Raeann Elizabeth Anderson

Raeann Elizabeth Anderson
University of North Dakota | UND · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

77
Publications
10,603
Reads
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442
Citations
Introduction
My research focuses on understanding basic psychological processes in sexual violence, including both sexual victimization and sexual perpetration, in order to improve risk reduction and prevention interventions. I also conduct research on the measurement of sexual violence
Additional affiliations
September 2015 - September 2017
Kent State University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2009 - August 2015
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Position
  • Graduate Fellow
June 2007 - June 2009
University of Kansas
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
September 2009 - August 2015
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology
August 2005 - May 2009
University of Kansas
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (77)
Preprint
Full-text available
Most individuals who experience rape do not call it “rape”; rather, they use other terms like “miscommunication”, “bad sex”, or “sexual assault”. When individuals use terms other than rape this is termed lack of rape acknowledgment or unacknowledgment. Unacknowledgment is associated with risk for repeated victimization. In Study 1, N = 439, partici...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: The goal of this study was to test the validity, utility (e.g., unique cases identified), and acceptability (e.g., missing data) of new items designed to detect cases of multiple perpetrator involved sexual violence. Methods: In Study 1, two samples of MTurk workers (N = 428, 265) were recruited to test one-stage items. In Study 2, two s...
Preprint
Background: Obtaining accurate prevalence rates of sexual violence is made difficult by discrepancies in self-reporting questionnaires. Thus, the current study sought to explore participants' perceptions of acceptability (i.e., perceived difficulty, readability, and preference) of questionnaires as an important psychometric indicator and a potentia...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: This study examined the impact of a dichotomous versus scaled response format on prevalence rates of sexual violence perpetration and victimization, thus conceptually replicating Hamby et al., 2006 and extending those findings to the context of sexual violence. Methods: Two samples were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk and were rand...
Preprint
Objective: There are many methodological issues in studying sexual violence, including potential framing effects. Framing effects refer to how researchers communicate the purpose of a study to par-ticipants, such as, how the study is advertised or explained. The aim of the current study was to inves-tigate if framing effects were associated with di...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study examined the impact of a dichotomous versus scaled response format on prevalence rates of sexual violence perpetration and victimization, thus conceptually replicating Hamby et al., 2006 and extending those findings to the context of sexual violence. Methods: Two samples were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk and were rand...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose: Prior literature illustrates that sexual minority people (e.g., bisexual, gay, queer) are at increased vulnerability for sexual violence victimization compared to heterosexual peers, including while in college. However, the study of sexual violence perpetration in sexual minority populations, much less specifically sexual minority college...
Preprint
Objective: The present study documented, compared, and contrasted the test-retest reliabilities of the victimization and perpetration forms of a Tactic-first Sexual Experiences Survey (T-SESs) and the Post-Refusal Sexual Persistence Scale (PRSPSs).Methods: 243 Mechanical Turk workers (116 women, 124 men) completed four questionnaires in a randomize...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reported prevalence rates of sexual violence range widely in the literature, even in the same sample when using two different questionnaires of the same construct. These discrepancies are concerning as they indicate we may be underestimating the rate of sexual violence and, therefore, resources and treatment for victims. Thus, the current study aim...
Article
Full-text available
Objective There are many methodological issues in studying sexual violence, including potential framing effects. Framing effects refer to how researchers communicate the purpose of a study to participants, such as, how the study is advertised or explained. The aim of this study was to investigate if framing effects were associated with differences...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The present study documented, compared, and contrasted the test-retest reliabilities of the victimization and perpetration forms of a Tactic-first Sexual Experiences Survey (T-SESs) and the Post-Refusal Sexual Persistence Scales (PRSPSs). Methods: 243 Mechanical Turk workers (116 women, 124 men) completed four questionnaires in a rand...
Article
Full-text available
The #MeToo movement illuminated vast numbers of people who experienced sexual violence, but the exact scope and impact, especially among under-studied populations (e.g., men and sexual minorities) is unclear, due in part to measurement issues. Our objective was to compare the validity of two measures of sexual violence victimization: The Sexual Exp...
Article
Full-text available
Reported prevalence rates of sexual violence range widely in the literature, even in the same sample when using two different questionnaires of the same construct. These discrepancies are concerning as they indicate we may be underestimating the rate of sexual violence and, therefore, resources and treatment for victims. Thus, the current study aim...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sexual violence, including rape, is a pervasive problem on college campuses in the United States. Although men perpetrate the majority of sexual violence, men’s attitudes, experiences, and perspec-tives are not typically included in research on rape and sexual violence. We addressed this empirical gap through our mixed-methods analysis of 365 young...
Article
Full-text available
Bisexual people are at an increased vulnerability for sexual victimization in comparison to heterosexual people, as well as gay and lesbian people. As the majority of first sexual violence experiences happen prior to age 25 for bisexual women, young bisexual people are particularly vulnerable. Despite consistent evidence of this health disparity, l...
Preprint
Full-text available
A unique form of sexual victimization that often goes undiscussed and, therefore, underassessed is that of being forced to penetrate another person (i.e., forced penetration). Due to forced penetration being a relatively novel addition to the definition of rape, there is a lack of assessment tools that identify forced penetration cases. Thus, the g...
Article
Full-text available
A unique form of sexual victimization that often goes undiscussed and, therefore, underassessed is that of being forced to penetrate another person (i.e., forced penetration). Due to forced penetration being a relatively novel addition to the definition of rape, there is a lack of assessment tools that identify forced penetration cases. Thus, the g...
Article
Full-text available
Greater accuracy is needed in the assessment of sexual victimization that occurs in intimate relationships. Existing assessment strategies in the literature often represent two distinct approaches – intimate partner violence specific strategies vs. sexual violence specific strategies. The current study compared multiple distinct strategies for asse...
Article
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and trauma symptoms have been linked with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among men, yet the field lacks depth in several key areas hampering progress toward violence intervention. Specifically, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) dominates the field's scope of trauma symptoms und...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sexual assaults against women are a leading threat to human rights and public health in the United States. Considering the high rates of sexual revictimization among women and the limited understanding of the mechanisms which fuel this phenomenon, the goal of the present study was to investigate the role of emotion in coping with a hypothetical thr...
Article
Sexual assaults against women are a leading threat to human rights and public health in the United States. Considering the high rates of sexual revictimization among women and the limited understanding of the mechanisms which fuel this phenomenon, the goal of the present study was to investigate the role of emotion in coping with a hypothetical thr...
Preprint
Bisexual women are more likely to be sexually assaulted and to receive negative reactions to disclosures of sexual assault than heterosexual and lesbian women. However, few studies have examined the extent to which victim sexual orientation and related factors influence perceptions of sexual assault victims and perpetrators. To fill this gap, the c...
Preprint
There is limited study of suicidal behaviors among veterans identifying as sexual and gender minorities (SGMs), despite previous research indicating rates of suicide attempts are high within civilian SGM populations. Further, some research incorporating military service members suggests those identifying as SGMs are disproportionately exposed to mi...
Preprint
Estimates of the rate of sexual victimization in college men vary wildly - likely due to the lack of validated measures. This study provides psychometric data on the Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization (SES-SFV) and basic descriptive characteristics of sexual victimization of college men via the SES-SFV. Participants (n = 405) comp...
Preprint
Sexual violence victimization affects approximately 1 in 5 college women and 1 in 6 college men; however, rates of sexual victimization vary widely, in part due to measurement issues. The present study is the first to compare the Sexual Experience Survey-Short Form Victimization to a measure of sexual victimization designed to capture gender differ...
Preprint
Parental risk for perpetrating child abuse is frequently associated with intergenerational patterns of abuse: being abused increases the risk for future abuse. Yet, the mechanisms of intergenerational abuse are unclear, and the risk factors for perpetrating child abuse are interrelated. Research suggests that history of childhood abuse, psychiatric...
Article
Full-text available
This study seeks to explore the role of preference in provider gender for treatment seeking survivors of military sexual trauma (MST) in a Midwestern VHA hospital setting. The subjects were one hundred ninety-seven veterans enrolled in care who endorsed a history of MST and agreed to referral for follow-up care related to concerns associated with t...
Article
Full-text available
Bisexual women are more likely to be sexually assaulted and to receive negative reactions to disclosures of sexual assault than heterosexual and lesbian women. However, few studies have examined the extent to which victim sexual orientation and related factors influence perceptions of sexual assault victims and perpetrators. To fill this gap, the c...
Preprint
Greater accuracy is needed in the assessment of sexual victimization that occurs in intimate relationships (intimate partner sexual victimization - IPSV). Existing assessment strategies in the literature often represent two distinct approaches – intimate partner violence specific strategies vs. sexual violence specific strategies. The current study...
Article
Sexual violence victimization affects approximately 1 in 5 college women and 1 in 6 college men; however, rates of sexual victimization vary widely, in part due to measurement issues. The present study is the first to compare the Sexual Experiences Survey-Short Form Victimization (SES-SFV) to a measure of sexual victimization designed to capture ge...
Preprint
Successfully landing and then negotiating for your first position is an exciting and challenging task. In this paper, we use a narrative review to present the literature on gender and negotiation with a focus on academic psychology work contexts. We highlight important differences between factors that are within the individual’s control vs. factors...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research has revealed that forms of violence are interconnected, but less work focuses on the interconnection of victimization and perpetration, particularly with men. Subsequently, our understanding of the complexities of violence exposure in men’s lives and related policies and treatments remains limited. The present study utilizes a sample of at...
Preprint
Background and Objectives: Poly-substance use and psychiatric comorbidity are common among individuals receiving substance detoxification services. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are the most common co-occurring psychiatric disorders with substance use disorder (SUD). Current treatment favors a one-size-fit...
Preprint
The Women's Issues in Behavior Therapy SIG is open to all ABCT members who are interested in women's issues. We are committed to increasing women's participation in all levels of conference activity and in ABCT governance, to increasing knowledge and awareness of women's health and mental health issues, and to providing opportunities for women of A...
Preprint
Objective: Sexual victimization affects at least one in five college women and up to one in six college men; however, the exact rates of sexual perpetration are difficult to ascertain because of inconsistencies in the measurement of these behaviors. The present study is the first to evaluate the extent to which three commonly used measures of sexua...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction: Estimates of sexual perpetration in college men vary widely, partially due to a lack of reliable and valid measures of sexual perpetration. This study provides psychometric data on the Sexual Experiences Survey – Short Form Perpetration (SES-SFP), a revision of one of the most widely used measures of sexual perpetration, in a sample o...
Preprint
Background: The prevalence of sexual perpetration in college men is unknown. Prior reviews of sexual violence prevalence rates have produced wide-ranging estimates, likely due to wide variation in measurement strategies.Objectives: This paper systematically reviewed research findings (from 2000-2017) regarding prevalence rates of sexual perpetratio...
Article
Background The prevalence of sexual perpetration in college men is unknown. Prior reviews of sexual violence prevalence rates have produced wide-ranging estimates, likely due to wide variation in measurement strategies. Objectives This article systematically reviewed research findings (from 2000 to 2017) regarding prevalence rates of sexual perpet...
Preprint
Full-text available
The current study examined how psychological factors influence hypothetical behavioral responses to threat (BRTT). College women (n = 113) with a history of sexual victimization completed a standardized lab-based self-defense scenario. Interpersonal skills, coping style, and assertive and non-assertive BRTT during a prior assault predicted assertiv...
Preprint
Objective: The purpose of this study was to document the rates of rape acknowledgment (labeling rape as rape rather than using a minimizing label), and the corresponding mental health correlates using the minority stress framework in a unique and vulnerable sample: racially diverse sexual and gender minority young adults.Method: Participants were 2...
Preprint
Objective: This study examined patterns of violence victimization and aggression in both intimate partner and non-partner relationships among veterans, and used latent profile analysis to identify subtypes of violence involvement. Methods: Participants were 841 substance use treatment-seeking veterans (94% male) from a large VA Medical Center who c...
Preprint
Sexual minority men are at increased risk for sexual victimization at all ages compared to heterosexual men; yet, most research on victimization focuses on the experiences of heterosexual women. This study compares the rates of multiple forms of interpersonal violence (violence perpetrated by another person) in a sample of sexual minority status co...
Article
The current study examined how psychological factors influence hypothetical behavioral responses to threat (BRTT). College women ( n = 113) with a history of sexual victimization completed a standardized lab-based self-defense scenario. Interpersonal skills, coping style, and assertive and nonassertive BRTT during a prior assault predicted assertiv...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to document the rates of rape acknowledgment (labeling rape as rape rather than using a minimizing label), and the corresponding mental health correlates using the minority stress framework in a unique and vulnerable sample: racially diverse sexual and gender minority young adults. Method: Participants were...
Preprint
Objective: During a potential sexual assault experience, an active, assertive behavioral response to threat (BRTT) can be protective while a non-assertive BRTT may increase risk. However, little is known about how the sequence of behaviors that a woman engages in during a threatening situation may be related to sexual victimization. The present stu...
Preprint
Despite extensive research on sexual assault, study of the processes and behaviors central to responding to sexual assault threats is limited. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical, narrative review of the literature on behavioral response to threat (BRTT) highlighting BRTT BR TT as mechanism of self-defense interventions and process o...
Preprint
This study evaluated 146 college women’s responses to date rape risk in order to test an experimental paradigm for studying threat response. Participants were randomized to four conditions; in three conditions, the level of threat participants were initially exposed to was controlled experimentally, in the control condition, participants self selec...
Preprint
Objective: One in four college women experience sexual assault on campus. Campuses rarely provide the in depth self-defense programs needed to reduce sexual assault risk. Not much is known about the range of possible behaviors elicited by sexual assault threat stimuli besides assertion. To fill this gap, the aim of the current study was to explore...
Article
Full-text available
Bisexual women experience higher rates of sexual victimization relative to heterosexual and lesbian women, and worse sexual health outcomes. Though these health disparities are well documented in the literature, few empirical data have been published on what factors are driving these disparities. Further, research documenting sexual victimization a...
Article
There is limited study of suicidal behaviors among veterans identifying as sexual and gender minorities (SGMs), despite previous research indicating rates of suicide attempts are high within civilian SGM populations. Further, some research incorporating military service members suggests those identifying as SGMs are disproportionately exposed to mi...
Article
Full-text available
Parental risk for perpetrating child abuse is frequently associated with intergenerational patterns of abuse: being abused increases the risk for future abuse. Yet, the mechanisms of intergenerational abuse are unclear, and the risk factors for perpetrating child abuse are interrelated. Research suggests that history of childhood abuse, psychiatric...
Article
Successfully landing and then negotiating for your first position is an exciting and challenging task. In this article, we use a narrative review to present the literature on gender and negotiation with a focus on academic psychology work contexts. We highlight important differences between factors that are within the individual’s control versus fa...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Sexual victimization affects at least 1 in 5 college women and up to 1 in 6 college men; however, the exact rates of sexual perpetration are difficult to ascertain because of inconsistencies in the measurement of these behaviors. The present study is the first to evaluate the extent to which 3 commonly used measures of sexual violence (S...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: During a potential sexual assault experience, an active, assertive behavioral response to threat (BRTT) can be protective, whereas a nonassertive BRTT may increase risk. However, little is known about how the sequence of behaviors that a woman engages in during a threatening situation may be related to sexual victimization. The present s...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives: Poly-substance use and psychiatric comorbidity are common among individuals receiving substance detoxification services. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are the most common co-occurring psychiatric disorders with substance use disorder (SUD). Current treatment favors a one-size-fi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Between 8%–30% of college men engage in sexual perpetration. Yet, there are no effective intervention programs designed to change the behaviour of individual men at risk for sexual perpetration. In addition, recent research has shown that 95% of college men who engage in rape, the most severe form of sexual perpetration, do not label the...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study examined patterns of violence victimization and aggression in both intimate partner and nonpartner relationships among U.S. military veterans using latent profile analysis to identify subtypes of violence involvement. Method: Participants were 839 substance use treatment-seeking veterans (93% male) from a large Veterans Aff...
Article
Full-text available
This study provides psychometric data on the Sexual Experiences Survey—Short Form Perpetration (SES-SFP), a revision of one of the most widely used measures of sexual perpetration, in a sample of college men. Participants (n = 402) completed a web survey containing the study measures; a subset of 66 participants completed the SES-SFP again 2 weeks...
Article
Objective This study sought to identify patient characteristics and care processes related to reengagement in VA psychotherapy. Methods Using national VA data, a retrospective cohort was constructed (N = 24,492) of veterans who received a new PTSD diagnosis in FY08/FY09 and attended only one to five PTSD psychotherapy sessions. A nested case-contr...
Article
Full-text available
Research has revealed that forms of violence are interconnected, but less work focuses on the interconnection of victimization and perpetration, particularly with men. Subsequently, our understanding of the complexities of violence exposure in men’s lives and related policies and treatments remains limited. The present study utilizes a sample of at...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual minority men are at increased risk for sexual victimization at all ages compared to heterosexual men; yet, most research on victimization focuses on the experiences of heterosexual women. This study compares the rates of multiple forms of interpersonal violence (violence perpetrated by another person) in a sample of sexual minority status co...
Article
Full-text available
Estimates of the rate of sexual victimization in college men vary wildly, likely because of the lack of validated measures. This study provides psychometric data on the Sexual Experiences Survey?Short Form Victimization (SES-SFV) and basic descriptive characteristics of sexual victimization of college men via the SES-SFV. Participants (n = 405) com...
Article
Full-text available
One in four college women experience sexual assault on campus; yet, campuses rarely provide the in-depth self-defense programs needed to reduce sexual assault risk. Further, little is known about the range of possible behaviors elicited by sexual assault threat stimuli besides assertion. To fill this gap, the aim of the current study was to explore...
Article
Full-text available
In spite of an elevated prevalence of trauma histories among prisoners, there has been little research examining the relationship between incarceration and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); this is especially true for Black Americans. To examine relationships between PTSD and incarceration in a nationally representative sample of Black American...
Conference Paper
Previous research has illuminated the relationship between childhood victimization and later adulthood revictimization. However, researchers have investigated this relationship primarily with women’s experience of sexual assault. Thus, data on men’s experiences of childhood victimization and adolescent/adulthood revictimization is limited. Moreover...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluates the novel use of the response-latency paradigm to elicit women's hypothetical behavioral responses to the threat of acquaintance rape. There were 146 college women recruited and randomly assigned to 4 study conditions. In 3 of the conditions, the threat to which participants responded was experimentally controlled; in the fourt...
Article
We compared patterns of neuropsychiatric symptoms across 4 dementia types [Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VAD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and Parkinson disease dementia], and 2 mixed groups (AD/VAD and AD/DLB) in sample of 2,963 individuals from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set between September 2005...
Article
Full-text available
We compared white matter integrity with brain atrophy in healthy controls and participants with very mild dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating 0 vs. 0.5) from the Brain Aging Project, a longitudinal study of aging and memory at the University of Kansas Medical Center. Structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) including...

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