Rachel E. Gicquelais

Rachel E. Gicquelais
University of Wisconsin–Madison | UW · School of Nursing

Doctor of Philosophy

About

36
Publications
5,527
Reads
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442
Citations
Citations since 2016
23 Research Items
332 Citations
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Introduction
Rachel E. Gicquelais currently works as an Assistant Professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Rachel does research in substance use and infectious disease epidemiology.

Publications

Publications (36)
Article
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can be cured, and the United States has joined the World Health Organization in calling for HCV elimination by 2030. However, historically low uptake of HCV treatment among people who inject drugs (PWID) threatens HCV elimination and exacerbates social and racial health disparities. Objective: To ass...
Article
Background Medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD), including injectable naltrexone (IN), are part of evidence-based OUD treatments. MOUD access often is limited, especially in rural communities. When authorized to administer non-vaccination injections, pharmacists can increase IN accessibility. However, inadequate reimbursement for pharmacist-a...
Article
Objective The objective of this study was to examine trends in fatal and nonfatal overdose in a community-based sample of current and former people who inject drugs (PWID). Methods Data from 4826 current and former PWID from the AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience (ALIVE) observational cohort study in Baltimore, Maryland, were used to charac...
Article
Full-text available
Murine models suggest that opioids alter the gut microbiota, which may impact opioid tolerance and psychopathology. We examined how gut microbiota characteristics related to use of opioid agonists and antagonists among people receiving outpatient addiction treatment. Patients (n = 46) collected stool samples and were grouped by use of opioid agonis...
Article
Preventing the transition to injection drug use is an important public health goal as people who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for overdose and infectious disease acquisition. Initiation into injection is primarily a social process, often involving PWID assistance. A better understanding of the epidemiology of this phenomenon would inform in...
Article
Oral microbiomes vary in cariogenic potential; these differences may be established early in life. A major concern is whether mothers transmit cariogenic bacteria to their children. Here we characterize early salivary microbiome development and the potential associations of that development with route of delivery, breastfeeding, and mother’s oral h...
Article
Background Increased uptake of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment among people who inject drugs (PWID) will be critical to achieve HCV elimination goals. There are limited data on HCV treatment uptake among PWID recruited from community‐based settings in the HCV direct‐acting antiviral (DAA) era. Methods We analyzed data from PWID with HCV newly re...
Article
Background Increasing naloxone awareness and carrying among individuals who misuse opioid analgesic medications (OAs) could reduce opioid overdose mortality. Methods: Self-report surveys were completed by 322 adults receiving residential addiction treatment who misused OAs in the past year. Descriptive analyses and prevalence ratios (using Poisson...
Article
Background Rates of death from opioid overdose continue to rise in the United States. One harm reduction strategy designed to reduce fatal overdose risk among people who inject drugs (PWID) is an advisory to not use drugs alone. However, the feasibility and acceptability of this message have not been evaluated. Objectives: This paper explores the d...
Article
Background Suicidal thinking during non-fatal overdose may elevate risk for future completed suicide or intentional overdose. Long-term outcomes following an intentional non-fatal overdose may be improved through specific intervention and prevention responses beyond those designed for unintentional overdoses, yet little research has assessed suicid...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Overdose is a leading cause of death in the United States, especially among people who inject drugs (PWID). Improving naloxone access and carrying among PWID may offset recent increases in overdose mortality associated with the influx of synthetic opioids in the drug market. This study characterized prevalence and correlates of sever...
Article
Objective: Black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (BMSM) are at elevated risk for HIV infection in the United States. BMSM who inject drugs may be face even higher HIV risk. Methods: Random time-location sampling was used to survey BMSM attending Black Pride events in 6 U.S. cities about HIV risk and protective behaviors, inclu...
Article
Full-text available
Background Fatal opioid overdose is a pressing public health concern in the United States. Addressing barriers and augmenting facilitators to take-home naloxone (THN) access and administration could expand program reach in preventing fatal overdoses. Methods THN access (i.e., being prescribed or receiving THN) was assessed in a Baltimore, Maryland...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Alcohol can lead to fatal and nonfatal overdose (OD) through its neurobiological inhibitory effects when used alone or with other drugs. Little research has examined alcohol OD characteristics in the context of concomitant drug use. Methods: This study utilized alcohol OD data (defined as alcohol poisoning, passing out, or blacking o...
Article
Increasing overdose mortality and new HIV outbreaks in the U.S. highlight the need to identify risk behavior profiles among people who inject drugs (PWID). We characterized latent classes of drug use among a community-based sample of 671 PWID in Baltimore during 2017 and evaluated associations of these classes with sharing syringes, obtaining syrin...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Persons in addiction treatment are likely to experience and/or witness drug overdoses following treatment and thus could benefit from overdose education and naloxone distribution (OEND) programs. Diverting individuals from the criminal justice system to addiction treatment represents one treatment engagement pathway, yet OEND needs amo...
Article
Background: Fatalities from opioid overdose quadrupled during the last 15 years as illicit opioid use increased. This study assesses how stigma and drug use settings are associated with non-fatal overdose to identify targets for overdose risk reduction interventions and inform overdose education and naloxone distribution programs. Methods: We su...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing injection of heroin and prescription opioids have led to increases in the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in US young adults since the early 2000s. How best to interrupt transmission and decrease HCV prevalence in young people who inject drugs (PWID) is uncertain. We developed an age-stratified ordinary differential equat...
Thesis
The opioid crisis is an ongoing serious public health challenge in the United States. Starting in the late 1990s, increases in prescriptions for opioid pharmaceuticals led to increases in nonmedical prescription opioid use and, in some cases, subsequent heroin use. These changes have had significant impacts on public health. Drug overdose mortality...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rising use of heroin and prescription opioids are major contributors to increases in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) incidence in US young adults since the late 1990s. How best to interrupt transmission and decrease HCV prevalence in young persons who inject drugs (PWID) is uncertain, but modeling studies in older populations support interventions that inc...
Conference Paper
Purpose Intravenous opioid use is a major contributor to the increases in hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence observed among young adults during the past decade. HCV is a bloodborne virus; because transmission occurs through sharing syringes or other injection equipment, persons who inject drugs (PWID) are the primary group at risk for new HCV infect...
Conference Paper
Purpose Overdose-focused harm reduction can be incorporated into treatment to prevent overdose and improve bystander response after treatment. This study sought to examine harm reduction knowledge among persons who inject drugs (PWID) and those using by other methods (non-PWID) to inform overdose-related psychoeducation during substance use disorde...
Article
Background: Influenza is a major cause of seasonal viral respiratory illness among school-aged children. Accordingly, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) coordinates >800 school-based influenza immunization clinics before each influenza season. We quantified the relationship between student influenza vaccination in Arkansas public schools and...
Article
Full-text available
Hepatitis C infection is the most common blood-borne infection in the United States with an estimated 2.7 million individuals suffering from chronic infection. Of those who are infected with Hepatitis C virus, 75-85% develop chronic infection. Without treatment for chronic infection, individuals can develop liver diseases, such as cirrhosis and hep...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Recent trends have demonstrated an increasing incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among young adults in the United States. Arkansas established a registry in January 2013 to track chronic HCV in young Arkansans. METHODS: Starting in 2013, HCV notifiable disease reports received by the Arkansas Department of Health were ente...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a viral respiratory illness that peaks seasonally during December – March. It is a major cause of morbidity among school-aged children. Children are widely recognized as efficient transmitters of influenza in both schools and the community. Accordingly, the Arkansas Department of Health coordinates >800 school-based influen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is a reportable condition in Arkansas; however, the ability to test for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies or ribonucleic acid (RNA) was not available in Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) local health units (LHUs) before 2014. Recommendations for the screening of persons born 1945 – 1965 (i.e. baby boomers) by the Centers...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: The Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System (eHARS) serves as Arkansas’ HIV/AIDS registry. In January 2013, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) began surveillance for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection using CDC’s NEDSS (National Electronic Disease Surveillance System) Base System (NBS) and prioritized surveillance of suspected acute case...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: In January 2013, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) established a registry to track individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) using CDC’s NEDSS (National Electronic Disease Surveillance Sys- tem) Base System. Before 2013, HCV reports received through state-man- dated communicable disease reporting were not reviewed. ADH rep...
Article
Full-text available
In August 2012, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) was notified of gastrointestinal illness outbreaks in two Arkansas state prisons. ADH investigated the outbreaks and conducted case-control studies to identify the source of the illnesses. This report describes the results of these investigations, which identified 528 persons with onset of dia...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND: Salmonella is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States and in Arkansas. In August, 2012, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) investigated two large outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the Arkansas prison system. ADH learned of a large number of inmates experiencing illness in Prison A on August...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND: Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable bacterial respiratory illness caused by the agent Bordetella pertussis. The Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) receives pertussis reports from several sources, including laboratories, physicians, and schools. ADH investigates suspect cases, identifies contacts, facilitates prophylaxis, and determines...
Article
Full-text available
Celiac disease (CD) is a unique autoimmune disorder in which the genetic factors (DQ2/DQ8) and the environmental trigger (gluten) are known and necessary but not sufficient for its development. Other environmental components contributing to CD are poorly understood. Studies suggest that aspects of gluten intake might influence the risk of CD occurr...

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