# Rafael De la LlaveGeorgia Institute of Technology | GT · School of Mathematics

Rafael De la Llave

Ph. D, Mathematics Princeton Univ. 1983

## About

247

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5,798

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Introduction

Additional affiliations

August 2011 - present

August 2011 - present

September 1989 - September 2011

Education

September 1979 - June 1983

## Publications

Publications (247)

Dissipative systems play a very important role in several physical models, most notably in Celestial Mechanics, where the dissipation drives the motion of natural and artificial satellites, leading them to migration of orbits, resonant states, etc. Hence, there is the need to develop theories that ensure the existence of structures such as invarian...

We consider functional differential equations (FDEs) which are perturbations of smooth ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The FDE can involve multiple state-dependent delays, distributed delays, or implicitly defined delays (forward or backward). We show that, under some mild assumptions on the perturbation, if the ODE has a nondegenerate peri...

In recent papers, we developed extremely accurate methods to compute quasi-periodic attractors in a model of Celestial Mechanics: the spin-orbit problem with a dissipative tidal torque. This problem is a singular perturbation of a conservative system. The goal is to show that it is possible to maintain the accuracy and reliability of the computatio...

\def\G{\mathcal G} \def\M{\mathcal M} \def\cE{\mathcal E} We prove an analog of Liv\v{s}ic theorem for real-analytic families of cocycles over an integrable system with values in a Banach algebra $\G$ or a Lie group. Namely, we consider an integrable dynamical system $f:\M \equiv\torus^d \times [-1,1]^d\to \M$, $f(\theta, I)=(\theta + I, I)$, and a...

We consider a singular perturbation for a family of analytic symplectic maps of the annulus possessing a KAM torus. The perturbation introduces dissipation and contains an adjustable parameter. By choosing the adjustable parameter, one can ensure that the torus persists under perturbation. Such models are common in celestial mechanics. In field the...

The paper [39] uses the Craig-Wayne-Bourgain method to construct solutions of an elliptic problem involving parameters. The results of [39] include regularity assumptions on the perturbation and involve excluding parameters. The paper [39] also constructs response solutions to a quasi-periodically perturbed (ill-posed evolution) problem.
In this pa...

The genericity of Arnold diffusion in the analytic category is an open problem. In this paper, we study this problem in the following a priori unstable Hamiltonian system with a time-periodic perturbation H ε ( p , q , I , φ , t ) = h ( I ) + ∑ i = 1 n ± 1 2 p i 2 + V i ( q i ) + ε H 1 ( p , q , I , φ , t ) , where ( p , q ) ∈ R n × T n , ( I , φ )...

It is well known for experts that resonances in nonlinear systems lead to new invariant objects that lead to new behaviors. The goal of this paper is to study the invariant sets generated by resonances under foliation preserving torus maps. That is torus which preserve a foliation of irrational lines $L_{\theta_{0}}=\{\theta_{0}+\Omega t | t\in\mat...

We consider the dissipative spin–orbit problem in Celestial Mechanics, which describes the rotational motion of a triaxial satellite moving on a Keplerian orbit subject to tidal forcing and drift. Our goal is to construct quasi-periodic solutions with fixed frequency, satisfying appropriate conditions. With the goal of applying rigorous KAM theory,...

We consider the planar circular restricted three-body problem, as a model for the motion of a spacecraft relative to the Earth–Moon system. We focus on the collinear equilibrium points \(L_1\) and \(L_2\). There are families of Lyapunov periodic orbits around either \(L_1\) or \(L_2\), forming Lyapunov manifolds. There also exist homoclinic orbits...

When the planar circular restricted 3-body problem (RTBP) is periodically perturbed, families of unstable periodic orbits break up into whiskered tori, with most tori persisting into the perturbed system. In this study, we (1) develop a quasi-Newton method which simultaneously solves for the tori and their center, stable, and unstable directions; (...

We provide evidence of the existence of KAM quasi-periodic attractors for a dissipative model in Celestial Mechanics. We compute the attractors extremely close to the breakdown threshold.
We consider the spin–orbit problem describing the motion of a triaxial satellite around a central planet under the simplifying assumption that the center of mass...

We present results towards a constructive approach to show the existence of quasi-periodic solutions in non-perturbative regimes of some dissipative systems, called conformally symplectic systems. Finding a quasi-periodic solution of conformally symplectic systems with fixed frequency requires to choose a parameter, called the drift parameter.
The...

We present and analyze rigorously a quadratically convergent algorithm to compute an invariant circle for 2-dimensional maps along with the corresponding foliation by stable manifolds. We prove that when the algorithm starts from an initial guess that satisfies the invariance equation very approximately (depending on some condition numbers, evaluat...

We present and implement an algorithm for computing the invariant circle and the corresponding stable manifolds for 2-dimensional maps. The algorithm is based on the parameterization method, and it is backed up by an a-posteriori theorem established in [YdlL21]. The algorithm works irrespective of whether the internal dynamics in the invariant circ...

In the present work, we obtain rigidity results analyzing the set of regular points, in the sense of Oseledec’s Theorem. It is presented a study on the possibility of Anosov diffeomorphisms having all Lyapunov exponents defined everywhere. We prove that this condition implies local rigidity of an Anosov automorphism of the torus \(\mathbb {T}^{d},...

When the planar circular restricted 3-body problem is periodically perturbed, most unstable periodic orbits become invariant tori. However, 2D Poincar\'e sections no longer work to find their manifolds' intersections; new methods are needed. In this study, we first review a method of restricting the intersection search to only certain manifold subs...

Many unstable periodic orbits of the planar circular restricted 3-body problem (PCRTBP) persist as invariant tori when a periodic forcing is added to the equations of motion. In this study, we compute tori corresponding to exterior Jupiter-Europa and interior Jupiter-Ganymede PCRTBP resonant periodic orbits in a concentric circular restricted 4-bod...

In recent years, stable and unstable manifolds of invariant objects (such as libration points and periodic orbits) have been increasingly recognized as an efficient tool for designing transfer trajectories in space missions. However, most methods currently used in mission design rely on using eigenvectors of the linearized dynamics as local approxi...

The paper [Shi19] uses the Craig-Wayne-Bourgain method to construct solutions of an elliptic problem involving parameters. The results of [Shi19] include regularity assumptions on the perturbation and involve excluding parameters. The paper [Shi19] also constructs response solutions to a quasi-periodically perturbed (ill-posed evolution) problem. I...

Consider an analytic Hamiltonian system near its analytic invariant torus $\mathcal T_0$ carrying zero frequency. We assume that the Birkhoff normal form of the Hamiltonian at $\mathcal T_0$ is convergent and has a particular form: it is an analytic function of its non-degenerate quadratic part. We prove that in this case there is an analytic canon...

We provide evidence of the existence of KAM quasi-periodic attractors for a dissipative model in Celestial Mechanics. We compute the attractors extremely close to the breakdown threshold. We consider the spin-orbit problem describing the motion of a triaxial satellite around a central planet under the simplifying assumption that the center of mass...

We consider the dissipative spin-orbit problem in Celestial Mechanics, which describes the rotational motion of a triaxial satellite moving on a Keplerian orbit subject to tidal forcing and "drift". Our goal is to construct quasi-periodic solutions with fixed frequency, satisfying appropriate conditions. With the goal of applying rigorous KAM theor...

This paper presents a methodology to study non-twist invariant circles and their bifurcations for area preserving maps, which is supported on the theoretical framework developed in Gonzalez-Enriquez et al. (Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. 227:vi+115, 2014). We recall that non-twist invariant circles are characterized not only by being invariant, but also by...

When the planar circular restricted 3-body problem (RTBP) is periodically perturbed, families of unstable resonant periodic orbits break up into whiskered tori, with most tori persisting into the perturbed system. In this study, we 1) develop a quasi-Newton method which simultaneously solves for the tori and their center, stable, and unstable direc...

We consider the planar circular restricted three-body problem (PCRTBP), as a model for the motion of a spacecraft relative to the Earth-Moon system. We focus on the Lagrange equilibrium points $L_1$ and $L_2$. There are families of Lyapunov periodic orbits around either $L_1$ or $L_2$, forming Lyapunov manifolds. There also exist homoclinic orbits...

Consider an analytic Hamiltonian system near its analytic invariant torus $\mathcal T_0$ carrying zero frequency. We assume that the Birkhoff normal form of the Hamiltonian at $\mathcal T_0$ is convergent and has a particular form: it is an analytic function of its non-degenerate quadratic part. We prove that in this case there is an analytic canon...

We consider functional differential equations(FDEs) which are perturbations of smooth ordinary differential equations(ODEs). The FDE can involve multiple state-dependent delays or distributed delays (forward or backward). We show that, under some mild assumptions, if the ODE has a nondegenerate periodic orbit, then the FDE has a smooth periodic orb...

We study the problem of instability in the following a priori unstable Hamiltonian system with a time-periodic perturbation
\[\mathcal{H}_\varepsilon(p,q,I,\varphi,t)=h(I)+\sum_{i=1}^n\pm \left(\frac{1}{2}p_i^2+V_i(q_i)\right)+\varepsilon H_1(p,q,I,\varphi, t), \] where $(p,q)\in \mathbb{R}^n\times\mathbb{T}^n$, $(I,\varphi)\in\mathbb{R}^d\times\m...

We prove persistence result of whiskered tori for the dynamical system which preserves an exact presymplectic form. The results are given in an a-posteriori format. Given an approximate solution of an invariance equation which satisfies some non-degeneracy assumptions, we conclude that there is a true solution close by. The proof is based on certai...

We study the effect of time-dependent, non-conservative perturbations on the dynamics along homoclinic orbits to a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold. We assume that the unperturbed system is Hamiltonian, and the normally hyperbolic invariant manifold is parametrized via action-angle coordinates. The homoclinic excursions can be described via t...

In recent years, stable and unstable manifolds of invariant objects (such as libration points and periodic orbits) have been increasingly recognized as an efficient tool for designing transfer trajectories in space missions. However, most methods currently used in mission design rely on using eigenvectors of the linearized dynamics as local approxi...

We consider a singular perturbation for a family of analytic symplectic maps of the annulus possessing a KAM torus. The perturbation introduces dissipation and contains an adjustable parameter. By choosing the adjustable parameter, one can ensure that the torus persists under perturbation. Such models are common in celestial mechanics. In field the...

Dissipative systems play a very important role in several physical models, most notably in Celestial Mechanics, where the dissipation drives the motion of natural and artificial satellites, leading them to migration of orbits, resonant states, etc. Hence the need to develop theories that ensure the existence of structures such as invariant tori or...

We investigate the existence of whiskered tori in some dissipative systems, called conformally symplectic systems, having the property that they transform the symplectic form into a multiple of itself. We consider a family f_μ of conformally symplectic maps which depends on a drift parameter μ.
We fix a Diophantine frequency of the torus and we as...

We study the possibility that Anosov or expanding maps have Lyapunov exponents defined everywhere. We discover that, in low dimensions, we have that the maps with exponents defined everywhere are smoothly conjugate to linear maps. In higher dimensions, we present somewhat weaker results ($C^{1 +\varepsilon}$ conjugacy with extra hypothesis on the s...

We consider state-dependent delay equations (SDDE) obtained by adding delays to a planar ordinary differential equation with a limit cycle. These situations appear in models of several physical processes, where small delay effects are added. Even if the delays are small, they are very singular perturbations since the natural phase space of an SDDE...

We present algorithms and their implementation to compute limit cycles and their isochrons for state-dependent delay equations (SDDE's) which are perturbed from a planar differential equation with a limit cycle. Note that the space of solutions of an SDDE is infinite dimensional. We compute a two parameter family of solutions of the SDDE which conv...

From the beginning of KAM theory, it was realized that its applicability to realistic problems depended on developing quantitative estimates on the sizes of the perturbations allowed. In this paper we present results on the existence of quasi-periodic solutions for conformally symplectic systems in non-perturbative regimes. We recall that, for conf...

We investigate the existence of whiskered tori in some dissipative systems, called conformally symplectic systems, having the property that
they transform the symplectic form into a multiple of itself. We consider a family f_\mu of conformally symplectic maps which depend on a drift parameter \mu.
We fix a Diophantine frequency of the torus and we...

We prove several results establishing existence and regularity of stable manifolds for different classes of special solutions for evolution equations (these equations may be ill-posed): a single specific solution, an invariant torus filled with quasiperiodic orbits or more general manifolds of solutions. In the later cases, which include several or...

We consider several models of State Dependent Delay Differential Equations (SDDEs), in which the delay is affected by a small parameter. This is a very singular perturbation since the nature of the equation changes. Under some conditions, we construct formal power series, which solve the SDDEs order by order. These series are quasi-periodic functio...

We give a simple proof of the existence of response solutions in some quasi-periodically forced systems with a degenerate fixed points. The same questions were answered in \cite{ss18} using two versions of KAM theory. Our method is based on reformulating the existence of response solutions as a fixed point problem in appropriate spaces of smooth fu...

We study the effect of time-dependent, non-conservative perturbations on the dynamics along homoclinic orbits to a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold. We assume that the unperturbed system is Hamiltonian, and the normally hyperbolic invariant manifold is parametrized via action-angle coordinates. The homoclinic excursions can be described via t...

We consider several models (including both multidimensional ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and partial differential equations (PDEs), possibly ill-posed), subject to very strong damping and quasi-periodic external forcing. We study the existence of response solutions (i.e., quasi-periodic solutions with the same frequency as the forcing). U...

The goal of this paper is to develop a KAM theory for tori with hyperbolic directions, which applies to Hamiltonian partial differential equations, even to some ill-posed ones. The main result has an \emph{a-posteriori} format, i.e., we show that if there is an approximate solution of an invariance equation which also satisfies some non-degeneracy...

We study the existence of whiskered tori in a family $f_\mu$ of conformally symplectic maps depending on parameters $\mu$. Whiskered tori are tori on which the motion is a rotation, but they have as many expanding/contracting directions as allowed by the preservation of the geometric structure. Our main result is formulated in an "a-posteriori" for...

We investigate the existence of whiskered tori in some dissipative systems, called \sl conformally symplectic \rm systems, having the property that they transform the symplectic form into a multiple of itself. We consider a family $f_\mu$ of conformally symplectic maps which depend on a drift parameter $\mu$. We fix a Diophantine frequency of the t...

We present an exposition of a remarkable example attributed to Frederick Almgren Jr. in \cite[Section 5.11]{Federer74} to illustrate the need of certain definitions in the calculus of variations. The Almgren-Federer example, besides its intended goal of illustrating subtle aspects of geometric measure theory, is also a problem in the theory of geod...

We consider a mechanical system consisting of $n$ penduli and a $d$-dimensional generalized rotator subject to a time-dependent perturbation. The perturbation is not assumed to be either Hamiltonian, or periodic or quasi-periodic. The strength of the perturbation is given by a parameter $\epsilon\in\mathbb{R}$. For all $|\epsilon|$ sufficiently sma...

We perform a numerical study on Frenkel–Kontrova (FK) models in quasi-periodic media subject to a constant external force. The quasi-periodic FK models appear in several physical problems such as deposition, spin waves in 1-D, planar dislocations in 3-D either in a quasi-crystal or on a cleaved surface with irrational slopes of a periodic crystal....

For a nondegenerate analytic system with a conserved quantity, a classic result by Lyapunov guarantees the existence of an analytic manifold of periodic orbits tangent to any two-dimensional, elliptic eigenspace of a fixed point satisfying nonresonance conditions. These two dimensional manifolds are referred as Lyapunov Subcenter Manifolds (LSM). N...

In this paper, we describe and implement an efficient and accurate method to compute transition states in quasi-periodically forced systems as well as their stable and unstable manifolds. We implement the method for a system that has been used in the literature several times (see e.g. Craven et al. [20]). We note that the calculations based on the...

A well-known result in complex dynamics shows that if the iterates of an analytic map are uniformly bounded in a complex domain, then the map is analytically conjugate to a linear map. We present a simple proof of this result in any dimension. We also present several generalizations and relations to other results in the literature.

In this paper, we use the parameterization method to construct quasi-periodic solutions of state-dependent delay differential equations. For example $$\begin{aligned} \left\{ \begin{aligned} \dot{x}(t)&=f(\theta ,x(t),\epsilon x(t-\tau (x(t))))\\ \dot{\theta }(t)&=\omega . \end{aligned} \right. \end{aligned}$$Under the assumption of exponential dic...

We present simple proofs of a result of L.D. Pustylnikov extending to nonautonomous dynamics the Siegel theorem of linearization of analytic mappings. We show that if a sequence fn of analytic mappings of Cd has a common fixed point fn(0) = 0, and the maps fn converge to a linear mapping A∞ so fast that $$\sum\limits_n {{{\left\| {{f_m} - {A_\infty...

We show that a foliation of equilibria (a continuous family of equilibria
whose graph covers all the configuration space) in ferromagnetic models are
ground states.
The result we prove is very general, and it applies to models with long range
interactions and many body. As an application, we consider several models of
networks of interacting partic...

We develop an a posteriori KAM theory for the equilibrium equations for quasiperiodic solutions in a quasi-periodic Frenkel-Kontorova model when the frequency of the solutions resonates with the frequencies of the substratum. The main motivation for the study of these solutions is that they are present when there are constant external forces while...

This paper investigates the global dynamics of a mean field model of the electroencephalogram developed by Liley \emph{et al.}, 2002. The model is presented as a system of coupled ordinary and partial differential equations with periodic boundary conditions. Existence, uniqueness, and regularity of weak and strong solutions of the model are establi...

We construct analytic quasi-periodic solutions of a state-dependent delay differential equation with quasi-periodically forcing. We show that if we consider a family of problems that depends on one dimensional parameters (with some non-degeneracy conditions), there is a positive measure set Π of parameters for which the system admits analytic quasi...

We develop a theoretical framework for computer-assisted proofs of the existence of invariant objects in semilinear PDEs. The invariant objects considered in this paper are equilibrium points, traveling waves, periodic orbits and invariant manifolds attached to fixed points or periodic orbits. The core of the study is writing down the invariance co...

We present numerical results and computer assisted proofs of the existence of periodic orbits for the Kuramoto-Sivashinky equation. These two results are based on writing down the existence of periodic orbits as zeros of functionals. This leads to the use of Newton's algorithm for the numerical computation of the solutions and, with some a posterio...

We consider 1-D quasi-periodic Frenkel–Kontorova models. We study the existence of equilibria whose frequency (i.e. the inverse of the density of deposited material) is resonant with the frequencies of the substratum. We study perturbation theory for small potential. We show that there are perturbative expansions to all orders for the quasi-periodi...

We develop and implement computer assisted arguments which establish the existence of heteroclinic/homoclinic connecting orbits between fixed points of compact infinite dimensional maps. The argument is based on a-posteriori analysis of a certain “finite time boundary value problem”. A key ingredient in the analysis is the representation of local s...

We show how to compute the standard integrals integral e(at) cos(bt) dt, integral e(at) sin(bt) dt, and others just by computing derivatives.

We present a diffusion mechanism for time-dependent perturbations of autonomous Hamiltonian systems introduced in Gidea (2014 arXiv:1405.0866). This mechanism is based on shadowing of pseudo-orbits generated by two dynamics: an 'outer dynamics', given by homoclinic trajectories to a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold, and an 'inner dynamics', g...

Many problems in Physics are described by dynamical systems that are
conformally symplectic (e.g., mechanical systems with a friction proportional
to the velocity, variational problems with a small discount or thermostated
systems). Conformally symplectic systems are characterized by the property that
they transform a symplectic form into a multipl...

We develop an a-posteriori KAM theory for the equilibrium equations for
quasi-periodic solutions in a quasi-periodic Frenkel-Kontorova model when the
frequency of the solutions resonates with the frequencies of the substratum.
The KAM theory we develop is very different both in the methods and in the
conclusions from the more customary KAM theory f...

We consider 1-D quasi-periodic Frenkel-Kontorova models (describing, for
example, deposition of materials in a quasi-periodic substratum). We study the
existence of equilibria whose frequency (i.e. the inverse of the density of
deposited material) is resonant with the frequencies of the substratum.
We study perturbation theory for small potential....

We consider several models of nonlinear wave equations subject to very strong
damping and quasi-periodic external forcing. This is a singular perturbation,
since the damping is not the highest order term. We study the existence of
response solutions (i.e., quasi-periodic solutions with the same frequency as
the forcing). Under very general non-reso...

Greene's criterion for twist mappings asserts the existence of smooth invariant circles with preassigned rotation number if and only if the periodic trajectories with frequency approaching that of the quasi-periodic orbit are at the border of linear stability. We formulate an extension of this criterion for conformally symplectic systems in any dim...

In this paper we identify the geometric structures that restrict transport
and mixing in perturbations of integrable volume-preserving systems with
nonzero net flux. Unlike KAM tori, these objects cannot be continued to the
tori present in the integrable system but are generated by resonance and have a
contractible direction. We introduce a remarka...

We construct quasi-periodic and almost periodic solutions for coupled
Hamiltonian systems on an infinite lattice which is translation invariant. The
couplings can be long range, provided that they decay moderately fast with
respect to the distance. For the solutions we construct, most of the sites are
moving in a neighborhood of a hyperbolic fixed...

We present a general mechanism to establish the existence of diffusing orbits
in a large class of nearly integrable Hamiltonian systems. Our approach relies
on the scattering map (outer) dynamics and on the recurrence property of the
(inner) dynamics restricted to a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold. We
apply topological methods to find trajec...

We study the existence of quasi–periodic solutions x of the equation ε + ˙ x + εg(x) = εf (ωt) , where x : R → R is the unknown and we are given g : R → R, f : T d → R, ω ∈ R d . We assume that there is a c 0 ∈ R such that g(c 0) f 0 (wherê f 0 denotes the average of f) and g (c 0) = 0. Special cases of this equation, for example when g(x) = x 2 ,...

We study the behavior of conformally symplectic systems near rotational Lagrangian tori. We recall that conformally symplectic systems appear for example in mechanical models including a friction proportional to the velocity. We show that in a neighborhood of these quasi–periodic solutions (either transi-tive tori of maximal dimension or periodic s...

We present a KAM theory for some dissipative systems (geometrically, these are conformally symplectic systems, i.e. systems that transform a symplectic form into a multiple of itself). For systems with n degrees of freedom depending on n parameters we show that it is possible to find solutions with a fixed n-dimensional (Diophantine) frequency by a...

We consider a geodesic flow on a compact manifold endowed with a Riemannian
(or Finsler, or Lorentz) metric satisfying some generic, explicit conditions.
We couple the geodesic flow with a time-dependent potential, driven by an
external flow on some other compact manifold. If the external flow satisfies
some very general recurrence condition, and t...

In this monograph we introduce a new method to study bifurcations of KAM tori with fixed Diophantine frequency in parameter-dependent Hamiltonian systems. It is based on Singularity Theory of critical points of a real-valued function which we call the potential. The potential is constructed in such a way that: nondegenerate critical points of the p...

We consider models given by Hamiltonians of the form
$$H(I,\phi,p,q,t;\epsilon) = h(I) + \sum_{j = 1}^n \pm(\frac{1}{2} p_j^2 +
V_j(q_j)) + \epsilon Q(I,\phi,p,q,t;\epsilon)$$ where $I,\phi$ are
d-dimensional actions and angles, $p,q$ are n-dimensional real conjugated
variables, and $t$ is an angle. These are higher dimensional analogues, both in
t...

We study numerically the "analyticity breakdown" transition in 1-dimensional
quasi-periodic media. This transition corresponds physically to the transition
between pinned down and sliding ground states. Mathematically, it corresponds
to the solutions of a functional equation losing their analyticity properties.
We implemented some recent numerical...

In this paper we consider lattice systems coupled by local interactions. We
prove invariant manifold theorems for whiskered tori (we recall that whiskered
tori are quasi-periodic solutions with exponentially contracting and expanding
directions in the linearized system). The invariant manifolds we construct
generalize the usual (strong) (un) stable...

We present efficient algorithms to compute limit cycles and their isochrons (i.e., the sets of points with the same asymptotic phase) for planar vector fields. We formulate a functional equation for the parameterization of the invariant cycle and its isochrons, and we show that it can be solved by means of a Newton method. Using the right transform...