R. Michael Furr

R. Michael Furr
Wake Forest University | WFU · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

97
Publications
72,113
Reads
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5,425
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2004 - present
Wake Forest University
July 2000 - July 2004
Appalachian State University
September 1995 - June 2000
University of California, Riverside
Education
September 1995 - June 2000
University of California, Riverside
Field of study
  • Psychology
August 1993 - May 1995
Villanova University
Field of study
  • Psychology
August 1988 - May 1992
College of William and Mary
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (97)
Article
We present a novel profile-based framework for understanding factorial similarity in the context of exploratory factor analysis in general, and for understanding the congruence coefficient (a commonly used index of factor similarity) specifically. First, we introduce the profile-based framework articulating factorial similarity in terms of three in...
Book
Using a meaning-based approach that emphasizes the “why” over the “how to,” Psychometrics: An Introduction provides thorough coverage of fundamental issues in psychological measurement. Author R. Michael Furr discusses traditional psychometric perspectives and issues including reliability, validity, dimensionality, test bias, and response bias as w...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This work disentangles moral tolerance from moral relativism and reveals their distinct personological meanings. Both constructs have long been of interest to moral philosophers, moral psychologists, and everyday people, and they may play prominent roles in the feasibility of modern diverse societies. However, they have been criticized as...
Article
The current article enhances the test validation process by addressing important issues with the quantifying construct validity (QCV) procedure. The QCV procedure is intended to help researchers systematically and objectively evaluate the degree to which a pattern of convergent and discriminant validity correlations correspond to a priori hypothese...
Article
Though research on assessing posttraumatic growth has been severely critiqued, some evidence suggests close others can observe and report changes in individuals following traumatic life events and are sensitive to idiosyncratic ways in which changes manifest. We extended these findings by investigating corroboration of self-perceived posttraumatic...
Article
We are grateful that insightful experts took the time to comment on our article, and we find their comments both elucidating and advancing. In response to the commentaries, we consider 3 possible locations for the active ingredients producing borderline personality disorder symptoms. First, we offer a more optimistic case that the active ingredient...
Preprint
Though research on assessing posttraumatic growth has been severely critiqued, some evidence suggests close others can observe and report changes in individuals following traumatic life events and are sensitive to idiosyncratic ways in which changes manifest. We extended these findings by investigating corroboration of self-perceived posttraumatic...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to review recent research about the possibility that some people are more honest than others and about the causes of them being so. We tackle four big questions about consistency of honest behavior, the content and breadth of trait honesty, the mechanisms underlying trait honesty, and the measurement of trait honesty. R...
Article
Although moral character may be the most central and consequential facet of one’s personality, existing measures are few and suffer from shortcomings. We present the Moral Character Questionnaire (MCQ) to focus primarily on global moral character and secondarily on six moral domains – Honesty, Compassion, Fairness, Loyalty, Respect, and Purity. All...
Article
The purpose of this article is to reveal whether traits can predict the core processes constituting borderline personality disorder (BPD). A large sample, including many with BPD, completed personality questionnaires and reported trigger and symptom experiences 5 times per day for 2 weeks. Multilevel modeling revealed first that symptoms were stron...
Preprint
The purpose of this document is to present the Trait Truthful Communication (T-TCS) scale, to describe its conceptual foundation, and to provide initial evidence of its psychometric quality. This document is brief and is intended for researchers who are considering using the T-TCS scale in their own work. At some point, the material summarized brie...
Article
Despite the clinical emphasis on processes happening within individuals, investigations into the psychological, structural connections between mental health symptoms have almost exclusively analyzed differences between people. These investigations have revealed important findings; however, they do not reveal the close connections among symptoms in...
Chapter
Analysis of personality processes requires attention to persons and situations. However, the analytic traditions in studying persons differ from those in studying situations, and this disconnect may slow research intended to integrate persons and situations. This chapter examines a common analytic framework (ANOVA), revealing that many core concept...
Article
Caregivers of children with chronic illnesses experience elevated stress and reduced self-care. Although self-care can be beneficial, it is a form of disengagement coping, disengaging from the stressor to try and feel better, which has been characterized as a maladaptive coping strategy. In this study, we test the formulation that avoidance, avoidi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Posttraumatic growth typically refers to enduring positive psychological change experienced as a result of adversity, trauma, or highly challenging life circumstances. Critics have challenged insights from much of the prior research on this topic, pinpointing its significant methodological limitations. In response to these critiques, we...
Preprint
Posttraumatic growth typically refers to enduring positive psychological change experienced as a result of adversity, trauma, or highly challenging life circumstances. Critics have challenged insights from much of the prior research on this topic, pinpointing its significant methodological limitations. In response to these critiques, we propose tha...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Positive distraction involves distracting oneself from a stressor by thinking about or engaging in activities that induce positive emotion. We hypothesized that although it is a disengagement coping strategy, which have been historically viewed as maladaptive (e.g., avoidance), positive distraction can be an adaptive version that predic...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: We integrate the study of post-traumatic growth with personality science by examining reciprocal effects of adversity and core personality traits. We implemented conceptual (i.e., incorporating personality traits into the study of adversity-related growth, examining trait-specific and configural personality change, and adopting a cumula...
Article
This study investigated the degree of correspondence of retrospective reports of personality disorder symptoms, triggers, and emotions with reports closer in time to the actual experiences. Retrospective reports of symptoms, triggers, and emotions are heavily used in both clinical and research settings, yet no study has investigated the corresponde...
Chapter
This chapter argues that models articulating the processes underlying normal personality traits, even more so than the structure of normal traits, may help to inform research on personality disorders (PDs). It first describes whole trait theory as a model of normal traits that focuses on process at the same time that it is based on normal personali...
Article
This study investigated the degree of correspondence of retrospective reports of personality disorder symptoms, triggers, and emotions with reports closer in time to the actual experiences. Retrospective reports of symptoms, triggers, and emotions are heavily used in both clinical and research settings, yet no study has investigated the corresponde...
Code
Primarily, the 'qcv' package computes key indices related to the Quantifying Construct Validity procedure (QCV; Westen & Rosenthal, 2003 <doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.3.608>; see also Furr & Heuckeroth, in press). The qcv() function is the heart of the 'qcv' package, but additional functions in the package provide useful ancillary information related t...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the long-standing yet understudied assumption that feeling moral is a basic psychological need, perhaps like the needs to feel autonomous, competent, and related (ACR). We report an empirical “entrance exam” on whether morality should be considered a need. Specifically, we applied to morality a pioneering method from which Sheldon an...
Article
Full-text available
Many questions within the relationship literature are concerned with the similarity between individuals or the agreement of perceptions. There are a number of different methods used to assess these questions (e.g., correlation, profile correlation, and squared difference scores), and there are special considerations that need to be included when an...
Article
A major barrier to the understanding of emotion dynamics in borderline personality disorder (BPD) lies in its substantial comorbidity with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Whereas BPD has often been characterized in terms of dynamic emotional processes, including instability, reactivity, and inertia, its substantial comorb...
Article
We present a novel profile-based framework for understanding factorial similarity in the context of exploratory factor analysis in general, and for understanding the congruence coefficient (a commonly used index of factor similarity) specifically. First, we introduce the profile-based framework articulating factorial similarity in terms of 3 intuit...
Chapter
The existing interfaces between network science and personality research are reviewed, and the other ways in which these two vibrant areas could interact in the future are examined. First, a summary of extant attempts to relate various aspects of personality to brain network characteristics is provided. Contemporary accounts of personality and thei...
Article
Impressions of moral character are among the most relevant and consequential; yet, people do not always see eye to eye with others about their moral character. Is self-other disagreement about moral character associated with interpersonal costs, and are these costs uniquely associated with moral impressions? To answer these questions, judges (N ¼ 1...
Article
Full-text available
We examine morality’s relationship to three distinct dimensions of social perception: liking, respecting, and knowing a person. Participants completed two independent tasks. First, they rated acquaintances’ morality, competence, and sociability, and how much they liked, respected, and knew those acquaintances. In the second task, they rated a varie...
Article
Objective: Although individual differences in the application of moral principles, such as utilitarianism, have been documented, so too have powerful context effects - effects that raise doubts about the durability of people's moral principles. In this paper, we examine the robustness of individual differences in moral judgment by examining them a...
Article
Morality is a topic of burgeoning scientific interest, and the relevance of personological factors to moral behavior has interdisciplinary implications for the social sciences, public policy, and philosophy. However, relatively little research has investigated the role of personological factors in moral life, perhaps because of lingering skepticism...
Article
Full-text available
This article tested a contingency-oriented perspective to examine the dynamic relationships between in-the-moment borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptom events and in-the-moment triggers. An experience sampling study with 282 adults, including 77 participants with BPD, obtained reports of situational triggers and BPD symptom events five time...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing suicidality is common in mental health practice and is fundamental to suicide research. Although necessary, there is significant concern that such assessments have unintended harmful consequences. Using a longitudinal randomized control design, the authors evaluated whether repeated and frequent assessments of suicide-related thoughts and...
Article
Research on similarity constructs (e.g., dyadic similarity, personality stability, judgment agreement and accuracy) frequently find them to be associated with positive outcomes. However, a methodological pitfall associated with common "overall similarity" indices, which we term the normative-desirability confound (NDC), will regularly result in sim...
Article
While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participa...
Article
A major objection to the study of virtue asserts that the empirical psychological evidence implies traits have little meaningful impact on behavior, as slight changes in situational characteristics appear to lead to large changes in virtuous behavior. We argue in response that the critical evidence is not these effects of situations observed in soc...
Article
This study tested for inter-judge agreement on moral character. A sample of students and community members rated their own moral character using a measure that tapped six moral character traits. Friends, family members, and/or acquaintances rated these targets on the same traits. Self/other and inter-informant agreement was found at the trait level...
Article
We examined the factor structure of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms by using a multimethod, multisample approach. The factorial structure of BPD has previously been examined through the lens of broad retrospective reports of symptoms without directly contrasting results from different samples of participants, with studies producing i...
Article
What does it mean when one person has an experience of being similar to another, and what is the relation to actual similarity in personality? We used several indices of personality similarity and tested their relations with a perceiver’s experience of similarity. Similarity in the perceiver’s and target’s self-ratings of personality was related to...
Article
In the early parts of the 20th century, character made up a major part of psychology, specifically of personality psychology. However, an influential observational study of children's moral behavior, conducted by Hartshorne, May, and colleagues in the 1920s, suggested that consistency in morality-related behavior was lower than many people expected...
Article
Full-text available
Do people know when they can trust their metaperceptions (i.e., their beliefs about how they are seen)? The current study is the first to examine whether people can recognize which of their metaperceptions are more or less accurate, and it examines the source of this “resolution.” In two samples, we assessed meta-accuracy, or the degree to which pe...
Article
Analyses of profile similarity are widespread in personality psychology, but their apparent simplicity masks difficult psychometric and statistical issues. We present a psychometric framework that addresses an important challenge (i.e., profile normativeness) in examinations of dyadic exchangeable profiles. In addition, we present an analytic strat...
Article
Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual's so...
Book
From a perspective that focuses on the meaning, purpose, and implications of key psychometric concepts, principles, and procedures, this text introduces the subject and study of psychometrics. It addresses these topics at a level that is deeper and more focused than what is found in typical introductory undergraduate testing and measurement texts,...
Article
Rationale: Marijuana is a popular drug of abuse among adolescents, and they may be uniquely vulnerable to resulting cognitive and behavioral impairments. Previous studies have found impairments among adolescent marijuana users. However, the majority of this research has examined measures individually rather than multiple domains in a single cohesi...
Article
Psychopathic traits, and specifically callous-unemotional (CU) traits, are associated with a variety of adverse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. The majority of research in this area has focused on men and boys, though there is some evidence that psychopathy is expressed differently in girls and women. Accordingly, the purpose of this study w...
Article
According to self-presentation theory, social anxiety is determined by impression motivation and impression efficacy. However, researchers have not evaluated the theory’s applicability from contextual and dispositional perspectives in an integrated manner, nor have they examined a fundamental interactive facet of the theory. In three studies, we ex...
Article
Understanding personality structure and processes is one of the most fundamental goals in personality psychology. The network approach presented by Cramer et al. represents a useful path toward this goal, and we address two facets of their approach. First, we examine the possibility that it solves the problem of breadth, which has inhibited the int...
Article
Binge drinking is a public health concern due to its association with negative health outcomes as well as increased legal and social consequences. Previous studies have frequently used self-reported alcohol consumption to classify binge drinking episodes; however, these measures are often limited in both detail and accuracy. Some researchers have b...
Article
Full-text available
Both researchers and oversight committees share concerns about patient safety in the study-related assessment of suicidality. However, concern about assessing suicidal thoughts can be a barrier to the development of empirical evidence that informs research on how to safely conduct these assessments. A question has been raised if asking about suicid...
Article
Intracranial neoplasms can cause pain similar to trigeminal neuralgia. Literature regarding radiosurgery for this is limited. We present a retrospective review of patients with tumor-related facial pain from benign lesions treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) at Wake Forest University. The primary objectives were to determine long-term pain...
Article
Full-text available
Although people can accurately guess how others see them, many studies have suggested that this may only be because people generally assume that others see them as they see themselves. These findings raise the question: In their everyday lives, do people understand the distinction between how they see their own personality and how others see their...
Book
Psychometrics and measurement are important for all aspects of psychological research and especially so in social/personality psychology. This volume provides conceptual and practical foundations in scale construction and psychometrics for producers and consumers of social and personality research. It covers basic principles, practices, and proce...
Article
The network approach proposed by Cramer et al. suggests fascinating new directions of research on mental disorders. Research is needed to find evidence for the causal power of symptoms, to examine symptoms thoroughly, to investigate individual differences in edge strength, to discover etiological processes for each symptom, and to determine whether...
Article
Keeley, Smith, and Buskist (2006)8. Keeley , J. , Smith , D. and Buskist , W. 2006 . The Teacher Behaviors Checklist: Factor analysis of its utility for evaluating teaching . Teaching of Psychology , 33 : 84 – 90 . [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]View all references investigated the psychometric properties of the Teacher Behavior Check...
Article
Full-text available
Can we trust our beliefs about the first impressions we make? The current article addresses this question by assessing “idiographic” meta-accuracy, or people’s ability to detect how another person views their characteristic pattern of traits, and people’s awareness of their level of meta-accuracy. Results from two samples suggest that people do ach...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors argue for the role of behavior as part of the descriptive foundation of personality and social psychology. Such research addresses the fundamental assumption that "who you are affects what you do." The authors assert that the most general benefit of behavioral data is that it permits psychological scientists to address...
Article
As applied to many psychological phenomena, analysis of profile similarity has an intuitive appeal that masks complex statistical issues. Psychologists have long debated the methods of indexing similarity between 2 psychological profiles, but the double-entry intraclass correlation may be emerging as a preferred approach. Unfortunately, the double-...
Article
In the present study, potential MMPI-2 predictors of psychotherapy outcome were examined in a community clinical sample of 51 patients seeking treatment at a university training clinic. Results indicated that particular MMPI-2 scales (L, F, Pd, Pa, Sc, Trt) were the most predictive of initial levels of patient distress, whereas three other clinical...
Article
Personality psychology has been accused of neglecting behaviour—of devoting insufficient attention to what people actually do. The current paper addresses four important issues regarding the study of behaviour as separate from other important psychological responses—the definition of behaviour, the importance of studying behaviour, the strengths an...
Article
The target paper was intended to initiate dialogue about challenges to personality psychology's progress as a truly behavioural science, and the commentaries' diverse reactions underscore the fact that these issues do indeed merit serious discussion. This response addresses several broad questions raised in the commentaries—what is behaviour, is be...
Article
This article reexamines the prevailing conclusion that people are unaware of the different impressions they make, or that their differential meta-accuracy is poor. This conclusion emerged from research employing contextually undifferentiated designs that may have constrained differences in actual impressions, thereby limiting participants' ability...
Article
OBJECTIVES: Researchers have clearly implicated impulsivity as having a key role in substance use disorders, and comparisons of self-report measures suggest there are measurably different components of impulsive behavior. However comparatively little research has been devoted to understanding the multidimensional nature of this construct using labo...
Article
Personality and Assessment [Mischel, W. (1968). Personality and assessment. New York: Wiley] challenged personality psychology to commit to the idea that behavior emerges from an interaction of personality characteristics and situational forces. To understand the mechanisms driving person–situation interaction, personality psychologists often study...
Article
Previous research has articulated the conceptual differentiation of impulsive and premeditated aggression. Little, if any, of this research has examined personological differences among adolescents with aggression-oriented pathology, and little, if any, has examined both self and informant perspectives. The current study examined such differentiati...
Article
Many questions in personality psychology lend themselves to the analysis of profile similarity. A profile approach to issues such as personality judgment, personality similarity, behavioral consistency, developmental stability, and person-environment fit is intuitively appealing. However, it entails conceptual and statistical challenges arising fro...
Article
This paper presents the foundations of contrast analysis as a method for examining change. Contrast analysis is a relatively high-powered, simple, and informative procedure for evaluating hypotheses about specific patterns of change. This paper reviews the general purpose and nature of contrast analysis, it discusses some of the advantages of contr...
Article
This study is an extension of Colledge and Blair’s (2001) investigation on the inter-relationship between core features of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. The current study extended the earlier work using methodological refinements in sample selection, psychiatric diagnostic assessment, and instruments used to measure...
Article
We examine two issues linking personality pathology and judgment of traits within the Five-Factor Model of personality. We hypothesize that pathology moderates self-other agreement--"target" participants with pathology should be less judgable than participants without pathology. In addition, we hypothesize that pathology could partially produce agr...
Article
Personality psychology has long recognized the importance of situations for determining behavior, but little research has directly examined the degree to which the cross-situational consistency of behavior is associated with the similarity of situations. In two studies, participants (n=138 & 116) engaged in several dyadic interactions, and their be...
Article
Full-text available
At the global level of the Big Five, Extraversion and Neuroticism are the strongest predictors of life satisfaction. However, Extraversion and Neuroticism are multifaceted constructs that combine more specific traits. This article examined the contribution of facets of Extraversion and Neuroticism to life satisfaction in four studies. The depressio...