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Rachelle Alterman

Rachelle Alterman
Technion - Israel Institute of Technology. Member Israel Academy of Sciences

PhD (planning) LLB (law) Master of City Planning (MCP) BA (honors) in social science

About

174
Publications
61,616
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Introduction
Professor (emerita, non-retired) of Urban Planning and Law; Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology. Senior Researcher - Samuel Neaman Institute for National Policy Research, at Techinon; Head, Lab on Comparative Research on Planning Law and Land Policy; Founding President and Honorary Fellow, the International Academic Association on Planning, Law and Property Rights; Co-Founder, International Platform of Experts in Planning Law. Honorary member, AESOP- Association of European Schools of Planning
Education
October 1970 - March 1976
Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Urban and Regional Planning
September 1968 - July 1970
University of Manitoba
Field of study
  • City Planning
September 1966 - June 1968
University of Manitoba
Field of study
  • Social Science

Publications

Publications (174)
Article
Full-text available
The right to access and enjoy the coastal zone, and especially the beach, is a centuries-old legal tenet in many countries and a key part of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. However, the legal right for coastal access takes on different forms and degrees in different countries (or states). In this paper we argue that accessibility to coastal zon...
Chapter
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The purpose of this chapter is to delve into housing rights as expressed in national constitutions. We report on all 189 constitutions of UN member states, describing and evaluating them in terms of what they say about the right to housing. As a benchmark for evaluation, we turn to the UN’s main interpretation on adequate housing, known as comment...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this research project we attempted to shed light on one of many aspects of the relationship between planning and building regulations and landowners’ willingness to comply with them. Our focus has been on “accessory dwelling units” in existing single-family homes. A 2017 amendment to the Israel national planning law intended to legalize many or...
Book
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Short abstract - for a longer English abstract see the full book. The research offers the first systematic international comparative analysis of the land-related regulatory constraints and incentives which determine governments’ capacity to permit the siting of RE facilities on land – whether on open space or in dense urban areas. Specific goals a...
Article
Full-text available
תקציר "ישראל 2020" הוא מסמך התיכנון הלאומי השאפתני ביותר אשר חובר אי-פעם בישראל ויכול לתפוס מקום מכובד גם בקנה מידה בין לאומי. את היוזמה של אדם מזור הניע נתון מכונן אחד: ישראל מכפילה את שטח הרצפה שלה בכל 20 שנה. כיום, נתון זה שגור ומוכר, אולם באותה עת, הוא היווה מהפיכה חשיבתית והצליח להכניע את האתוס של פיזור מירבי של יישובים על פני הארץ. תרומתה של...
Book
Full-text available
https://www.routledge.com/Regulating-Coastal-Zones-International-Perspectives-on-Land-Management/Alterman-Pellach/p/book/9781138361560
Chapter
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Research
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The globally wide research community has limited knowledge of China's value capture practices beyond the straightforward public land leasing practice. This research is built on a set of case studies of how China's city governments use indirect land sector revenue to fund urban transit projects and urban redevelopment projects in Pearl River Delta....
Chapter
REGULATING COASTAL ZONES - INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES ON LAND MANAGEMENT INSTRUMENTS CHAPTER 15 - ISRAEL Dafna Carmon and Rachelle Alterman Abstract Israel has the by-far the highest population growth rate among the countries in this book, with most of the population concentrated along the Mediterranean coast. For Israelis, beaches provide the m...
Technical Report
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Este documento constituye la presentación de una segunda etapa de investigación sobre Políticas de Suelo, Derecho Urbanístico y Cambio Climático. En una primera etapa, sistematizamos un conjunto de instrumentos urbanísticos y tributarios en Argentina, Brasil y Colombia que se utilizan o tienen potencial para ser utilizados para financiar medidas de...
Book
Local governments increasingly seek to wield their planning-regulation powers to capture some of the uplift in land values to supply public services. Predetermined formulae may be legally preferable, but are not always easy to adopt formally and, most importantly, and inflexible. To fill the gap, local governments in many countries turn to negotiat...
Book
Full-text available
This study explores the connection between farmers’ property rights in agricultural land and the fulfillment of public policy objectives related to rural land in developed countries. The motivation for the study is to provide a cross-national perspective to evaluate Israel’s rather unique rural land policy towards its world-famous kibbutz communal...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Grounded renewable energy Land and planning-related regulatory barriers in comparative perspective Abstract The State of Israel, together with countries worldwide, has committed itself to the goal of generating electricity from renewable energy (RE). However, despite policy efforts, Israel it is still lagging behind its own targets. Barriers that h...
Chapter
Full-text available
Much research has focused on the widespread phenomenon of “informal” construction in developing countries, where planning laws are dysfunctional. However, in recent years scholars have used this term with reference to Global North countries as well, where planning laws generally do function reasonably well. In this chapter, we take on a difficult t...
Book
Full-text available
Hebrew language research report on the property and housing rights of members of Israel's communal (kibbutzim) and cooperative (moshavim) villages, in comparative perspective with the rights of farmers in 7 European countries . The findings indicate a striking (and unrecognized) disparity, at the gross disadvantages of the Israeli village members.
Chapter
Full-text available
The legal and governance context for landscape planning in countries outside the EU can differ greatly from their EU counterparts. We propose a framework for characterizing that context in order to enable readers from non-EU countries to relate their planning systems to the European baseline for landscape planning. Methodologies for the assessment...
Technical Report
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Land based financing for climate-change mitigation or adaptation. A research report published by the Lincoln Institute on Land Policy, covering several South American cities.
Article
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This paper is grounded in a rancorous debate in built-heritage studies concerning heritage policies and the disputes associated with them. Despite the seeming dominance of architectural considerations in decision-making about heritage protection, factual evidence from previous studies shows that not one, but five factors are involved, in differing...
Article
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This paper addresses an underrated aspect of historic preservation policy: the role played by social factors in conflicts over proposals to develop heritage properties. After reviewing existing literature, we develop a theoretical framework and apply it to heritage-related decisions made by planning inspectors in the English planning system. Specif...
Article
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The paper analyses conflicts associated with policies to protect the built heritage. Such conflicts relate to a host of tensions between private and public concerns and specifically between pro-development and pro-conservation approaches. To examine these cleavages, the paper operationalises private and public concerns over heritage by asking if th...
Article
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השלטון המקומי בצרות. במשך שנים רבות, לא ניתן מענה לדרך שבה הרשויות המקומיות יוכלו לספק את מלוא השירותים הציבוריים הנדרשים בעת פיתוח ובנייה בתחומן. הרשויות המקומיות מוצאות את עצמן בין הפטיש לסדן - מצד אחד, דרישה לשירותים ציבוריים ברמה גבוהה מצד תושביהן הקיימים והחדשים, שמגיעה יחד עם צמצום מענקים ממשלתיים, ומצד שני - פגיעה גוברת והולכת ביכולתן של הרש...
Article
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Purpose This paper presents a comparative analysis of non-compliance with planning laws in advanced-economy countries. Most research to date has focused on the widespread phenomenon of “informal” construction in developing countries. However, advanced-economy countries also encounter illegal development, though at different scales and attributes....
Chapter
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that three seemingly unconnected themes have been intertwined in my work: planning theory, implementation analysis, and planning law. I picture them as the beacon, the compass, and the scale. Planning theory is the beacon because it provides planners with the normative-ethical light, with a sense of public mission. Implementation analysis is the co...
Chapter
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Draft pre-publication, unedited version of a chapter published in Encounters in Planning Thought: 16 Autobiographical Essays from Key Thinkers in Planning
Technical Report
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The overarching goal of the Mare Nostrum Project is to help to bridge the policy-implementation gap in the legal aspects of ICZM along the Mediterranean. The project encompasses the local, national and cross-border levels. The focus is on land-related issues: the legal-regulatory aspects of land ownership and control, urban planning, public infrast...
Chapter
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Housing rights are conditions granted by statutes or entitlements by law that rest on the understanding of a need for housing and imply certain duties and obligations either taken by the state or other entities and individuals.1 Much has been written about housing rights in the international human rights context.2 However little comparative work ha...
Chapter
Full-text available
Enactment of new or revised planning laws is a booming businesstoday around the globe, including in many developingcountries. As in the case of many other laws, the tendency in developing countries has been to model planning laws along the lines of those enacted and practiced in one of the advanced-economycountries. Before rushing to emulate the pl...
Book
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Critics of urban and regional planning argue that it is best suited to manage small, incremental change. Can a planner's skills and expertise be effective in handling a major crisis and large scale change? The mass immigration from the former Soviet Union to Israel in the 1990s offers the opportunity to study one of the largest-scale (non-disaster)...
Article
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The issue of land use regulations and property values carries deep economic, social, and distributive-justice implications. This article revisits the upward side of the land-value coin to examine its relevance in today's world. It first addresses the issue and debates over real-property rights and the history of value capture policies. It also prop...
Article
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Purpose – This paper aims to present the merits of cross-national comparative research as a method for pushing the frontier of knowledge about planning laws. Since in every country there is usually some dissatisfaction with its present planning laws or certain aspects of them, cross-national research can open an arena of alternatives based on real-...
Article
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The financial aspects linked to planning regulatoin impact the built environemnt. The idea that the public should reaping the "unearned increment" or the "plus value" of land is by no means new. The underlying rationale is that much of the value of real property is created not by the landowner's work, but by government policies that grant developme...
Article
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The United States leads the world in the complexity of its regulatory takings law, the amount of academic writing devoted to the topic, and the intensity of the surrounding public debate. This is one of the (ancillary) findings of a large-scale comparative study of regulatory takings law. A look from the “outside” may shed light on American takings...
Article
Full-text available
Everywhere in the world, land use law and regulation affect real property values -- either increasing or decreasing them. Regulatory takings is the potential raw nerve of land use regulation, yet policymakers and civic groups have tackled the issue without the perspective that a cross-national exchange of ideologies, laws, and practices can provide...
Article
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מאז נחקק חוק התיכנון והבנייה ב-1965 (תשכ"ה) נעשו בו תיקונים רבים, אך מעטים מהם בעלי משמעות רחבה כמו תיקון מיספר 43. תיקון זה, אשר נכנס לתוקפו בינואר 1996, שינה את מיבנה מוסדות התיכנון, חלוקת סמכויותיהם והרכבם. הוועדות המקומיות קיבלו סמכויות בתחומים שבעבר היו שמורות למוסדות תיכנון גבוהים מהם. שינוי מיבני זה היה חלק ממגמה הולכת ומתפתחת של ביזור סמכוי...
Chapter
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1 Assembling land to supply the variety of public needs is a problem shared by local government, planners, and developers across the world. This problem transcends property systems and is not unique to the private freehold tenure system. Land assembly is also problematic in mixed systems in which public and private property rights coexist and even...
Chapter
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The Palestinian refugee issue remains a central component of the Arab-Israeli conflict. In this timely book, bringing together the most cutting-edge research from various disciplines, Rex Brynen and Roula El-Rifai explore the demographic and developmental challenges that the return of refugees to a future Palestinian state would generate. As well a...
Article
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Article
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How successful is a particular neighborhood program? This question poses a special challenge for evaluation research. This paper demonstrates how implementation analysis can be utilized to reinforce the evaluation endeavor. Israel's Project Renewal is the laboratory. As a large-scale national program that encompasses most towns in Israel, it provid...
Chapter
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1 In this brief paper, I offer a few observations about American land-use law as viewed from the outside. These thoughts are based on my ongoing comparative research into planning law and practice in various countries. I hope that this comparative view might add an additional perspective to the discussion of directions for reform in American land-u...
Article
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In the mid 1990s, John Forester devoted a period of his sabbatical at Technion – Israel Institute of Technology to conducting a series of interviews with Israeli planners. He collaborated with Raphael Fischler, then a postdoctoral researcher at Technion, and Deborah Shmueli, a faculty member at Haifa University who teachers planning. The resulting...
Chapter
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National-level planning in democratic countries has been almost all but ignored by researchers in urban and regional planning since the reconstruction years following the Second World War. Having become identified in many people's eyes with communist regimes and coercive government practices, national-level planning fell into some disrepute. Yet, t...
Chapter
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This chapter examines national-level planning in Israel. It begins with an introduction to Israel's geographic and demographic statistics and its national urban and regional policies, and then moves to the constitutional and institutional setting for policy-making by the local and the central government. The chapter also identifies the agencies tha...
Chapter
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Compared with most other Western countries, Israel has maintained a very high dosage of national-level planning institutions and powers. This is not surprising. Given Israel's unique constraints and national goals, it should be a 'natural' for national-level planning. Yet, as our story will show, these institutions have not always functioned to the...
Article
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The purpose of this Essay is to investigate the effect of an extremely accelerated growth rate—a crisis—on land use legislation and decision-making structure.
Article
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Countries differ significantly in their laws and policies for farmland preservation and in the degree of success achieved. This paper compares the policies of the U.S.A. and Canada-two countries with a high rate of farmland per person-with four other democracies on the other side of the Atlantic-Britain, The Netherlands, France, and Israel. The pol...

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Projects

Projects (21)
Project
LANDTIME is a Collaborative and Knowledge-building Project, funded by The Research Council of Norway, to meet societal challenges. LANDTIME’s primary objective is to investigate the Norwegian planning system’s functional capacity to handle multiple temporalities of spatial development, hereunder its set of plans and instruments, the role of property and property rights for public planning, and related challenges in three different geographical contexts. LANDTIME's secondary objectives are to explore the planning system from a temporality perspective, as the content of plans, temporalities of the planning processes, including transmission between plans, empirical investigations of the interplay between public spatial planning and private property and how the two systems lay out the premises for temporality management in terms of intergenerational equity and market demands. The collaborative partners are Nordland County Council, City of Bergen, Indre Østfold Municipality and the Norwegian Courts’ Administration.
Project
Accessory Dwelling Units (ADUs) are a prevalent form of housing in many countries. In most places, however, they do not conform with regulations and are considered informal or illegal. Acknowledging ADUs potential in expanding the affordable housing stock, the challenge is to design regulations that encourage the legalization of existing units and the legal creation of additional ones. This project aims to analyse the state of existing regulations in a comparative framework.