Rachel E Marschang

Rachel E Marschang
Laboklin GmbH | LABOKLIN

PD Dr. med. vet.

About

405
Publications
44,994
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2,773
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2001 - present
University of Hohenheim
January 1997 - April 2001

Publications

Publications (405)
Poster
Full-text available
Invasive Batrachochythrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been detected in wild amphibians in central Europe in numerous cases. Ranaviruses have also been described, although less frequently. There are, however, still large gaps in our understanding of the influence of these pathogens on specific populations. The natterjack toad is an endangered species in...
Article
Reference intervals for clinical chemistry analytes are important for the interpretation of blood results, but reference intervals available in journal articles for specific flamingo collections are often based on a small number of individuals or are only available for a limited number of analytes. Differences in husbandry and nutritional condition...
Article
Thyroid hormones and the factors influencing them are rarely studied in tortoises. This study therefore aimed to calculate reference intervals (RI) for thyroid hormones and iodine concentrations by species, sexes, and seasons in four species of adult Mediterranean tortoises (Testudo spp.), and to evaluate possible correlations between plasma thyroi...
Article
Serpentoviruses (order Nidovirales) are an important cause of respiratory disease in snakes. Although transmission studies have shown that serpentoviruses can cause respiratory disease in pythons, the possible role of additional potential pathogens is not yet understood. Very little information is available on the role of mycoplasma and chlamydia i...
Article
In spring 2020, a severe disease outbreak with high morbidity and mortality was observed in a collection of 15 Horsfield’s tortoises (Testudo horsfieldii). Affected tortoises showed upper respiratory- and gastrointestinal tract signs, including rhinitis and stomatitis. Testudinid herpesvirus 1 (TeHV1) and Mycoplasma spp. were detected by PCR in ora...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Diputació Barcelona. Presentation on sanitary status of amphibians in general and Montseny brook salamander in particular in Montseny Natural Park in the period 2015 - 2020 . New description of presence of the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wild amphibians, detection of bacteria Chlamydia in a ilegal collection as well as a trematoda cyst...
Article
Full-text available
We report the first cases of mortality in anurans associated with the presence of the fungus Batra-chochytrium dendrobatidis at four different localities from Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula, Spain). All cases were confirmed by both molecular techniques and histology. The infected individuals were two Mediterranean painted frogs (Discoglossus pictu...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we describe two novel adenoviruses isolated from (i) a common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) found dead and examined post-mortem and (ii) pooled samples from free-living sand lizards (Lacerta agilis agilis). Sequencing indicated the two were closely related atadenovirus strains which were distinct from previously recorded adenoviruses in...
Article
Objective: To compare mineral types of naturally occurring uroliths in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) from North America, Europe, and Asia and to identify potential risk factors associated with cystine urolithiasis in ferrets. Samples: 1,054 laboratory submission records of uroliths obtained from ferrets between January 1, 2010, and December 31...
Article
Full-text available
Herpesviruses are important pathogens in tortoises and turtles, yet little is known about the epidemiology of these viruses. We analyzed herpesviruses detected by PCR in samples from captive chelonians in Europe according to virus strain, host species, year and season in which the animal was tested, and country in which the animal was kept. A total...
Chapter
Although reptiles have often been overlooked in research, information on viruses of reptiles has been growing steadily in recent decades as has our understanding of the importance of these animals in the ecosystem. As ectotherms, their immune systems are dependent on temperature, among other factors, and interactions between infection and disease a...
Article
Electrophoresis can be used to aid in the diagnosis of infectious diseases (eg, aspergillosis) in avian species. Reference intervals for blood plasma proteins of 2 different flamingo species (Phoenicopterus roseus and Phoenicopterus ruber) and their hybrids were calculated by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and differences between these specie...
Article
While herpesviruses are well-known pathogens in a wide variety of chelonian species, they have only sporadically been documented in squamate reptiles. Those that have been described have most often been associated with hepatic disease and oral lesions. During a study on infectious disease in pet reptiles in Poland, herpesviruses were detected in sw...
Article
Methods for the detection of pathogens associated with respiratory disease in reptiles, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites, are constantly evolving as is the understanding of the specific roles played by various pathogens in disease processes. Some are known to be primary pathogens with high prevalence in captive reptiles, for exampl...
Article
Full-text available
A mass mortality in alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris veluchiensis) was observed in May/June 2013, in Drakolimni lake on Smolikas Mountain, Northwest Greece. 1300 alpine newts were found dead in two events. In 1998 a similar incident was recorded in the nearby lake of Timfi Mt. Newts of every stage and sex were affected, presenting incoordinatio...
Article
Adenoviruses have been regularly detected in squamate reptiles; evidence of infection in chelonians is described much less frequently. The adenoviruses found in turtles and tortoises have been genetically diverse, and have included members of the genus Siadenovirus, a proposed testadenovirus genus, and, in a single case, an Atadenovirus. In this st...
Article
Clinical health checks including blood testing before brumation in fall are an important tool in reptile medicine and help to reduce the risk of complications during brumation. Electrophoresis may be useful for the evaluation of liver cell function and the detection of antigenic stimulation. The goal of this study was to compare species-specific re...
Article
Intracellular epidermal inclusions were detected within histological sections of skin biopsies from two panther chameleons (Furcifer pardalis) with chronic cheilitis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the abundant presence of icosahedral intracytoplasmic and intranuclear viral particles in infected keratinocytes, with an average diam...
Article
In order to advance understanding of the current infection status related to the presence of Batrachochytrium spp. in different populations, we tested for the presence/absence (qualitative analysis) of Bd and Bsal in 13 monitored populations and measured the Bd infection loads (quantitative analysis) of 16 populations of the Pyrenean Brook Newt in...
Article
Full-text available
This study determined the passage time and phage propagation time of salmonella specific phages, Felix O1 and S16, in 10 bearded dragons, based on re‐isolation from cloacal swabs and faecal samples following oral administration, as a possible tool for reducing salmonella shedding. In Study 1, Felix O1 was administered orally for 12 consecutive days...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Bacterial pathogens are often involved in dermatitis in reptiles. Exact identification of reptile-specific but otherwise uncommon bacterial species may be challenging. However, identification is crucial to evaluate the importance of the detected bacterial species. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the number of aerobic bac...
Article
Full-text available
Ranaviruses are large double stranded DNA viruses from the family Iridoviridae. They are globally distributed and are currently known to affect fish, reptiles and amphibians. In North America, ranaviruses are also widely distributed, and cause frequent morbidity and mortality events in both wild and cultured populations. This is a synopsys of the N...
Article
Reptarenaviruses infect a variety of boid and pythonid snake species worldwide and have been shown to be the cause of inclusion body disease (IBD). Little is known about the correlations between virus infection and clinical disease, as well as the effects of viral infection on the immune system and the blood protein fractions. The goal of this stud...
Article
Full-text available
were measured using standardized autoanalyzer test systems; tT3 was measured by ELISA and iodine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Total protein was quantitated using the biuret method, and plasma protein fractions were meas- ured using capillary zone electrophoresis. Results: The results showed significant variations in thyroid horm...
Article
Zusammenfassung Viren können bei Reptilien bedeutende Krankheitserreger sein. In den letzten Jahren wurden auch zunehmend neue Viren bei Reptilien beschrieben. Zudem gibt es immer mehr Möglichkeiten, Virusinfektionen bei Reptilien nachzuweisen. Dieser Übersichtsartikel bietet einen Überblick über häufige und bedeutende Virusinfektionen bei Reptilie...
Article
Zusammenfassung Gegenstand und Ziel Bakterielle Hautinfektionen kommen bei Reptilien häufig vor. Obwohl viele dieser Infektionen durch multifaktorielle Probleme verursacht werden, ist eine spezifische Behandlung nötig. Ziel der Studie war, das Keimspektrum und die Resistenzlage von aeroben Bakterien in Hautläsionen von Reptilien zu untersuchen. Mat...
Article
A group of eight Wagler's pit vipers (Tropidolaemus wagleri) from a private collection died with respiratory signs within 6 mo of one another. The group consisted of an adult breeding pair that was wild caught and six offspring from this pair. Four of the dead snakes were submitted for gross and histopathology. Signs of bacterial pneumonia were det...
Article
Full-text available
Inclusion body disease (IBD) is caused by reptarenaviruses and constitutes one of the most notorious viral diseases in snakes. Although central nervous system disease and various other clinical signs have been attributed to IBD in boid and pythonid snakes, studies that unambiguously reveal the clinical course of natural IBD and reptarenavirus infec...
Article
Full-text available
The discovery and characterization of novel arthropod-borne viruses provide valuable information on their genetic diversity, ecology, evolution and potential to threaten animal or public health. Arbovirus surveillance is not conducted regularly in Romania, being particularly very scarce in the remote and diverse areas like the Danube Delta. Here we...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The original report: https://talk.ictvonline.org/ictv-reports/ictv_online_report/dsdna-viruses/w/iridoviridae SUMMARY: Members of the family Iridoviridae comprise a collection of large icosahedral, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-containing viruses that are classified into two subfamilies: Alphairidovirinae and Betairidovirinae (Table 1.Iridoviridae)....
Article
The metabolism of tortoises is influenced by many factors, which in turn also influences the clinical chemistry parameters in these animals. There are currently limited data available on species, sex, and season-specific reference intervals. The goal of this study was to establish new reference intervals for adult Hermann's tortoises (Testudo herma...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Between 2017 and 2019, and especially in coincidence with the detection of the fungus Batrachochitrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) in the amphibians of the Montnegre Natral Park, there has been an increase in the sanitary analysis of detection of this and other pathogenic microorganisms in all around Catalonia. A total of 1227 animals of 20species have...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In March 2018, was detected the first positive of the fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in the Montnegre Park in an exotic amphibian (Triturus anatolicus). Since then, among other control measures, exotic amphibians (Triturus anatolicus and Ycthiosaura alpestris) and native (Triturus marmoratus and 2 Salamandra salamandra) were removed from...
Article
Electrophoresis is a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of shifts in plasma protein fractions, which can be associated with a variety of diseases. This method is not often used in reptile medicine because there are only a few studies available and no reference intervals have been published for most species. The goal of this study was to estab...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Ferlaviruses are important pathogens in snakes often associated with respiratory and neurological disease. The detection of ferlaviral RNA by PCR is considered to be the most reliable method for the diagnosis of infection. The PCRs that have been used most commonly for this purpose have not been properly assessed to determine their sen...
Article
Full-text available
Invertebrate iridoviruses (IIVs), while mostly described in a wide range of invertebrate hosts, have also been repeatedly detected in diagnostic samples from poikilothermic vertebrates including reptiles and amphibians. Since iridoviruses from invertebrate and vertebrate hosts differ strongly from one another based not only on host range but also o...
Article
Full-text available
Ferlaviruses are important pathogens in snakes and other reptiles. They cause respiratory and neurological disease in infected animals and can cause severe disease outbreaks. Isolates from this genus can be divided into four genogroups–A, B, and C, as well as a more distantly related sister group, “tortoise”. Sequences from large portions (5.3 kb)...
Poster
Full-text available
Se describen dos casos clínicos en anfibios cuya muerte o enfermedad está vinculada a esta infección. Ambos casos se realizaron en un centro oficial disponiendo de la autorización para manejar fauna salvaje. El PCR cualitativo nos permite una rápida detección del patógeno y por tanto confirmar posibles portadores asintomáticos, si bien no implica n...
Article
Background Inclusion body disease (IBD) is a disease of snakes with a global distribution and has recently been shown to be caused by reptarenaviruses. Testing for this group of viruses in asymptomatic snakes allows the association between infection and disease to be further elucidated. Methods A reptarenavirus was detected by RT‐PCR in a reticula...
Article
Adenoviruses are medium-sized DNA viruses with very high host fidelity. The phylogenetic relationships of the adenoviruses strongly resemble that of their hosts, consistent with evolutionary codivergence. The genus Atadenovirus appears to have evolved in squamate hosts. Perhaps the best known of the squamate adenoviruses is Agamid adenovirus 1 (AgA...
Article
Between June and October 2013, 26 snakes of six viperid species kept in two adjoining rooms died (n= 16) or were euthanized on medical (1) or welfare grounds (9). Two were from the main zoo collection, but the other 24 had been imported and quarantined for a minimum of 6 mo. Four of those that died and the single snake euthanized on medical grounds...
Article
Objective: The goal of this study was to establish reference intervals for blood parameters in rabbits based on data from routine diagnostic samples. Materials and methods: Data sets from 1679-2039 values for clinical chemistry and 937-1559 values for hematological parameters were evaluated using the statistical program Reference Limit Estimator...
Article
Guinea pigs with a total thyroxine (TT4) value >66.9 nmol/l (>5.2 µg/dl) were selected from the database of a private diagnostic laboratory. The submitting veterinarians were sent standardized questionnaires in order to assess background information on clinical signs, therapy and the success of the therapy in these cases. Information from 40 cases...
Article
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an important cause of disease and mortality in wild and domestic European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) throughout the world. Testing for 2 distinct RHD virus types (RHDV/RHDVa and RHDV2) was carried out on samples collected from 684 rabbits submitted from veterinary practices and private owners throughout Euro...
Article
Two captive Bocourt water snakes ( Subsessor bocourti) presented with chronic white skin lesions on their heads; Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola was identified by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in skin scrapings from both snakes. Histopathology performed in one Bocourt water snake revealed fungal hyphae in epidermal structures of lesions. On...
Chapter
The collective knowledge of the infectious diseases of reptiles has been rapidly expanding in the last few years. This chapter provides summaries of the infectious diseases. Rhinitis and upper respiratory tract illness is most commonly seen in chelonians. The infectious causes of lower respiratory tract disease seen in reptile practice include viru...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of tests commonly described in reptile medicine and their interpretation. Diagnostic testing should always be interpreted together with other findings, including history, clinical signs and adjunct testing methods. In reptile practice, molecular diagnostics are usually used to detect the nucleic acids of infectious...
Article
Erkrankungen der oberen Atemwege (URTD = upper respiratory tract disease) sind eines der häufigsten Probleme bei Schildkröten. Rhinitis, Konjunktivitis, Stomatitis und Glossitis werden regelmäßig beobachtet. Die Symptome reichen von Anorexie und allgemeiner Lethargie bis hin zu Lidödemen sowie Augen- und Nasenausfluss. Als Ursache werden vor allem...
Article
Although non-human adenoviruses (AdVs) might offer solutions to problems posed by human AdVs as therapeutic vectors, little is known about their basic biology. In particular, there are no structural studies on the complete virion of any AdV with a non-mammalian host. We combine mass spectrometry, cryo-electron microscopy, and protein crystallograph...
Article
Eine Vielzahl verschiedener Schlangenarten wird in privaten Haushalten gehalten. Am beliebtesten sind Nattern, z. B. Kornnattern sowie diverse Pythons und Boas. Gründe für eine Vorstellung in der tierärztlichen Praxis sind neben der Abklärung von Erkrankungen auch zunehmend Routinechecks und die Untersuchung von neu zugekauften Tieren. Teil dieser...