R. G. Smith

R. G. Smith
De Montfort University | DMU · Department of Computer Technology

About

64
Publications
31,461
Reads
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828
Citations
Citations since 2017
19 Research Items
555 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
Training effective simulation scenarios presents numerous challenges from a pedagogical point of view. Through application of the Conceptual Framework for e-Learning and Training (COFELET) as a pattern for designing serious games, we propose the use of the Simulated Critical Infrastructure Protection Scenarios (SCIPS) platform as a prospective tool...
Article
Incident response teams cannot prepare for every situation or predict every crisis, especially when they involve cyber-physical systems. As a result, training activities need to be provided to support operating in challenging situations to develop concrete guidance, procedures, and tools to help individuals collectively react in different, unpredic...
Conference Paper
In this study, we present a detailed analysis of deep learning techniques for intrusion detection. Specifically, we analyze seven deep learning models, including, deep neural networks, recurrent neural networks, convolutional neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine, deep belief networks, deep Boltzmann machines, and deep autoencoders. For eac...
Chapter
Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems use programmable logic controllers (PLC) or other intelligent electronic devices (IED), remote terminal units (RTU) and input/output (I/O) devices to manage electromechanical equipment in either local or distributed environments. SCADA systems cover a range of industrial sectors and critical...
Chapter
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems use programmable logic controllers (PLC) or other intelligent electronic devices (IED), remote terminal units (RTU) and input/output (I/O) devices to manage electromechanical equipment in either local or distributed environments. SCADA systems cover a range of industrial sectors and critical...
Chapter
The cyber threat to industrial control systems is an acknowledged security issue, but a qualified dataset to quantify the risk remains largely unavailable. Senior executives of facilities that operate these systems face competing requirements for investment budgets, but without an understanding of the nature of the threat, cyber security may not be...
Article
Full-text available
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems and Industrial Control Systems (ICS) have controlled the regulation and management of Critical National Infrastructure environments for decades. With the demand for remote facilities to be controlled and monitored, industries have continued to adopt internet technology into their ICS and SCAD...
Article
Industrial control systems (ICS) are an essential element of critical national infrastructure, often managing processes and utilities that are essential to a nation's wellbeing and prosperity. These systems are increasingly the target of cyber attacks, and thus are required to adopt a stronger cyber defence posture. The integration of industrial in...
Chapter
Cyber Security of ICS/SCADA systems is a major aspect of current research focus. Cyber Ranges and Test-beds can serve as means of vulnerability and threat analysis of real SCADA systems with low costs. Significantly lacking from current research, is detailed documentation of the decision process and the potential difficulties that need to be consid...
Article
This paper outlines a tool developed with the purpose of creating a simple configurable emulated network environment that can be used in cyber defence exercises. Research has been conducted into the various related subject areas: cyber defence exercises, network threats, network emulation, network traffic replay, network topologies, and common netw...
Article
Full-text available
This paper outlines a tool developed with the purpose of creating a simple configurable emulated network environment that can be used in cyber defence exercises. Research has been conducted into the various related subject areas: cyber defence exercises, network threats, network emulation, network traffic replay, network topologies, and common netw...
Article
The threat to Industrial Control Systems (ICS) from cyber attacks is widely acknowledged by governments and literature. Operators of ICS are looking to address these threats in an effective and cost-sensitive manner that does not expose their operations to additional risks through invasive testing. Whilst existing standards and guidelines offer com...
Article
Industrial control systems (ICS) are increasingly becoming the target of cyber attacks. In order to counter this threat, organisations are turning to traditional IT security mechanisms to protect their operations. However, ICS includes a range of technologies which are often unfamiliar to contemporary IT security professionals or the tools they dep...
Article
The cyber threat to industrial control systems is an acknowledged security issue, but a qualified dataset to quantify the risk remains largely unavailable. Senior executives of facilities that operate these systems face competing requirements for investment budgets, but without an understanding of the nature of the threat, cyber security may not be...
Article
Industrial control systems (ICS) are increasingly becoming the target of cyber attacks. In order to counter this threat, organisations are turning to traditional IT security mechanisms to protect their operations. However, ICS includes a range of technologies which are often unfamiliar to contemporary IT security professionals or the tools they dep...
Article
Industrial control systems are an essential element of critical national infrastructure, often managing processes and utilities that are essential to a nation's well being and prosperity. These systems are increasingly becoming the target of cyber attacks, and as a result are required to adopt a stronger cyber defense posture. In the next years, th...
Chapter
Cyber Security of ICS/SCADA systems is a major aspect of current research focus. Cyber Ranges and Test-beds can serve as means of vulnerability and threat analysis of real SCADA systems with low costs. Significantly lacking from current research, is detailed documentation of the decision process and the potential difficulties that need to be consid...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, most of the existing e-learning architecture provides the same content to all learners due to ”one size fits for all” concept. E-learning refers to the utilization of electronic innovations to convey and encourage training anytime and anywhere. There is a need to create a personalized environment that involves collecting a range of inform...
Article
Full-text available
In order to deter or prosecute for cyber attacks on industrial control systems it is necessary to assign attribution to the attacker and define the type of attack so that international law enforcement agencies or national governments can decide on appropriate recourse. In this paper we identify the current state of the art of attribution in industr...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the traditional approach to software development within the United Kingdom Government and the accreditation process. Initially we look at the Waterfall methodology that has been used for several years. We discuss the pros and cons of Waterfall before moving onto the Agile Scrum methodology. Agile has been adopted by the majority...
Article
Full-text available
Like conventional terrorism, cyberterrorism has the same aims and goals but the act is done exclusively within cyberspace where the computer is both weapon and target. Unlike conventional terrorism, cyberterrorism is not analogue but digital and any potential attack could have global consequences. Current thinking is that Critical National Infrastr...
Article
Measurements of river and lake water levels from space-borne radar altimeters (past missions include ERS, Envisat, Jason, Topex) are useful for calibration and validation of large-scale hydrological models in poorly gauged river basins. Altimetry data availability over the downstream reaches of the Brahmaputra is excellent (17 high-quality virtual...
Article
Soil surface moisture is a key scientific parameter; however, it is extremely difficult to measure remotely, particularly in arid and semi-arid terrain. This paper outlines the development of a novel methodology to generate soil moisture estimates in these regions from multi-mission satellite radar altimetry. Key to this approach is the development...
Article
The CryoSat-2 SIRAL altimeter presents a unique opportunity for inland water height retrieval. In order to maximise the potential of this new dataset the ESA CRUCIAL (CryoSat+ Land and Inland Water) contract has been set up to investigate the application of CryoSat-2 data over land and inland water. When operating in SAR mode CryoSat-2 obtains wave...
Article
Satellite altimetry has been used for many years to measure the height of inland water bodies; this paper assesses the contribution of the EnviSat RA-2 to global inland water monitoring. A full waveform analysis of cycles 10 to 85 of the EnviSat RA-2 SGDR dataset has been completed over inland water, retrieving over 822,000 crossings. The results c...
Article
Full-text available
Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitor...
Conference Paper
Satellite radar altimetry has been used for many years to monitor the world's largest inland waterbodies [1]. As the global in-situ network of gauge stations progressively falls out of use, whilst demands on water resources escalate [2], the importance of a remote measurement capability continues to increase. This paper presents an analysis of the...
Article
Satellite radar altimeters have an established and increasingly vital role in monitoring the Earth's surface inland water resources. This paper analyzes two years of EnviSat burst echoes (which have 3.9-m nominal along-track separation) over rivers, lakes, and ephemeral water globally to assess the increase in monitoring potential afforded by the h...
Article
Soil surface moisture is a key scientific parameter; however, it is extremely difficult to measure remotely, particularly in arid and semi-arid terrain. This paper outlines the development of a novel methodology to generate soil moisture estimates in these regions from multi-mission satellite radar altimetry. Key to this approach is the development...
Article
Satellite altimetry has been used for many years to measure the height of inland waterbodies; this paper assesses the contribution of the EnviSat RA-2 to global inland water monitoring. A full waveform analysis of cycles 10 to 85 of the EnviSat RA-2 SGDR dataset has been completed over inland water, retrieving 822229 crossings. The results confirm...
Article
Full-text available
Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. In this study, retracked Envisat altimetry data was extracted over the Zambezi R...
Article
Hydrological model forecasts are subject to large uncertainties stemming from uncertain input data, model structure, parameterization and lack of sufficient calibration/validation data. For real-time or near-real-time applications data assimilation techniques such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) can be used to reduce forecast uncertainty by up...
Article
Satellite altimetry has been used to monitor the heights of the Earth's largest lakes for many years; however, river systems present far more challenging targets. Using an expert system approach, echoes from smaller lakes and river systems can be successfully retracked to yield height measurements. As the network of in situ gauges declines, this re...
Article
Full-text available
Many river basins have a weak in-situ hydrometeorological monitoring infrastructure. However, water resources practitioners depend on reliable hydrological models for management purposes. Remote sensing (RS) data have been recognized as an alternative to in-situ hydrometeorological data in remote and poorly monitored areas and are increasingly used...
Article
Full-text available
Many river basins have a weak in-situ hydrometeorological monitoring infrastructure. However, water resources practitioners depend on reliable hydrological models for management purposes. Remote sensing (RS) data have been recognized as an alternative to in-situ hydrometeorological data in remote and poorly monitored areas and are increasingly used...
Article
Data from the current generation of satellite radar altimeters are now utilized by researchers to derive height changes over many of the earth's large lakes and a few of the largest rivers. The primary limitation to global river monitoring is the requirement to `retrack' the altimeter echoes to derive an accurate range to the water surface, rather...
Chapter
Detailed accurate Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data have historically not been available on other than a regional scale, and often have uncertainties in both vertical and horizontal precision. This paper presents the results of a global assessment of the unique Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) DEM using more than 100 million height datapoi...
Chapter
New technology can for the first time enable the accurate retrieval of the global and regional water budgets from space-borne and ground-based gravity surveys. Water is mankind’s most critical natural resource, but it is being heavily used throughout the globe. The aim of this paper is to outline the HYDROGRAV project dealing with improving large s...
Chapter
Satellite radar altimetry has been key to the improvement of geoid and gravity models. Of prime importance to this is obtaining stable and accurate height estimates over the ocean. This is especially difficult over coastal zones due to the non-Brown model nature of the waveforms. Following a study of existing ocean retracking techniques and analys...
Article
Ocean monitoring using satellite radar altimetry is a well-established discipline, which utilises primarily pre-processed data supplied by the Space Agencies. However, the availability of these data decreases rapidly within 10 km of the coast, as the echo shapes become contaminated with signal components from land topography and comparatively still...
Article
Measuring the earth's river and lake heights using satellite radar altimetry offers a unique global monitoring capability which complements the detailed measurements made by the steadily decreasing number of in-situ gauges. To exploit this unique remote monitoring capability, a global pilot scheme has been implemented to derive river and lake surfa...
Article
The Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission has provided a unique near-global database of heights at 3" resolution, significantly increasing the height information over much of the Earth's land surface. However, validation of these data is difficult, and has primarily been performed in the form of regionally based comparisons with Digital Elevation Model...
Article
Multi-mission satellite radar altimetry makes a unique contribution to the monitoring of global inland surface water. Existing datasets already allow derivation of decadal timeseries over many targets worldwide, and these data are utilised both for climate change research and to inform water resource management. As the number of gauged catchments c...
Article
Multi-mission satellite radar altimetry makes a unique contribution to the monitoring of global inland surface water; existing datasets already allow derivation of decadal timeseries over many targets worldwide, and these data are utilised both for climate change research and to inform water resource management. As the number of gauged catchments c...
Article
The ability to work on a continental scale (due to technological advances) increasingly allows the possibility of assessing climate and hydrological variables globally. This in turn has led to an increasing demand for Global Digital Elevation Models (GDEMs) to support hydrological investigations both by incorporating into their quality assessment t...
Chapter
The SRTM dataset provides the first near- global elevation model of the Earth's continental land surface at 3 �� resolution. This unique dataset is cur- rently used for a range of applications. However, there are a number of known quirks and omissions in these data, such as voids over inland water and erroneous heights from forest canopy; in additi...
Article
The SRTM dataset provides the first near-global elevation model of the earth's continental land surface at 3" resolution. This unique dataset is currently used for a range of applications. However, there are a number of known quirks and omissions in these data, for example voids over large inland water extents and errors in height attributed to riv...
Article
This paper reports the results of a near-global validation of the SRTM DEM dataset, using a unique database of completely independent height measurements derived from satellite altimeter echoes, primarily gathered by ERS-1. These heights are obtained using a rule-based expert system which identifies each echo as 1 of 11 different characteristic sha...
Article
The Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission has generated a unique and valuable dataset, allowing the generation of a Digital Elevation Model of unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution over much of the earth's land surface. However, one of the limitations of the SRTM dataset is the representation of River and Lake heights. Whilst several researcher...
Article
The series of satellite radar altimeter missions has now given us more than 16 years of data gathered over the earth's inland water. However, this incredibly rich database of unique hydrological information is only now beginning to be mined effectively, as researchers increasingly move from accepting the pre-processed range information to retrackin...
Article
Over the past 18 months, a pilot system has been developed which has generated global lake and river level measurements from the Envisat RA-2. These data are produced within 3-5 days of measurement, using retracked Level 1B altimeter echoes merged with data from the IGDR to obtain both orbit and atmospheric/instrument corrections. A global version...
Article
There have been many attempts to derive inland water heights and associated information over wetlands using satellite radar altimetry. In general, these studies have been limited to permanent water bodies of appreciable size within individual wetlands. This paper presents the results of a study of representative wetlands with global distribution, t...
Article
In order to determine whether or not the EnviSat RA-2 can be used to monitor water levels within wetlands a study of four Wetlands was conducted. The chosen wetlands were: the Okavango Delta, the Sudd marshes, the Vasyugan Swamp and Big Cypress. To enable precise measurements, accurate masks were derived of the surfaces within each wetland. Several...
Article
The new ACE2 Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) provides the most accurate GDEM to date. ACE2 has been created by synergistically merging the SRTM dataset with 67 million datapoints derived from multi-mission satellite Altimeter echoes leading to the alteration of over 11 billion heights. The two datasets demonstrate very good agreement over muc...
Article
The ESA River and Lake Pilot project has now been running for some time, generating river and lake heights for targets globally. This paper presents a synopsis of the current system for generating river and lake heights from EnviSat Near Real Time (NRT) data and outlines a series of proposed enhancements, including extension of the NRT capability t...
Article
The Jason-1 mission is collecting a huge database of altimeter echoes over the earth's land surfaces. However, it is widely reported that the performance of this instrument over inland water is severely sub-optimal, with few targets successfully acquired, and poor derived heights. This paper presents a global analysis of the performance of Jason-1...

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Projects (2)
Project
The aim of this research is to establish and evaluate how agile methods and techniques will be integrated into traditionally incident response processes to yield a value-focused and dynamic approach that embeds incident response in the overall business. The research will take into account changing risks and impacts during the course of an attack and maximise business utility by deriving value directly from the business processes the ICS is supporting. The objectives of this research are to: 1) Deliver an Agile Incident Response framework (AIR4ICS) that is tailored to the particular challenges of Industrial Control Systems to address the cyber physical nature and impacts of IR. 2) Apply and adapt agile management methods to the context of incident response to bring the benefits of a cross-functional team together with a continuously adaptive and value driven approach to incident response. 3) Evaluate AIR4ICS using an experiential learning platform to conduct three war-gaming exercises, bringing together RITICS partners, industry and CNI operators with direct value to beneficiaries. Provide exposure and integration for RITICS and aligned industry research through the coordinated integration of research outputs in the war-gaming exercises.
Project
Cyber Ranges and Test-beds can serve as means of vulnerability and threat analysis of real SCADA systems with low costs.