R. Nicholas Carleton

R. Nicholas Carleton
University of Regina · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

218
Publications
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Publications

Publications (218)
Article
Full-text available
Public safety personnel (PSP) are frequently exposed to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTE). Frequent exposure to PPTE is associated with a high prevalence of mental health symptom reporting among PSP, and stigma is associated with lower rates of intended mental health service use for PSP. A valid and expedient measure of stigma cou...
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Background Researchers and practitioners have begun to recognize and empirically examine the mental health challenges facing public safety personnel (PSP). Empirical results from longitudinal data collection among PSP remains extremely scant, particularly for institutional correctional workers. We designed the current study to assess the mental hea...
Article
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), like all public safety personnel (PSP), are frequently exposed to potentially psychologically traumatic events that contribute to posttraumatic stress injuries (PTSI). Addressing PTSI is impeded by the limited available research. In this protocol paper, we describe the RCMP Study, part of the concerted effo...
Article
Les membres de la Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC), comme l’ensemble du personnel de la sécurité publique, sont fréquemment exposés à des événements potentiellement traumatiques sur le plan psychologique qui contribuent à la survenue de blessures de stress post­traumatique. Le peu de travaux de recherche disponibles sur le sujet limite l’étude de...
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Background—Public safety personnel (PSP) are at heightened risk of developing mental health challenges due to exposures to diverse stressors including potentially psychologically traumatic experiences. An increased focus on protecting PSP mental health has prompted demand for interventions designed to enhance resilience. While hundreds of available...
Article
Introduction Public safety personnel (PSP; e.g., correctional employees, firefighters, paramedics, police, public safety communicators [PSC]) are regularly exposed to diverse risks; as such, PSP professions may attract and retain people with personalities that differ relative to each other and the general public. The current study provides the firs...
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Public safety personnel (PSP) are frequently exposed to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs) which can impact mental health. To help mitigate the negative effects of PPTEs, PSP commonly rely on peer support. Peer support generally refers to a wide variety of mental health resources that offer social or emotional assistance to a peer...
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Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) is effective when tailored to meet the needs of public safety personnel (PSP). Nevertheless, there is limited research on the nature of the occupational stressors faced by PSP who seek ICBT and how PSP use ICBT to address occupational stressors. We provided tailored ICBT to PSP (N = 126; 54% wo...
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Introduction: Recent research evidence indicates increased mental health needs among canadian armed Forces (caF) personnel. Research evidence also indicates that a portion of caF personnel with mental health needs do not seek professional mental health care or significantly delay initiating treatment. the current study was designed to examine indiv...
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Article Open Access: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-022-01534-4 The aim of this research was to describe the evidence examining the approaches taken by mental health providers (MHPs) and chaplains to address symptoms related to moral injury (MI) or exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs). This research also considers the implicatio...
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Public safety personnel (PSP) experience a disproportionately high number of on-the-job stressors compared to the general population. PSP develop self-initiated actions, or coping strategies , that either confront the situation (approach strategies) or avoid the situation (avoidance strategies) to reduce the impact of stressors on their well-being....
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We know little about potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTE) exposures among provincial correctional workers in diverse occupational positions and even less regarding how exposure to events are associated with mental health disorders. We designed the current study to unpack and quantify estimates of the frequencies that correctional wor...
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Aims: We explore social and relational dynamics tied to an unexplored potentially psychologically traumatic event (PPTE) that can impact nurses' well-being and sense of their occupational responsibilities: namely, the moral, ethical, or professional dilemmas encountered in their occupational work. Design: We used a semi-constructed grounded theo...
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Objective: We examined the prevalence of mental health disorders and suicidal behaviours (ideation, planning and attempts) among a sample of provincial correctional workers in Manitoba. Methods: Self-reported mental health data from a survey on correctional worker mental health and well-being were analyzed for 491 correctional workers. Results:...
Article
Public Safety Personnel (PSP) experience significant job-related stressors including potentially psychologically traumatic event (PPTE) exposures that may compromise mental health; as such, strategies are needed to mitigate the impact of stressors. Substantial research evidence indicates that social support is a crucial strategy for enhancing menta...
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Volunteer and career firefighters are at risk of major depressive disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol use disorder, and other mental health disorders due to the demanding and unpredictable nature of their employment. The mental health risks are exacerbated by the need to work extended hours, night shifts, and/or rotating schedu...
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nato’ we ho win is a trauma-and-violence-informed artistic and cultural intervention for Indigenous women who have experienced intimate partner violence. The results of this study provide evidence that engagement in nato’ we ho win had a positive impact on participants’ well-being. Participants completed self-report questionnaires at intake, post-i...
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The work of public safety personnel (PSP) is inherently moral; however, the ability of PSP to do what is good and right can be impeded and frustrated, leading to moral suffering. Left unresolved, moral suffering may develop into moral injury (MI) and potential psychological harm. The current study was designed to examine if MI is relevant to frontl...
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First responders and other public safety personnel (PSP) experience elevated rates of mental disorders and face unique barriers to care. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) is an effective and accessible treatment that has demonstrated good treatment outcomes when tailored specifically for PSP. However, little is known about how...
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Canadian public safety personnel (PSP) experience high rates of mental health problems and barriers to receiving care. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) may help reduce barriers to care; however, there is no literature involving qualitative analyses of client feedback to describe PSP experiences with ICBT. Identifying these ex...
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Exposure to potentially psychologically traumatic events for correctional workers is high. However, the mechanisms driving the high prevalence are relatively unexplained. Using data from a cross-sectional, online survey of correctional service workers ( n = 845) in Ontario, Canada, collected in 2017–2018, we assess the prevalence of mental disorder...
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In the current study, we quantified the mean stress levels of 43 occupational stressors for 868 Correctional Workers (CWs) and analyzed the relationships between occupational stressors, exposure to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs), and mental health disorders. Our findings emphasize the importance of the occupational environment...
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Public safety personnel (PSP; e.g., communications officials, corrections workers, firefighters, paramedics, and police officers) are at risk of developing mental health problems due to experiencing potentially psychologically traumatic events during their career. Research examining evidence-based treatments for psychological injuries resulting fro...
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Women police officers report elevated symptoms of mental disorders when compared to men police officers. Researchers have indicated that the occupational experience of policing differs greatly among men and women. Indeed, police culture is characterized by hegemonic masculinity, which appears to negatively impact both men and women. The current stu...
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Background Public safety personnel and frontline healthcare professionals are at increased risk of exposure to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTE) and developing posttraumatic stress injuries (PTSI, e.g., depression, anxiety) by the nature of their work. PTSI are also linked to increased absenteeism, suicidality, and performance dec...
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The Public Health Agency of Canada declared suicide a public health problem in Canada (2016). Employees working in correctional services, researchers find, experience high rates of life-time suicidal ideation in comparison to other public safety professionals and the general population. Suicide behaviours (i.e., ideation, planning, attempts, death)...
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Brief mental health disorder screening questionnaires (SQs) are used by psychiatrists, physicians, researchers, psychologists, and other mental health professionals and may provide an efficient method to guide clinicians to query symptom areas requiring further assessment. For example, annual screening has been used to help identify military person...
Preprint
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Background Public safety personnel (PSP) are exposed to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTE) far more often than the general public, which increases the risk for various posttraumatic stress injuries (PTSIs). There are many evidence-based psychological interventions for PTSI, but whether the interventions benefit PSP despite the repe...
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Correctional workers are at increased risk for a variety of mental disorders relative to the general population. The increased risk appears associated with frequent exposures to a variety of potentially psychologically traumatic events; however, the Job Demand-Control model and the Job Demand-Control-Support model posit operational (job content) an...
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Background Public Safety Personnel (e.g., firefighters, paramedics, and police officers) are routinely exposed to human suffering and need to make quick, morally challenging decisions. Such decisions can affect their psychological wellbeing. Participating in or observing an event or situation that conflicts with personal values can potentially lead...
Article
Police officers, and specifically women officers, report elevated mental disorder rates relative to the general population, which may be impacted by sleep quality, policing-related stress, and social support. In a sample of Canadian police officers, sex was indirectly related to post traumatic stress, depression, generalized anxiety, panic, and soc...
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Background: International estimates suggest that up to one in three public safety personnel experience one or more mental disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Canadian data have been sparse until very recently, and correctional officers and forensic psychiatric staff have rarely been included. Working as a correctional office...
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Recent Canadian research indicates 44.5% of public safety personnel (PSP) self-report symptoms consistent with at least one type of mental disorder; however, researchers have typically not focused on the mental wellness of civilians working within PSP sectors. Given that the number of civilians working in Canadian law enforcement organizations has...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Canadian public safety personnel (PSP) experience high rates of mental health disorders and face many barriers to treatment. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) overcomes many such barriers and is effective for treating depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. OBJECTIVE The current stud...
Article
Background Canadian public safety personnel (PSP) experience high rates of mental health disorders and face many barriers to treatment. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) overcomes many such barriers, and is effective for treating depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Objective This study was de...
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Public safety personnel (PSP) experience unique occupational stressors and suffer from high rates of mental health problems. The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted virtually all aspects of human life around the world and has introduced additional occupational stressors for PSP. The objective of this study was to explore how PSP, especially those seekin...
Article
Background Nurses appear to be at a greater risk of burnout compared to other medical professionals. Higher levels of burnout are significantly associated with higher levels of anxiety, stress, and depression symptoms. Purpose The current study was designed to estimate levels of burnout among Canadian nurses, examine the association between burnou...
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Public safety personnel (PSP) and frontline healthcare professionals (FHP) are frequently exposed to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs), and report increased rates of post-traumatic stress injuries (PTSIs). Despite widespread implementation and repeated calls for research, effectiveness evidence for organizational post-exposure PT...
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Firefighters appear at an increased risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Because of PTSD-related stigma, firefighters may search for information online. The current study evaluated the quality, readability, and completeness of PTSD online resources, and to determine how the online treatment recommendations align with current evidence. Go...
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Background Nurses are regularly exposed to diverse potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs) as a function of their work. Cumulative exposure to PPTEs can lead to clinically significant symptoms of mental disorders. Purpose We designed the current study to investigate the prevalence of different PPTEs among Canadian nurses and estimate...
Article
Background: Nurses face regular exposures to potentially psychologically traumatic events as part of their occupational responsibilities. Cumulative stress due to repeated exposure to such events is associated with poor mental health and an increased risk of developing clinically significant symptoms consistent with some mental disorders. Purpose...
Article
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Background Public safety personnel (PSP; e.g., correctional workers and officers, firefighters, paramedics, police officers, public safety communications officials) are regularly exposed to potentially traumatic events and considerable uncertainty as part of their employment. Canadian PSP screen positively for mental disorders at much higher rates...
Article
Background: Firefighters partake in and are exposed to a range of potentially traumatic events throughout their careers and the impact of such critical events could last a life time. Therefore, capturing such lifetime exposures is necessary for supporting firefighter health. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of critical incidents in firefigh...
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Background: Social support may be a protective factor for the mental health of public safety personnel (PSP), who are frequently exposed to potentially psychologically traumatic events and report substantial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms. Research examining perceived social support and its assoc...
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Youth with chronic pain and their parents face uncertainty regarding their diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Given the uncertain nature of chronic pain, and high comorbidity of anxiety among youth, intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may be critical to the experience of pediatric chronic pain. This study longitudinally examined major tenets of the I...
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Canadian public safety personnel (e.g., correctional workers, firefighters) experience potential stressors as a function of their occupation. Occupational stressors can include organizational (e.g., job context) and operational (e.g., job content) elements. Operational stressors (e.g., exposures to potentially psychologically traumatic events) may...
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Mental health challenges appear to be extremely prolific and challenging for correctional service employees, affecting persons working in community, institutional, and administrative correctional services. Focusing specifically on correctional workers employed by the Ontario Ministry of the Solicitor General, we shed light on their interpretations...
Article
Background Nurses are regularly exposed to potentially psychologically traumatic events, experience high rates of burnout, and may be at an elevated risk of death by suicide. Few studies have assessed for suicidal behaviors among Canadian nurses, and factors that may increase risk for suicidal behaviors are unknown. Purpose The current study was d...
Article
The editorial will introduce a special section on nurses’ mental health and well-being that will showcase results from a groundbreaking pan-Canadian study of nurses’ occupational stress. The article series highlights research efforts toward better supporting nurses’ mental health. In this editorial, we discuss the importance of this research in lig...
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Introduction: Public safety personnel (PSP; e.g., communications officials [e.g., 911 call center operators/dispatchers], correctional service employees, firefighters, paramedics, police officers) experience an elevated risk for mental disorders due to inherent work-related stress. Several programs have been designed to increase mental health know...
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Poor sleep quality is associated with numerous mental health concerns and poorer overall physical health. Sleep disturbances are commonly reported by public safety personnel (PSP) and may contribute to the risk of developing mental disorders or exacerbate mental disorder symptoms. The current investigation was designed to provide estimates of sleep...
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Background Trauma exposure is associated with adverse health-related correlates, including physical comorbidities, and is highly prevalent among public safety personnel (PSP). The current study (1) examined the association between context of index trauma exposure (part of job vs. other) and physical conditions and (2) established the prevalence of...
Article
Research on the relationship between distressing social events and social anxiety has focused on antagonistic social events (i.e., peer victimization, cyberbullying) in adolescent samples. There is little research examining such relationships in adults, and less examining the relationship between non-antagonistic distressing social events (i.e., ac...
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Correctional service employees in Ontario, Canada (n = 1487) began an online survey available from 2017 to 2018 designed to assess the prevalence and correlates of mental health challenges. Participants who provided data for the current study (n = 1032) included provincial staff working in institutional wellness (e.g., nurses) (n = 71), training (e...
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Background: Recent investigations have demonstrated a significant prevalence of mental health disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian public safety personnel, including police officers. What remains unknown is the relationship between mental disorders and suicide among sw...
Article
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Public Safety Personnel (PSP; e.g., correctional workers and officers, firefighters, paramedics, police officers, and public safety communications officials (e.g., call center operators/dispatchers)) are regularly exposed to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs). PSP also experience other occupational stressors, including organizatio...
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Background: Many public safety personnel (PSP) experience trauma directly or indirectly in their occupational role, yet there remain barriers to accessing care or seeking help. Aims: To understand how PSP interpret different potentially traumatic events and how perceived eligibility for being traumatized is determined among PSP. Methods: We an...
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The current study was designed to assess whether cognitive risk factors (i.e. anxiety sensitivity (AS), intolerance of uncertainty (IU)) explained variance in mental disorder symptoms in Canadian police officers beyond variance explained by demographic variables (i.e. sex, marital status, education, years of service). Police participants (708 men;...
Article
Objective: There is an increased incidence of some mental health disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in some members of the military and in some public safety personnel (PSP) such as firefighters, police officers, paramedics, and dispatchers. Upon retirement from the armed forces, many individuals go on to second careers as PSP...
Article
Correctional Services Canada (CSC) employees include those working in institutional corrections (e.g., correctional officers in prisons), community corrections (e.g., community parole officers), and administrative corrections (e.g., employees in regional or national headquarters). Correctional workers appear at elevated risk for mental disorders, d...
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The current study replicated and extended previous studies by examining the mediating and moderating role of rumination in the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and depression in a community sample using both cross-sectional (n = 494; 56.9% female) and a two-months longitudinal (n = 321; 48.4% female) designs. Participants in eac...
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Uncertainty and affect are fundamental and interrelated aspects of the human condition. Uncertainty is often associated with negative affect, but in some circumstances, it is associated with positive affect. In this article, we review different explanations for the varying relationship between uncertainty and affect. We identify “mental simulation”...