject compliance is a critical challenge for the success of studies that involve intensive behavioral changes. The PENSA Study...
Article
A large number of modifiable risk factors for AD have been identified in observational studies, many of which do not appear to exert effects through amyloid or tau. This suggests that primary prevention studies focusing on risk reduction and lifestyle modification may offer benefits. The PENSA Study is a clinical trial aiming at preventing cognitiv...
Article
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The Human Proteome Project (HPP) consortium aims to functionally characterize the dark proteome. On the basis of the relevance of olfaction in early neurodegeneration, we have analyzed the dark proteome using data mining in public resources and omics data sets derived from the human olfactory system. Multiple dark proteins localize at synaptic term...
Article
Introduction and objectives The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is an indicator of peripheral artery disease (PAD). The aim of this study was to assess the association between PAD, measured with the ABI, and cognitive function in persons with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted with baseline data from t...
Conference Paper
Background: This study aimed to explore novel modelling methods for intensive longitudinal data of physical activity (PA) and sleep. Methods: Observational study with preliminary data from 11 individuals (9 women; 60-80 years). Moderate-to-vigorous PA, slow-wave (SW), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep were measured objectively during 14 days with...
Article
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Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is currently a global pandemic that affects patients with other pathologies. Here, we investigated the influence of treatments for osteoporosis and other non-inflammatory rheumatic conditions, such as osteoarthritis and fibromyalgia, on COVID-19 incidence. To this end, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 2,102...
Article
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Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) species are bioactive lipids participating in neurodevelopmental processes. The aim was to investigate whether the relevant species of LPA were associated with clinical features of alcohol addiction. A total of 55 abstinent alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients were compared with 34 age/sex/body mass index-matched controls...
Article
Resumen Introducción y objetivos El índice tobillo-brazo (ITB) es un indicador de enfermedad arterial periférica (EAP). El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la asociación entre la EAP medida con el ITB y el rendimiento cognitivo de individuos con sobrepeso u obesidad y síndrome metabólico. Métodos Estudio transversal realizado con los datos bas...
Article
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Reducing the risk of dementia can halt the worldwide increase of affected people. The multifactorial and heterogeneous nature of late‐onset dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), indicates a potential impact of multidomain lifestyle interventions on risk reduction. The positive results of the landmark multidomain Finnish Geriatric Interventi...
Article
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Beer is a fermented beverage with beneficial phenolic compounds and is widely consumed worldwide. The current study aimed to describe the content of three families of phenolic compounds with relevant biological activities: prenylated flavonoids (from hops), simple phenolic alcohols (from fermentation) and alkylresorcinols (from cereals) in a large...
Article
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Objectives The validation of tailored dietary Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) to evaluate the continuous adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) for its use in the framework of nutritional intervention clinical studies. Methods We have developed a set of dietary mobile-app EMAs to evaluate the consumption of characteristics component...
Article
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The flavanol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is being tested for the treatment of several diseases in humans. However, its bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile needs a better understanding to enable its use in clinical trials. There is no consensus on the most appropriate concentration of EGCG in the body to obtain the maximum therapeutic ef...
Article
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Background: The Traditional Mediterranean Diet (TMD) is known to have beneficial effects on several chronic diseases. However, data concerning the whole transcriptome modulation of the TMD are scarce. Objective: We aimed to explore the effects of the TMD on the whole transcriptome of individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: Thirty-four par...
Article
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Schizophrenia (SCZ) has been associated with serotonergic and endocannabinoid systems dysregulation, but difficulty in obtaining in vivo neurological tissue has limited its exploration. We investigated CB1R-5-HT2AR heteromer expression and functionality via intracellular pERK and cAMP quantification in olfactory neuroepithelium (ON) cells of SCZ pa...
Article
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2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine (2C-E) is psychedelic phenylethylamine, with a chemical structure similar to mescaline, used as new psychoactive substance (NPS). It inhibits norepinephrine and serotonin uptake and, more relevant, acts as a partial agonist of the serotonin 2A (5-HT2A), 2B (5-HT2B), and (5-HT2C) receptors. Consumers have reported...
Article
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Objective: The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a combined intervention involving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and cognitive training (CT). Short-term effects on food consumption, cognition, endocannabinoid (eCB) levels, and electroencephalogram (EEG) markers of...
Article
Background and purpose: Protective mechanisms of the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system against drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are actively being investigated regarding the differential regulatory role of the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors in liver fibrogenesis and inflammation. Experimental approach: The 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG)-rel...
Article
To date, pharmacokinetics of maslinic (MA) and oleanolic (OA) acids, at normal dietary intakes in humans, have not been evaluated, and data concerning their bioactive effects are scarce. We assessed MA and OA pharmacokinetics after ingestion of olive oils (OOs) with high and low triterpenic acid contents, specifically the effect of triterpenes on e...