Rafael Calero-Bernal

Rafael Calero-Bernal
Complutense University of Madrid | UCM · Department of Animal Health

PhD

About

160
Publications
23,236
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1,645
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Publications

Publications (160)
Article
Full-text available
Toxoplasma gondii, a major zoonotic pathogen, possess a significant genetic and phenotypic diversity that have been proposed to be responsible for the variation in clinical outcomes, mainly related to reproductive failure and ocular and neurological signs. Different T. gondii haplogroups showed strong phenotypic differences in laboratory mouse infe...
Article
Full-text available
Toxoplasma gondii is a major zoonotic agent which may cause harmful effects mainly in pregnant and immunocompromised hosts. Despite many efforts on its genetic characterization, an entirely clear picture of the population structure in Europe has not been achieved yet. The present study aimed to summarize the available genotyping information and to...
Article
Full-text available
Toxoplasma gondii is a major foodborne pathogen capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Although oocyst-associated toxoplasmosis outbreaks have been documented, the relevance of the environmental transmission route remains poorly investigated. Thus, we carried out an extensive systematic review on T. gondii oocyst contamina...
Article
The western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus), a subspecies of the common chimpanzee, is currently listed as Critically Endangered. Human-driven habitat loss and infectious diseases are causing dramatic chimpanzee population declines and range contractions that are bringing these primates to the brink of extinction. Little information is currently...
Article
Full-text available
We assessed the occurrence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic potential of four protozoan ( Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia duodenalis ), one stramenopile ( Blastocystis sp.), one microsporidia ( Enterocytozoon bieneusi ), and two ciliate ( Balantioides coli, Troglodytella abrassarti ) intestinal parasite or com...
Poster
Full-text available
The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is one of the most endangered felid species in the world. Conservation efforts have increased its population size and distribution and reinforced their genetic diversity through captive breeding and reintroduction programmes. Among several threats that the Iberian lynx faces, infectious and parasitic diseases have u...
Article
Full-text available
Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic agent with high genetic diversity, complex epidemiology, and variable clinical outcomes in animals and humans. In veterinary medicine, this apicomplexan parasite is considered one of the main infectious agents responsible for reproductive failure in small ruminants worldwide. The aim of this study was to p...
Article
Full-text available
Little information is currently available on the occurrence and genetic diversity of pathogenic and commensal protist species in captive and semi-captive non-human primates (NHP) resident in zoological gardens or sanctuaries in low- and medium-income countries. In this molecular-based study, we prospectively collected individual faecal samples from...
Article
Enteropathogenic parasites can infect a wide range of mammals, including humans, supposing an important zoonotic risk. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen of increasing public health relevance, affecting both human and animal populations. Because both microorganisms share faecal-oral transmission route they may constitute an e...
Article
Full-text available
Wild chimpanzee populations in West Africa (Pan troglodytes verus) have dramatically decreased as a direct consequence of anthropogenic activities and infectious diseases. Little information is currently available on the epidemiology, pathogenic significance, and zoonotic potential of protist species in wild chimpanzees. This study investigates the...
Article
Spirocerca lupi infection in dogs (Canis domesticus) is associated with esophageal lesions that may evolve to a neoplastic stage in the form of esophageal sarcoma. In the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) infected with the closely related Spirocerca vulpis, similar lesions may occur in the stomach, but neoplastic forms have not been reported. We characterize...
Article
Numerous protist species are shared between humans and pigs. Among those, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Balantioides coli have a clear public and animal health significance. For other such as Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Blastocystis sp., their impact in animal health has not been fully stablished. Little information is currently ava...
Article
Full-text available
Some enteric parasites causing zoonotic diseases in livestock have been poorly studied or even neglected. This is the case in stramenopile Blastocystis sp. and the microsporidia Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Spain. This transversal molecular epidemiological survey aims to estimate the prevalence and molecular diversity of Blastocystis sp. and E. biene...
Article
Full-text available
Sarcoptic mange caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei is a worldwide-distributed skin infestation with a wide range of hosts, among them several species within the Felidae family. Sarcoptes scabiei was diagnosed in a dead adult female European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) from Spain, based on histological evaluation of skin biopsies and ide...
Article
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Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) is a North African native wild Caprinae, introduced in the 1970s in new territories such as Spain, the USA, and Mexico. Here, we describe Sarcocystis species in Barbary sheep. Sarcocysts were found in 19 out of 56 adult A. lervia in Southern Spain and characterized morphologically and molecularly. By light microsco...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have unsuccessfully tried to unravel the definitive host of the coccidian parasite Besnoitia besnoiti. Cattle infections by B. besnoiti cause a chronic and debilitating condition called bovine besnoitiosis that has emerged in Europe during the last two decades, mainly due to limitations in its control associated to the absence of v...
Article
Full-text available
Preservation and conservation of biological specimens, including faecal samples, is a challenge in remote areas or poor-resource settings where the cold chain cannot be maintained. This study aims at evaluating the suitability of filter cards for long-term storage of faecal samples of animal and human origin positive to the diarrhoea-causing protoz...
Preprint
Full-text available
Numerous studies have unsuccessfully tried to unravel the definitive host of the coccidian parasite Besnoitia besnoiti . Cattle infections by B. besnoiti cause a chronic and debilitating condition called bovine besnoitiosis that has emerged in Europe during the last two decades, mainly due to limitations in its control associated to the absence of...
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence and molecular diversity of the stramenopile eukaryote Blasto-cystis sp. was investigated by PCR and sequencing (Sanger and NGS) methods in 380 faecal specimens of free-living carnivores in Spain. Blastocystis sp. was confirmed in 1.6% (6/380) of the specimens analysed. Two samples from a common genet and a fox were successfully subty...
Article
Full-text available
Felidae as definitive hosts for Toxoplasma gondii play a major role in transmission to all warm-blooded animals trough oocysts dissemination. Therefore the current comprehensive study was performed to determine the global status of T. gondii infection in domestic and wild felids aiming to provide comprehensive data of interest for further intervent...
Article
Full-text available
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is the causative agent of the severe tick-borne, often fatal, zoonotic Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), which is widely distributed worldwide. The CCHFV transmission to humans occurs through tick bite, crushing of engorged ticks, or contact with infected host blood. Previously, CCHFV genotype Afr...
Article
Full-text available
Two striped dolphins (SD1, SD2), stranded along the Ligurian coast of Italy, were diagnosed with a nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis associated with previously undescribed protozoan tissue cysts. As tissue cysts were morphologically different from those of Toxoplasma gondii, additional histopathological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and b...
Article
Full-text available
Little information is currently available on the epidemiology of parasitic and commensal protist species in captive non-human primates (NHP) and their zoonotic potential. This study investigates the occurrence, molecular diversity, and potential transmission dynamics of parasitic and commensal protist species in a zoological garden in southern Spai...
Article
Full-text available
The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is one of the most endangered felid species in the world. Conservation efforts have increased its population size and distribution and reinforced their genetic diversity through captive breeding and reintroduction programmes. Among several threats that the Iberian lynx faces, infectious and parasitic diseases have u...
Article
Full-text available
Myxoma virus (MYXV) causes morbidity and mortality in European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) worldwide, and recently in Iberian hares (Lepus granatensis) in Spain. We aimed to assess the presence of MYXV-specific DNA in ixodid ticks collected from both hosts. A total of 417 ticks harvested from 30 wild lagomorphs, including wild rabbits and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Numerous studies have unsuccessfully tried to unravel the definitive host of the coccidian parasite Besnoitia besnoiti. Cattle infections by B. besnoiti cause a chronic and debilitating condition called bovine besnoitiosis that has emerged in Europe during the last two decades, mainly due to limitations in its control associated to the absence of v...
Article
Full-text available
Little information is available on the occurrence and genetic variability of the diarrhoea-causing enteric protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis in indigenous communities in Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological survey describes the frequency, genotypes, and risk associations for this pathogen in Tapirapé people (Brazilian Amazon) at four sa...
Article
Full-text available
Exploring tick associations with complex microbial communities and single-microbial partners, especially intracellular symbionts, has become crucial to understand tick biology. Of particular interest are the underlying interactions with biological consequences i.e. tick fitness, vector competence. In this study, we first sequenced the 16S rRNA bact...
Article
Full-text available
Following the publication of the original article [1] the authors flagged that, unfortunately, there are errors in Table 3 and Additional file 1: Table S1. In Table 3, the animal origin (province) of the isolate TgShSp30 was listed as Sisante (Cuenca); however, this isolate originates from Alburquerque (Badajoz). Likewise, the animal origin (provin...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to isolate and perform molecular and phenotypic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii strains infecting Iberian pigs bred under semi-free conditions and destined for human consumption. Blood and heart tissue samples from 361 fattening pigs from 10 various herds selected in the main areas of Iberian pig production were collec...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of abortion in small ruminants and presents a zoonotic risk when undercooked meat containing cysts is consumed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic diversity among the T. gondii strains circulating in ovine livestock in Spain. Methods: Selected samples collected from abortion...
Article
Full-text available
Rodents and other micromammals constitute important reservoirs of infectious diseases; their role in the life cycle of apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Sarcocystis spp. still needs clarification. In the present study, we analyzed by PCR and Sanger sequencing methods the presence of specific parasite DNA within...
Article
Full-text available
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a human pathogen with a broad range of animal hosts. Initially, E. bieneusi was considered an emerging opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised, mainly HIV-infected patients, but it has been increasingly reported in apparently healthy individuals globally. As in other African countries, the molecular epidemiology of E....
Article
Full-text available
Background: Several studies have independently evaluated the occurrence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and enteroparasites in swine, but no surveys have been conducted to jointly assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of enteroparasites in pigs and wild boars, their sympatric transmission between hosts, and their potential interaction with HEV....
Article
Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) is a vector-borne zoonotic eyeworm able to infect a broad spectrum of carnivores. Here, we describe the first case of bilateral infection by T. callipaeda in the eyes of an adult female Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) in central Spain. Nematodes collected were morphologically identified (n = 42), and...
Article
Microsporidia is a phylum of obligate emergent intracellular protist‐like fungi pathogens that infect a broad range of hosts including vertebrates and invertebrates. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common cause of microsporidiosis in humans, affecting primarily immunosuppressed patients but also reported in immunocompetent individuals. Epidemio...
Article
Full-text available
The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has been identified as an intermediate host for six known Sarcocystis species, S. capreolicanis, S. entzerothi, S. gracilis, S. linearis, S. oviformis, and S. silva. In this study, we identified Sarcocystis species in the diaphragm and tongue muscles from the Lithuanian and Spanish roe deer, respectively, on the b...
Article
The occurrence and molecular diversity of the Stramenopile eukaryote Blastocystis sp. was investigated by PCR and sequencing (Sanger and NGS) methods in 380 faecal specimens of free‐living carnivores in Spain. Blastocystis sp. was confirmed in 1.6% (6/380) of the specimens analysed. Two samples from a common genet and a fox were successfully subtyp...
Article
Full-text available
Members of the genus Sarcocystis are frequently found infecting members of the family Cervidae. Although Sarcocystis species are generally host specific for their intermediate hosts, species in cervids appear to be less host specific. Here, we report fallow deer (Dama dama) as a new host for Sarcocystis morae, originally described from the red deer...
Article
Full-text available
Members of the genus Sarcocystis are frequently found infecting members of the family Cervidae. Although Sarcocystis species are generally host specific for their intermediate hosts, species in cervids appear to be less host specific. Here, we report fallow deer (Dama dama) as a new host for Sarcocystis morae, originally described from the red deer...