R.A. Buswell

R.A. Buswell
Loughborough University | Lough · Building Energy Research Group

BEng Hons, PhD

About

79
Publications
58,788
Reads
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6,088
Citations
Citations since 2017
19 Research Items
5079 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000

Publications

Publications (79)
Conference Paper
The Theory of Critical Distances groups together a number of approaches postulating that, in cracked/notched materials subjected to static loading, breakage takes place as soon as a critical length-dependent effective stress exceeds the material tensile strength. The characteristic length used by the Theory of Critical Distances is a material prope...
Article
Full-text available
The present paper deals with the use of the Theory of Critical Distances to model the detrimental effect of cracks and manufacturing defects in 3D-printed concrete subjected to static loading. The validity and robustness of the proposed approach was assessed against a number of experimental results that were generated by testing, under three-point...
Chapter
The comprehending of the processes’ physics is a prerequisite for the purposeful design and optimization of digital fabrication systems, as well as their efficient and robust process control. This chapter presents an overview of the underlying physics relevant to an understanding of the processing of cement-based materials during various production...
Chapter
The need for methods for forming concrete has existed for as long as concrete has been used in constructing the built environment. Creating flat, rectilinear formers have traditionally been the cost and time efficient default for the majority of applications. The desire for greater design freedom and the drive to automate construction manufacturing...
Article
The Theory of Critical Distances groups together a number of approaches postulating that, in cracked/notched materials subjected to static loading, breakage takes place as soon as a critical length-dependent effective stress exceeds the material tensile strength. The characteristic length used by the Theory of Critical Distances is a material prope...
Article
Full-text available
Heating homes using gas boilers is incompatible with the UK’s target of net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. One solution is to shift to heat pumps (HPs) supplied from decarbonised power plant, but this could place an unmanageable burden on the electricity supply network. National heat demand profiles depend on the heating patterns adopted by...
Article
Full-text available
Digital Fabrication with Concrete (DFC) encompasses 3D Concrete Printing (3DCP) and many other methods of production. DFC is emerging from an era of invention and demonstration to one where the merits of one principle over another needs to be quantified systematically. DFC technologies vary in characteristics, complexity and maturity which hampers...
Chapter
3D concrete printing (3DCP) enables automation of construction manufacturing through digital design and workflow, adding value through high degrees of form freedom. The process constraints during the printing, however, hamper the application of reinforcement and hence limit the ductile behaviour that is achievable in 3D printed concrete structures....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
3D Concrete Printing (3DCP) is being used for off-site manufacture of many elements found in the built environment, ranging from furniture to bridges. The advantage of these methods is the value added through greater geometrical freedom because a mould is not needed to create the form. In recent years, research has focused on material properties bo...
Article
Full-text available
The additive manufacture of parts using extrusion-based techniques such as 3D Concrete Printing (3DCP) offers an alternative to traditional moulding processes. The precision to which the desired shape can be produced, however, is limited by the extrusion process and layer thickness, exacerbated by the deformation that occurs in the wet material dur...
Article
Energy consumption in the home is heavily influenced by the occupants and the routines they adopt. Although these routines tend to be regarded as somewhat static in nature, more recent evidence from the social sciences suggests that patterns of consumption are actually more fluid and constantly evolve to accommodate the contingencies of everyday li...
Article
Full-text available
The demand for local heat storage to help manage energy demand in dwellings is likely to increase as the electrification of heat through heat pumps becomes more widespread. Sizing thermal energy storage systems has been an important topic in contemporary literature, but the effect of the electrical load shifting tariff and the service the household...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, the building energy performance modelling tools TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYstem Simulation program) and TRNFlow (TRaNsient Flow) have been used to obtain the energy demand of a domestic building that includes the air infiltration rate and the effect of natural ventilation by using window operation data. An initial model has been fitted to m...
Article
Full-text available
Reducing energy demand in the domestic sector will be an important feature of future energy systems but is challenging to achieve in practice. Solutions lie in a range of building fabric and system improvements as well as adopting more sustainable routines and conceptions of normality in the home. The impact of such measures has so far been quantif...
Article
Full-text available
Around 80% of domestic heat demand in Great Britain (GB) is supplied by natural gas, but continuing to heat dwellings in this way is unlikely to be compatible with national emission reduction targets. Electrical heating using heat pumps is expected to play a significant role in future space heating and hot water provision. The assessment of future...
Article
Ventilation in domestic buildings can have a significant impact on energy consumption but it is notoriously difficult to quantify, requiring physical test methods that are cumbersome and costly to apply. Energy demand reduction analyses routinely neglect the impact of ventilation and so offering well balanced advice for specific households is not p...
Article
Full-text available
Large-scale additive manufacturing processes for construction utilise computer-controlled placement of extruded cement-based mortar to create physical objects layer-by-layer. Demonstrated applications include component manufacture and placement of in-situ walls for buildings. These applications vary the constraints on design parameters and present...
Article
Full-text available
The UK is currently suffering serious overheating issues in summer, especially in residential buildings where no air-conditioning has been installed. This overheating will significantly affect people's comfort and even health, especially for elderly people. Phase Change Materials (PCMs) have been considered as a useful passive method which absorb e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Reducing energy consumption and managing energy supply/demand responses are key challenges facing the future built environment. The use of de-carbonised electricity to deliver space heating will make significant impact on CO 2 emissions for the UK. A likely technology in UK homes is to replace conventional gas boilers with heat pumps. A high coeffi...
Article
Full-text available
The UK is currently suffering great overheating issues in summer, especially in residential buildings where no air-conditioning has been installed. This overheating will seriously affect people’s comfort and even health, especially for elderly people. Phase change materials (PCMs) have been considered as a useful passive method, which absorb excess...
Article
Full-text available
Energy demand reduction and flexible demand from dwellings will play a critical role in achieving a low-carbon future. There remain many unanswered questions around the interaction of people with their environment and the technical systems that service them and, as a result, multidisciplinary research is a principal component of research funding in...
Article
When using measurement data for monitoring there is often a desire for steady-state analysis. On-line condition monitoring and fault detection systems are typical applications where the traditional way of treating transient data is to remove it using methods that require tuning using thresholds. This paper suggests an alternative approach where the...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a non-conventional way of additive manufacturing, curved-layered printing, has been applied to large-scale construction process. Despite the number of research works on Curved Layered Fused Deposition Modelling (CLFDM) over the last decade, few practical applications have been reported. An alternative method adopting the CLFDM princi...
Article
Developing sensitivity analysis (SA) that reliably and consistently identify sensitive variables can improve building performance design. In global SA, a linear regression model is normally applied to sampled-based solutions by stepwise manners, and the relative importance of variables is examined by sensitivity indexes. However, the robustness of...
Article
Published UK 2050 energy scenarios specify a range of decarbonised supply side technologies combined with electrification of transportation and heating. These scenarios are designed to meet CO2 reduction targets whilst maintaining reliability of supply. Current models of the UK energy system either make significant assumptions about the role of dem...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Domestic Hot Water (DHW) production can account for a quarter of the energy consumed in UK dwellings and this proportion is likely to increase as the energy required for space heating reduces in order to achieve demand reduction targets. As the margins for improving the performance of heating system technologies diminish, the need for improving mod...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In a changing climate and with ever increasing energy standards that lead to low and zero energy buildings, the provision of hot water in buildings will become more significant in relation to the overall energy consumption. Higher demand on the provision of hot water consumption has been documented and will occur around activities such as laundry,...
Article
Full-text available
Infiltration and ventilation rates in domestic buildings vary with construction type, weather conditions and the operation of openings in the fabric. Generating good estimates of ventilation is important for modelling, simulation and performance assessment as it has a significant impact on energy consumption. Physical tests can be applied to estima...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The LEEDR project was a four-year study that explored energy consumption in family homes. 20 households took part, being involved for about three years. Insights were fed back to the participants at the end of the project in the form of a unique, tailored book for each family. This book represents the style, formatting and information content of th...
Article
Full-text available
Small power is a substantial energy end-use in office buildings in its own right, but also significantly contributes to internal heat gains. Technological advancements have allowed for higher efficiency computers, yet current working practices are demanding more out of digital equipment. Designers often rely on benchmarks to inform predictions of s...
Article
This paper presents an analysis of the zero-carbon performance of a case-study building which is representative of a growing number of new buildings that are being built on redevelopment sites in inner-city areas in the UK. Compact urban dwellings are apartment style buildings with a floor area of ∼50 m2 per dwelling, often based over two floors. T...
Article
CIBSE’s Guide F is a widely recognised guidance document on energy efficiency in buildings, which includes energy consumption benchmarks for small power equipment in offices. In its recently published 3rd edition, existing power demand benchmarks for office equipment were revised to better represent appliances found in contemporary office buildings...
Article
Applying global sensitivity analysis to solutions obtained from optimization gives an understanding of which variables have most impact on the solution. It also provides confidence in the optimality of the solution(s). Typically, global sensitivity analysis is based on a linear regression model in the stepwise manner. To improve computational effic...
Article
Full-text available
The application of building simulation and modelling is becoming more widespread, particularly in the analysis of residential buildings. The energy consumption and control of systems in residential buildings are tightly linked to the behaviour of people, arguably more so than in commercial buildings which have traditionally been the preserve of bui...
Article
Residential buildings consume about a third of the UKs total energy and the need to reduce this as part of achieving the 2050 CO2 emissions targets driving the interest the modelling and performance simulation of homes. While simulation and modelling tools are in wide spread use, the detailed empirical data with which to understand the effect of sy...
Article
Monitoring energy and temperatures in dwellings is becoming commonplace due to the reduction in sensing costs. Measurements can be used for informing the occupants on their energy as well as developing better inputs for building performance simulation and verifying analysis. In a home monitoring environment making sense of this data can be difficul...
Article
Full-text available
With the increasing demand for more energy efficient buildings, the construction industry is faced with the challenge to ensure that the energy performance predicted during the design stage is achieved once a building is in use. There is, however, significant evidence to suggest that buildings are not performing as well as expected and initiatives...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the experimental results concerning the mix design and fresh properties of a high-performance fibre-reinforced fine-aggregate concrete for printing concrete. This concrete has been designed to be extruded through a nozzle to build layer-by-layer structural components. The printing process is a novel digitally controlled additive...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the hardened properties of a high-performance fibre-reinforced fine-aggregate concrete extruded through a 9 mm diameter nozzle to build layer-by-layer structural components in a printing process. The printing process is a digitally controlled additive method capable of manufacturing architectural and structural components withou...
Article
Full-text available
A novel Concrete Printing process has been developed, inspired and informed by advances in 3D printing, which has the potential to produce highly customised building components. Whilst still in their infancy, these technologies could create a new era of architecture that is better adapted to the environment and integrated with engineering function....
Article
Full-text available
Additive manufacturing in construction is beginning to move from an architect's modelling tool to delivering full-scale architectural components and elements of buildings such as walls and facades. This paper discusses large-scale additive manufacturing processes that have been applied in the construction and architecture arena and focuses on ‘Conc...
Article
Full-text available
An alternative to using numerical simulation to model ventilation performance is to model internal air flows using water-based experimental models. However, these can be time consuming and the manual nature of model assembly means that exploring detail and design variations is often prohibitively expensive. Additive, or Rapid manufacturing processe...
Article
This paper reports a recent longitudinal study observing people's use of windows in cellular office spaces and suggests that the thermal environmental parameters are not the only factors affecting people's behaviour. The study focuses on the 'end-of-day' window position due to its influence on the next day's thermal performance of buildings and ene...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In non-air-conditioned buildings, occupants are able to interact with their surrounding environment using various adaptive opportunities such as opening a window. The availability of these opportunities may make occupants feel thermally comfortable across a wider range of conditions than in air-conditioned buildings. Therefore, a good understanding...
Article
Design visualizationVirtual realityRapid prototypingComparison of VR and PRPhysical reality: Printing buildingsChanges in design thinkingMaterial and fabrication process requirementsConclusions References
Article
Full-text available
Photovoltaic systems can reduce the CO2 emissions associated with the consumption of electricity in dwellings. One key issue that affects both the economic case for home installation and the integration with the mains electricity grid is the match between the instantaneous production and demand for power. This initial study considers a sample of 10...
Article
Innovation in architectural design often follows technological innovation. This innovation can often be related to advances in construction techniques or design tools. This paper focuses on the development of a digital design environment for a new manufacturing process that can produce large architectural components. The design environment can be c...
Article
Full-text available
Building three dimensional objects in sequential layers is a technique employed by Rapid Manufacturing processes which allow great freedom in the design of the manufactured component. Niche markets for these technologies are continually developing and they challenge conventional methods of design and procurement. In the last few years there have be...
Article
Full-text available
A study was conducted to demonstrate the fabrication of acoustic absorbing topologies, using rapid prototyping (RP). Porous samples were produced using the FDM process, to investigate the potential use of RP in the fabrication of acoustically absorbing topologies. Samples with different porosities were produced by varying the filament spacing. The...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the development of a model-based optimization procedure for the synthesis of novel heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system configurations. The optimization problem can be considered as having three suboptimization problems: the choice of a component set; the design of the topological connections between the components...
Article
Purpose Limitations in traditional manufacturing methods currently employed in the production of acoustic devices, restricts the development of design led performance improvements. These devices are used to control sound energy and are commonly employed for tailoring room acoustics. solid freeform fabrication allows the production of acoustic struc...
Article
Full-text available
The utilisation of automation technology and processes control found in the automotive and aerospace industries is not paralleled in modern day construction. The industry also struggles to improve health and safety issues and still uses traditional methods of procurement. These problems are compounded by the diminishing skills in the labour force....
Chapter
Full-text available
The level of automation technology and processes control, within the construction sector, faces unique challenges if it is to catch up with automotive and aerospace applications. The construction industry has problems relating to health and safety, environmental legislation and traditional methods of procurement. These are compounded by diminishing...
Article
Full-text available
The level of automation technology and processes control found in modern day construction lags significantly behind other industries such as automotive and aerospace. The construction industry has health and safety issues and still uses traditional methods of procurement. These problems are compounded by diminishing skills in the labour force. Meth...
Article
Full-text available
Model-based techniques for automated condition monitoring of HVAC systems have been under development for some years. The generation of false alarms has been identified as a principal factor affecting the potential usefulness of condition monitoring in HVAC applications. Results from the application of these methods to systems installed in real bui...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A novel approach for automatic design synthesis and optimization using evolutionary algorithms (EA) is introduced in the paper. The approach applies to component-based systems in general and is demonstrated with a heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems problem. The whole process of the system design, including the initial stages t...
Article
Full-text available
A comparison of the performance of two fault detection and diagnosis methods applied to a cooling coil subsystem in an air-handling unit installed in a real building is presented. Both methods employ a first principles based reference model of the target system. One scheme carries out diagnosis using expert rules and the other recursively re-estima...
Article
A methodology for the encoding of the chromosome of a genetic algorithm (GA) is described in the paper. The encoding procedure is applied to the problem of automatically generating fuzzy rule-based models from data. Models generated by this approach have much of the flexibility of black-box methods, such as neural networks. In addition, they implic...
Article
Full-text available
Controlled field tests of two methods for detecting and diagnosing faults in HVAC equipment were carried out. The two fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) methods were evaluated on the basis of their sensitivity, robustness, the number of sensors required, and ease of implementation. Both methods were found to require further work in three principal...