Rachel Stubbington

Rachel Stubbington
Nottingham Trent University | NTU · Biosciences, School of Science and Technology

BSc PhD

About

98
Publications
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2,212
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Publications

Publications (98)
Presentation
The chalk winterbournes of southern England are globally rare temporary stream habitats, and often support Nationally Rare and Scarce drying-tolerant insects (DTIs). However, winterbournes are rarely the focus of routine biomonitoring, and thus the prevalence and distribution of DTIs is not well characterised. This is problematic because their perc...
Preprint
Full-text available
As alien invasive species are a key driver of biodiversity loss, understanding patterns of rapidly changing global species compositions depends upon knowledge of biological invasion dynamics and trends. The Ponto-Caspian region is among the most notable donor regions for aquatic invasive species in Europe. Using macroinvertebrate time series collec...
Presentation
Delivered to the Drying freshwaters in the Anthropocene: ecological effects and socio-economic perspectives scientific session. Abstract: Artificial waterbodies such as ditches can support high biodiversity. However, the role of ditches in increasing habitat diversity, and thus catchment-scale biodiversity is often overlooked. Our previous researc...
Article
Full-text available
Globalization has led to the introduction of thousands of alien species worldwide. With growing impacts by invasive species, understanding the invasion process remains critical for predicting adverse effects and informing efficient management. Theoretically, invasion dynamics have been assumed to follow an “invasion curve” (S-shaped curve of availa...
Article
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Nonperennial streams dominate global river networks and are increasing in occurrence across space and time. When surface flow ceases or the surface water dries, flow or moisture can be retained in the subsurface sediments of the hyporheic zone, supporting aquatic communities and ecosystem processes. However, hydrological and ecological definitions...
Article
Full-text available
Riparian invertebrate communities are species rich, but variability in sampling methods hampers assessment of their distributions and inference of the quality of their habitats. To reduce this variability, a standardised, multi-method survey protocol was recently developed. Here, riparian beetle community surveys conducted before and after the prot...
Article
Rivers are dynamic ecosystems in which both human impacts and climate‐driven drying events are increasingly common. These anthropogenic and natural stressors interact to influence the biodiversity and functioning of river ecosystems. Disentangling ecological responses to these interacting stressors is necessary to guide management actions that supp...
Article
River biomonitoring uses biotic indices that assess human-induced degradation, including pollution, by comparison with type-specific static biological reference conditions. However, index scores that indicate pollution may reflect biological responses to natural hydrological variability associated with low flows and drying, leading biomonitoring sc...
Poster
In agricultural landscapes, small ditches are artificial watercourses which sometimes stop flowing and may dry out. Despite their artificial nature and exposure to pollution, ditches support high biodiversity, including rare species. Our previous research has shown that the juveniles of a Nationally Scarce, drying tolerant mayfly occurs more freque...
Article
Full-text available
Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) – waterways in which flow ceases periodically or that dry completely – are found worldwide, and their frequency and extent are expected to increase in the future in response to global climate change and growing anthropogenic demand for fresh water. Repeated wet–dry cycles generate highly dynamic sett...
Article
As complex mosaics of lotic, lentic, and terrestrial habitats, intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) support high biodiversity. Despite their ecological importance, IRES are poorly represented in routine monitoring programs, but recent recognition of their considerable—and increasing—spatiotemporal extent is motivating efforts to better...
Presentation
Temporal fluctuations in water levels cause the spatial extent of terrestrial habitats to vary in river channels, especially in temporary streams. These changing water levels - as well as the advanced skills needed to identify terrestrial invertebrates - can hamper habitat quality assessments in aquatic–terrestrial riverine ecosystems. However, hab...
Presentation
In agricultural landscapes, ditches are artificial watercourses which are typically slow-flowing, and many sometimes stop flowing and dry out. Despite their artificial nature and exposure to pollution, ditches support high biodiversity, including rare species. For example, larvae of the mayfly Paraleptophlebia werneri, considered a temporary-stream...
Presentation
Temporary streams are increasingly common – including in cool, wet countries, where they often occur in catchments dominated by agricultural land uses. In these landscapes, fertilizer use and livestock grazing introduce nutrients and fine sediment into aquatic ecosystems, but how these pollutants affect temporary stream communities, and how the eff...
Presentation
Temporary streams are increasingly common – including in cool, wet countries, where they often occur in catchments dominated by agricultural land uses. In these landscapes, fertilizer use and livestock grazing introduce nutrients and fine sediment into aquatic ecosystems, but how these pollutants affect temporary stream communities, and how the eff...
Article
Ecological communities can remain stable in the face of disturbance if their constituent species have different resistance and resilience strategies. In turn, local stability scales up regionally if heterogeneous landscapes maintain spatial asynchrony across discrete populations—but not if large‐scale stressors synchronize environmental conditions...
Article
Riverine ecosystems can be conceptualized as ‘bioreactors’ (the riverine bioreactor) which retain and decompose a wide range of organic substrates. The metabolic performance of the riverine bioreactor is linked to their community structure, the efficiency of energy transfer along food chains, and complex interactions among biotic and abiotic enviro...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is altering the water cycle globally, increasing the frequency and magnitude of floods and droughts. An outstanding question is whether biodiversity responses to hydrological disturbance depend on background climatic context – and if so, which contexts increase vulnerability to disturbance. Answering this question requires comparison...
Chapter
This chapter explores intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES), dynamic ecosystems that are widespread throughout global river networks. Defined by flow cessation, IRES comprise mosaics of flowing, ponded and dry habitats that shift in space and time to support high biodiversity, including both aquatic and terrestrial species that contribut...
Article
Full-text available
Dispersal is an essential process in population and community dynamics, but is difficult to measure in the field. In freshwater ecosystems, information on biological traits related to organisms' morphology, life history and behaviour provides useful dispersal proxies, but information remains scattered or unpublished for many taxa. We compiled infor...
Article
Temporary streams are widespread in global river networks, and hydroecological tools are needed to assess biotic responses to changes in environmental conditions between wet and dry states. Plant communities can be abundant and diverse in temporary streams, and vary in their tolerance of changing water availability and associated habitat conditions...
Article
Disturbance events govern how the biodiversity of ecological communities varies in both space and time. In freshwater ecosystems, there is evidence that local and regional‐scale drivers interact to influence ecological responses to drying disturbances. However, most research provides temporal snapshots at the local scale, whereas few studies encomp...
Article
According to metacommunity theories, the structure of natural communities is the result of both environmental filtering and spatial processes, with their relative importance depending on factors including local habitat characteristics, functional features of organisms, and the spatial scale considered. However, few studies have explored environment...
Article
Full-text available
Temporary streams are dynamic ecosystems that shift between wet and dry states and include the ‘winterbourne’ chalk streams of south England. Our understanding of temporary stream biodiversity is biased, with most research to date exploring aquatic invertebrate communities in benthic sediments during flowing phases. We surveyed the invertebrate com...
Article
Full-text available
1.Temporary streams are dynamic ecosystems in which mosaics of flowing, ponded and dry habitats support high biodiversity of both aquatic and terrestrial species. Species interact within habitats to perform or facilitate processes that vary in response to changing habitat availability. A natural capital approach recognizes that, through such proces...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Intermittent rivers and Ephemeral Streams (IRES) are river water bodies characterised by temporary flow. They are widespread across the EU and a significant proportion of them is expected to increase due to climate change scenarios and rising water demands. The purpose of this handbook is to help water managers to understand the natural processes...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Chapter 5 from the Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams: what water managers need to know. Technical report – Cost ACTION CA 15113
Chapter
Full-text available
In a nutshell: ▪ There is a variety of benefits that IRES provide to our societies, from the provision of materials such as water and timber, to iconic species, the regulation of biogeochemical cycles, and space for cultural manifestation and as a corridor for both wild and herded animals. ▪ Drying and rewetting processes, timing and duration of...
Book
Full-text available
SMIRES is a COST Action addressing the Science and Management of Intermittent Rivers & Ephemeral Streams (coord. T. Datry, INRAE, and G. Singer, University of Innsbruck; http://www.smires.eu). This COST Action had brought together scientists from various research field and stakeholders to develop a European multidisciplinary network for synthesisin...
Technical Report
Full-text available
SMIRES is a COST Action addressing the Science and Management of Intermittent Rivers & Ephemeral Streams (coord. T. Datry, INRAE, and G. Singer, University of Innsbruck; http://www.smires.eu). This COST Action had brought together scientists from various research field and stakeholders to develop a European multidisciplinary network for synthesisin...
Conference Paper
The ABCD conference format (All continents, Balanced gender, low Carbon transport, Diverse backgrounds) mixes live-streamed and pre-recorded talks with in-person ones to reflect a diverse range of viewpoints and reduce the environmental footprint of meetings while also lowering barriers to inclusiveness.
Article
Full-text available
Rapid shifts in biotic communities due to environmental variability challenge the detection of anthropogenic impacts by current biomonitoring programs. Metacommunity ecology has the potential to inform such programs, because it combines dispersal processes with niche-based approaches and recognizes variability in community composition. Using interm...
Article
Full-text available
The ABCD conference format (All continents, Balanced gender, low Carbon transport, Diverse backgrounds) mixes live-streamed and pre-recorded talks with in-person ones to reflect a diverse range of viewpoints and reduce the environmental footprint of meetings while also lowering barriers to inclusiveness.
Article
Full-text available
Prolonged drought leads to the temporary simplification or loss of aquatic biological communities, as surface water is progressively reduced or dry phases are extended in intermittent streams. Using surveys of aquatic and semi‐aquatic plants, and recording non‐aquatic grasses and herbs, we classify the communities within 24 groundwater‐fed streams...
Preprint
Full-text available
Motivation: Dispersal is an essential process in population and community dynamics but is difficult to measure in the field. In freshwater systems, relevant information on the dispersal of many taxa remains scattered or unpublished, and biological traits related to organisms morphology, life history and behaviour offer useful dispersal proxies. We...
Article
River ecosystems worldwide are affected by altered flow regimes, and an advanced science and practice of environmental flows has developed to understand and reduce these impacts. But most environmental flows approaches ignore flow intermittency, which is a natural feature of 30% of the global river network length. Ignoring flow intermittency when s...
Article
Full-text available
Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) may represent over half the global stream network, but their contribution to respiration and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is largely undetermined. In particular, little is known about the variability and drivers of respiration in IRES sediments upon rewetting, which could result in large pulses of...
Article
Temporary streams are becoming increasingly common, but ecological responses to streambed drying are poorly characterized in the temperate continental region of central Europe. In addition, global research has focused on community responses to drying, whereas effects on individual populations remain unknown. We explored the population structure of...
Article
Full-text available
Drying disturbances are the primary determinant of aquatic community biodiversity in dynamic river ecosystems. Research exploring how communities respond to disturbance has focused on benthic invertebrates in surface sediments, inadequately representing a connected community that extends into the subsurface. We compared subsurface and benthic inver...
Article
Full-text available
Many river networks include temporary reaches that stop flowing and may dry during unpredictable droughts (near-perennial) or more frequently (intermittent). A few biological indices have been developed to assess invertebrate community responses to hydrological variability, including the instream conditions associated with drought, but their perfor...
Article
Full-text available
Intermittently freezing and drying lotic systems are common in many parts of the world. These ecosystems provide dynamic habitats for biota, as both freezing and drying processes result in the loss of water flow along stream and river channels. However, research into the ecological effects of intermittent freezing on stream biota has remained relat...
Article
Intermittent streams occur across global regions, and are increasingly recognized to support high biodiversity and perform important ecological roles within catchments. New tools are needed to better characterize biotic responses to the full spectrum of environmental conditions that occur in these dynamic systems, because the biological indices dev...
Article
Many streams in the extensive Central European region have an intermittent flow regime. Conventional hydrological methods used to identify zero-flow conditions, and in particular drying events, have limited use when assessing large areas dominated by low-order streams. We developed a novel multimetric index to recognise antecedent stream drying bas...
Article
Full-text available
Temporary streams constitute a significant proportion of rivers globally and are common in wet, cool, temperate regions. These heterogeneous ecosystems harbour high biodiversity associated with the dynamic turnover of taxa. Despite flow permanence being widely recognised as an important environmental control, few studies have characterised biotic r...
Article
Full-text available
Temporary rivers (TRs) are prevalent, biodiverse ecosystems yet often overlooked and underprotected. This may be because inadequate understanding of their ecosystem services leaves them undervalued by society. However, evidence of negative attitudes towards TRs is scant. We investigated the strength and extent of negative attitudes by surveying und...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change and human pressures are changing the global distribution and extent of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES), which comprise half of the global river network area. IRES are characterized by periods of flow cessation, during which channel substrates accumulate and undergo physico‐chemical changes (preconditioning), and peri...
Article
Full-text available
Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) are dynamic ecosystems that shift between aquatic and terrestrial states. IRES are widespread, abundant and increasing in extent, but developing biomonitoring programmes to determine their ecological quality is challenging. To date, quality assessments have focused on the aquatic organisms present du...
Article
Full-text available
Field studies have demonstrated that benthic fauna use hyporheic sediments during drying events in temporary rivers, but the factors influencing the survival of fauna in subsurface sediments remain poorly quantified. Laboratory mesocosm experiments were conducted to determine how the length of drying events (1, 7, 14 and 21 days) influenced the sur...
Article
Full-text available
Perennial rivers and streams make a disproportionate contribution to global carbon (C) cycling. However, the contribution of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES),which sometimes cease to flow and can dry completely, is largely ignored although theymay represent over half the global river network. Substantial amounts of terrestrialplant...
Article
Full-text available
In the version of this Article originally published, the affiliation for M. I. Arce was incorrect; it should have been: ⁵Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Berlin, Germany. This has now been corrected in the online versions of the Article.
Article
Full-text available
Intermittent rivers, which experience periods of flow cessation and streambed drying, occur globally. Given that the frequency and duration of stream drying events is likely to increase as a result of anthropogenic pressures and global climate change, riverbed sediments may become increasingly important as refuge habitat for benthic macroinvertebra...
Article
Perennial rivers and streams make a disproportionate contribution to global carbon (C) cycling. However, the contribution of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES), which sometimes cease to flow and can dry completely, is largely ignored although they may represent over half the global river network. Substantial amounts of terrestrial pla...
Chapter
Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) support diverse and sometimes distinctive aquatic invertebrate communities. Although flow intermittence has been linked to reduced taxa richness, the highly variable environmental conditions that characterize IRES can enhance both taxonomic and functional diversity, with different invertebrates chara...
Chapter
Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) are temporally and spatially dynamic ecosystems, experiencing alternating wet and dry phases and supporting both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. For aquatic species to persist in these variable habitats, they must be resistant or resilient to disturbances such as flow cessation and drying. Resistan...
Article
Full-text available
Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) are common across Europe and dominate some Mediterranean river networks. In all climate zones, IRES support high biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. As dynamic ecosystems that transition between flowing, pool, and dry states, IRES are typically poorly represented in biomonitoring programmes...