Radek Bače

Radek Bače
Czech University of Life Sciences Prague | CULS · Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences

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66
Publications
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Publications

Publications (66)
Article
Development of primary spruce forests is driven by a series of disturbances, which also have an important influence on the understorey vegetation and its diversity. Early post-disturbance processes have been intensively studied, however, very little is known about the long-term effects of disturbances on the understorey. We quantified disturbance h...
Article
Understanding the processes shaping the composition of assemblages at multiple spatial scales in response to disturbance events is crucial for preventing ongoing biodiversity loss and for improving current forest management policies aimed at mitigating climate change and enhancing forest resilience. Deadwood-inhabiting fungi represent an essential...
Article
Natural disturbances strongly influence forest structural dynamics, and subsequently stand structural heterogeneity, biomass, and forest functioning. The impact of disturbance legacies on current forest structure can greatly influence how we interpret drivers of forest dynamics. However, without clear insight into forest history, many studies defau...
Article
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With accelerating environmental change, understanding forest disturbance impacts on trade-offs between biodiversity and carbon dynamics is of high socioeconomic importance. Most studies, however, have assessed immediate or short-term effects of disturbance, while long-term impacts remain poorly understood. Using a tree-ring-based approach, we analy...
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Aim Natural disturbances influence forest structure, successional dynamics, and, consequently, the distribution of species through time and space. We quantified the long-term impacts of natural disturbances on lichen species richness and composition in primary mountain forests, with a particular focus on the occurrence of endangered species. Locat...
Article
European forests are facing a rapid decline of light‐demanding biota. This has prompted active interventions to re‐establish and maintain partial habitat openness in protected areas. Managers of protected areas, however, need substantially more scientific evidence to support their decisions on where, when, and how to intervene. We investigated the...
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Aims We examined differences in lifespan among the dominant tree species (spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), fir (Abies alba Mill.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), and maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.)) across primary mountain forests of Europe. We ask how disturbance history, lifetime growth patterns, and environmental factors influence lifespan. Loc...
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Wind is the leading disturbance agent in European forests, and the magnitude of wind impacts on forest mortality has increased over recent decades. However, the atmospheric triggers behind severe winds in Western Europe (large‐scale cyclones) differ from those in Southeastern Europe (small‐scale convective instability). This geographic difference i...
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The expected future intensification of forest disturbance as a consequence of ongoing anthropogenic climate change highlights the urgent need to more robustly quantify associated biotic responses. Saproxylic beetles are a diverse group of forest invertebrates representing a major component of biodiversity that is associated with the decomposition a...
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The tree natural regeneration and seed bank that survives a large-scale stand-replacing disturbance fully determines the future forest structure until new generation trees reach seed maturity and the supply of seeds is restored. We asked the following questions: (i) Does the advance regeneration stage prevail in the stand? (ii) Does the tree specie...
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Knowledge about forest decay dynamics is important for a better understanding of major forest ecosystem processes. The main aim of this study was to describe the dynamics of the natural decline of a mountain spruce (Picea abies) forest caused by bark beetle (Ips typographus) infestation in the Plešné Lake basin. Furthermore, we estimated the dry bi...
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Estimates of historical disturbance patterns are essential to guide forest management aimed at ensuring the sustainability of ecosystem functions and biodiversity. However, quantitative estimates of various disturbance characteristics required in management applications are rare in longer‐term historical studies. Thus, our objectives were to: (1) q...
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While shifting disturbance rates and climate change have major implications for the structure of contemporary forests through their effects on adult tree mortality, the responses of regenerating trees to disturbances and environmental variation will ultimately determine the structure and functioning of forests in the future. Assessing the resilienc...
Article
Hydrological and microclimatic changes after insect-induced tree dieback were evaluated in an unmanaged central European mountain (Plešné, PL) forest and compared to climate-related changes in a similar, but almost intact (Čertovo, CT) control forest during two decades. From 2004 to 2008, 93% of Norway spruce trees were killed by a bark beetle outb...
Article
Accurate estimations of changes in the forest carbon (C) pools over time are essential for predicting the future forest C balance and its part in the global C cycle. While the overall understanding of global forest C dynamics has improved, some significant forest ecosystem processes have been largely overlooked, resulting in possible biases. As an...
Article
Mortality, driven by both climate and disturbance legacies, is a key process shaping forest dynamics. Understanding the mortality patterns in primary forests in the absence of severe disturbances provides information on background natural dynamics of a given forest type under ongoing climate change. This can then be compared to mortality rates in s...
Article
Climatic constraints on tree growth mediate an important link between terrestrial and atmospheric carbon pools. Tree rings provide valuable information on climate‐driven growth patterns, but existing data tend to be biased towards older trees on climatically extreme sites. Understanding climate change responses of biogeographic regions requires dat...
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Forest ecosystems worldwide are subjected to human-induced stressors, including eutrophication and acidification, and to natural disturbances (for example, insect infestation, windstorms, fires). The occurrence of the later is expected to increase due to the ongoing climate change. These multi-stressor forcings modify ecosystem biogeochemistry, inc...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The aim of this guide is to help find an optimal way for deadwood management in production forests to enhance biodiversity.
Article
Disentangling the importance of developmental vs. environmental drivers of variation in forest biomass is key to predicting the future of forest carbon sequestration. At coarse scales, forest biomass is likely to vary along major climatic and physiographic gradients. Natural disturbance occurs along these broad biophysical gradients, and depending...
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Těžba, či ponechání jedinců smrku ztepilého zasažených gradací lýkožrouta smrkového v národním parku Šumava je předmětem neutuchajících diskusí. Téma Šumavy vytváří kulisu pro podstatnou část disputací na poli ochrany přírody. Převážná část lesnické obce zastává, zjednodušeně řečeno, tento názor: „Na Šumavě rostou uměle vzniklé monokultury smrku, n...
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Restoring the structural characteristics of secondary old-growth forests that were previously managed is increasingly debated to help increase the area of more complex forests which provide a broader array of forest services and functions. The paucity of long-term data sets in Central Europe has limited our ability to understand the ongoing ecologi...
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Natural regeneration following large-scale disturbance is a basic attribute of forest resilience. However, in the intensively managed forest ecosystems in Europe these processes are not well understood which also limits the options for silvicultural management in these ecosystems. To overcome this shortfall, we have established a large (20 ha) perm...
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Accurately capturing medium- to low-frequency trends in tree-ring data is vital to assessing climatic response and developing robust reconstructions of past climate. Non-climatic disturbance can affect growth trends in tree-ring-width (RW) series and bias climate information obtained from such records. It is important to develop suitable strategies...
Article
Tree-related microhabitats (TreMs) are important features for the conservation of biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Although other structural indicators of forest biodiversity have been extensively studied in recent decades, TreMs have often been overlooked, either due to the absence of a consensual definition or a lack of knowledge. Despite the i...
Presentation
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Large-scale forest dynamics are commonly assumed to be climate driven, but appropriately scaled disturbance histories are rarely available to assess how disturbance legacies alter subsequent disturbance rates and the climate sensitivity of disturbance. We compiled multiple tree ring-based disturbance histories from primary Picea abies forest fragme...
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Determining the drivers of shifting forest disturbance rates remains a pressing global change issue. Large-scale forest dynamics are commonly assumed to be climate driven, but appropriately scaled disturbance histories are rarely available to assess how disturbance legacies alter subsequent disturbance rates and the climate sensitivity of disturban...
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The role of density dependence in shaping spatial patterns in tree distributions presumably changes throughout stand development. However, empirical investigations into developmental processes are often limited by a lack of long-term data on disturbance history, which further limits the ability to assess the role of spatial variation in site condit...
Article
Mixed-severity disturbance regimes are prevalent in temperate forests worldwide, but key uncertainties remain regarding the variability of disturbance-mediated structural development pathways. This study investigates the influence of disturbance history on current structure in primary, unmanaged Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests throughout the Ca...
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How do canopy-understory interactions respond to variation in disturbance severity over extended periods of time? For forests with different disturbance histories, do light availability and understory-cohort densities converge towards a common old-growth structure, or do historical legacies influence populations indefinitely?.
Article
Primary forests are characterized by high vertical and horizontal stand diversity, which provides habitat for a diverse range of species with complex habitat requirements. Detailed knowledge of related ecological processes and habitat development of primary forest species are essential to inform forest management and biodiversity conservation decis...
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Habitat loss and fragmentation can negatively impact the persistence of dispersal-limited lichen species with narrow niches. Rapid change in microclimate due to canopy dieback exposes species to additional stressors that may limit their capacity to survive and colonize. We studied the importance of old trees as micro-refuges and microclimate stabil...
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Stand-replacing disturbance and post-disturbance salvage-logging influence forest succession in different ways; however, limited knowledge regarding how salvage-logging affects vegetation patterns compared to natural development of forest ecosystems is still lacking. In this study, we described the diversity pattern of understory vegetation and tre...
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Large-scale disturbances such as windthrows and bark beetle outbreaks influenced recently extensive areas of the mountain spruce forests in Central Europe. Currently, there are concerns about the forest management in relation to the ability of their recovery and resilience, in the conservation areas especially. The purpose of this study was to quan...
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Between 2007 and 2010, in the area of the most preserved subalpine old-growth forests in the Czech Republic (Šumava National Park, Trojmezná Reserve), windstorm and subsequent bark beetle outbreak caused the death of parent stands (15% and 85% of trees, respectively). The aim of this study was to describe the changes in stand structure characterist...
Article
In order to gauge ongoing and future changes to disturbance regimes, it is necessary to establish a solid baseline of historic disturbance patterns against which to evaluate these changes. Further, understanding how forest structure and composition respond to variation in past disturbances may provide insight into future resilience to climate-drive...
Article
Disturbances shape forest structure and composition, but the temporal dynamics of disturbance patterns, their influence on dynamics of forest structural complexity, and the potential impacts of ongoing climate changes are not fully understood. We addressed these issues by focusing on (1) long-term, landscape level retrospective analysis of disturba...
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Technical condition of a forest road network testifies to its utility value, transport efficiency and level of impact on the environment. The paper discusses the current condition of forest road network in mountainous areas. The forest haul roads in the central part of the Beskydy Mountains (Czech Republic) were examined through a field survey. Tec...
Article
Efficient conservation management must be applied in protected areas in order to slow the loss of biodiversity in Europe. Regarding forests, a conservation approach based on minimal intervention prevails in most protected woodlands, thus facilitating the expansion of closed-canopy forests at the expense of open forests. To identify effective conser...
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Background: Severe canopy-removing disturbances are native to many temperate forests and radically alter stand structure, but biotic legacies (surviving elements or patterns) can lend continuity to ecosystem function after such events. Poorly understood is the degree to which the structural complexity of an old-growth forest carries over to the ne...
Article
1.Large, severe disturbances drive many forest ecosystems over the long term, but pose management uncertainties when human experience with them is limited. Recent continent-scale outbreaks of bark beetles across the temperate Northern Hemisphere have raised major concerns as to whether coniferous forests will regenerate back toward pre-outbreak con...
Article
Good understanding of forest productivity and carbon (C) storage capacity is essential for better understanding of C dynamics and climate modeling. Studies of old-growth forest C dynamics from central and eastern Europe are rare and the few remaining pristine forests represent a unique opportunity to study natural forest dynamics in an otherwise ma...
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Types and proportions of natural canopy accession strategies of Norway spruce reflect local changes in historical forest structure and dynamics. Through the detection of growth strategies, it is possible to identify historical events such as disturbances; the main drivers affecting primeval forests dynamics. Moreover, the effect of local thermal co...
Technical Report
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In spite of the great importance of dead wood for biodiversity, there is no simple suggestion for the forest management, taking into account this aspect. The aim of this guide is to help with finding optimal way for dead wood management in production forests to enhance biodiversity. We propose temporal and spatial distribution of dead wood regardin...
Article
The model of developmental dynamics has grown in recent years to include the role of disturbances, but few studies have examined fine-scale spatio-temporal dynamics. We present a unique study from mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests in central Europe to evaluate the role of disturbances in spatio-temporal tree distribution patt...
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Density of regeneration in European subalpine Norway spruce ( Picea abies ) forests is typically low with regeneration primarily located on dead or decaying wood. The post-disturbance development of this regeneration is crucial for natural forest succession. The aim was to identify the influence of disturbance on regeneration on decaying logs immed...
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Stem burial and adventitious root formation of Picea abies in the mountain forest of Central Europe were assessed. Thirty seedlings of height between 15 and 30 cm (15 on soil and 15 on deadwood) were randomly chosen and excavated. The number of terminal bud scars was counted on the aboveground and belowground parts of the stem. The number of basic...
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The area of the Nízke Tatry and Veľká Fatra Mts. is considered a core population habitat of the Western Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) in the Western Carpathians. Considerable interventions occurred in this habitat after the windstorm in 2004. We provide complex information about the quality and size of the suitable habitat – representing key data...
Data
Questions: How have the historical frequency and severity of natural distur-bances in primary Picea abies forests varied at the forest stand and landscape level during recent centuries? Is there a relationship between physiographic attributes and historical patterns of disturbance severity in this system? Location: Primary P. abies forests of the E...
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Questions: How have the historical frequency and severity of natural disturbances in primary Picea abies forests varied at the forest stand and landscape level during recent centuries? Is there a relationship between physiographic attributes and historical patterns of disturbance severity in this system? Location: Primary P. abies forests of the Ea...
Article
Decaying logs form the major seedbed for trees in European subalpine Picea abies forests. However, many aspects related to seedling colonization pattern on logs remain unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships of P. abies (Norway spruce) seedling (height <15 cm) and sapling (height ⩾15 cm) densities on decaying logs in relatio...
Article
The article presents results of the research of some features effecting pavement damage of forest haul roads. The study is based on off-road measurement carried out in a model flysch territory in the Beskydy Mts. (North Moravia). We investigated some technical parameters of forest roads and constructional damage of their pavement or ground plains'...
Article
What historical natural disturbances have shaped the structure and development of an old-growth, sub-alpine Picea abies forest? Are large-scale, high-severity disturbances (similar to the recent windthrow and bark beetle outbreaks in the region) within the historical range of variability for this forest ecosystem? Can past disturbances explain the...
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Metal mining and processing in the central Czech Republic has led to the contamination of surrounding soils and vegetation. In this study, Hg concentrations were measured in spruce (Picea abies L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree rings to monitor historical Hg deposition in the area. The highest Hg concentrations were found in spruce at an HgS...
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Decaying logs and stumps provide an important seedling substrate in natural subalpine forests. However, only stumps present such a role in managed forests. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the process of seedling colonization between logs and stumps. The study was carried out ill the Czech Republic, in two old-growth subalpine...
Article
Montane Norway spruce forests of Central Europe have a very long tradition of use for timber production; however, recently there has been increasing concern for their role in maintaining biological diversity. This concern, coupled with recent severe windstorms that led to wide-spread bark beetle outbreaks, has brought the management of montane spru...

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