R. B. Bhagat

R. B. Bhagat
International Institute for Population Sciences | IIPS · Department of Migration & Urban Studies

PhD

About

188
Publications
441,833
Reads
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1,744
Citations
Introduction
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7646-603X Professor Bhagat was associated with Working Group on Urbanisation set up by IUSSP, Paris and attended its meetings at Salvador (Brazil 2001), Bellagio (Italy) 2002, Minneapolis 2003 and Marrakech 2009. He was also a member of the IUSSP committee on Demography of Armed Conflict during 2006-09. Prof Bhagat is currently working with UNESCO-UNICEF India Migration Initiative as a Resource Person, and prepared a policy paper on “Migrants’ Right to the City”.
Additional affiliations
April 2006 - October 2015
International Institute for Population Sciences
Position
  • Professor and Head, Department of Migration & Urban Studies
February 2003 - present
International Institute for Population Sciences
Position
  • Head of Faculty
March 2002 - February 2003
Urban Context
Position
  • UGC Research Fellow

Publications

Publications (188)
Article
The emergence of oil production in Gulf countries and the subsequent oil boom in the 1970s led to massive migration from Kerala to Middle East Gulf countries as part of the post-industrial migratory order. The Gulf countries and their opportunities became an integral part of Kerala's youth life while developing future goals and aspirations. This pa...
Chapter
The monsoon winds bring humid weather and heavy torrential rain to Mumbai every year, causing considerable damage to buildings from water leaks. Meanwhile, loss of life is also experienced due to the collapse of buildings. These incidents are seen in the city center and suburbs. In Mumbai, people are forced to live in these dilapidated buildings, s...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter looks at the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on internal migrants in India. According to the 2011 Census, there are over 450 million internal migrants, of which a massive 54 million are inter-state migrants. A large number of these migrants consist of labourers who comprise a huge percentage of the informal sector workforce, both in th...
Chapter
Migration is a cross-cutting concern, applicable to all of the SDGs. 10 out of 17 goals include targets and indicators that are important to migration or mobility. The SDGs central reference to migration is made in target 10.7 to promote orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including implementing planned and well...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The study is based on the premise that poverty is multidimensional and the current estimates do not adequately capture the multidimensionality of poverty in the urban population. Thirteen indicators belonging to four dimensions namely education, health, standard of living and housing condition are considered in measuring multidimensional urban pov...
Article
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Rising urbanization and economic inequality are concomitant in India and varies by type of urban localities such as Municipal Corporations, Municipal Councils and Census Towns. Studies on developmental disparities by type of urban localities are limited. Using data from 7229 wards of Maharashtra consisting of 2076 wards from Municipal Corporations,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Internal migration is now recognised as an important factor in influencing social and economic development, especially in developing countries. Indian censuses record that in 2011, 450 million persons were migrants based on place of last residence, which constituted about 37 percent of the country’s total population. This is nearly double the numbe...
Chapter
The emigration and internal migration assume significance for Muslims because of their lower socio-economic status and a higher level of deprivations. Muslims constitute 28% of total emigrants compared to 14% in India's total population. Telangana's emigration rate is double that of India. The higher level of unemployment among Muslims could be one...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Just after the global Covid-19 outbreak, 413,000 Non-Resident Keralites (NRKs) living outside India have registered to return to Kerala under Vande Bharath Mission. The Covid outbreak directly affects the three group of migrants, 1. Migrants who have returned to Kerala for breaks/leaves before the pandemic couldn’t return/lost the job 2.Migrants re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Census enumeration is considered to be a scientific exercise in order to know the size, growth composition and characteristics of population. The mandate of census is derived from the state- an institution embodies the relationship between a territory and its people. How state views its people and their characteristics is very much a political phen...
Technical Report
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Presentation
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This presentation elucidates the significance of geographical methodology based on space and place in understanding the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and its mitigation strategy such as lock down, social distancing, quarantine and containment zones which are very much geographical in nature at the same time social in outcomes.
Article
Migration is a significant factor in the organization of regional and urban space in India. In India, migration has been dominated by people from Eastern and Central regions moving to western and northwestern regions. On the other hand, Northeast has been known for in-migration and the conflicts arising from influx of migrants, but studies are lack...
Preprint
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Migration has been a multi-dimensional phenomenon, and a theoretical understanding of migration is rooted in various disciplines. This paper presents a historical development of theories in the field of migration from the end of 19th Century to the close of 20th Century. The paper highlights there are spatial, economic, behavioral and social theori...
Article
The worldwide spread of COVID-19 first reported from Wuhan in China is attributed to migration and mobility of people. In this article, we present how our understanding of migration and livelihood could be helpful in designing a mitigating strategy of the economic and social impact of COVID-19 in India. We conclude that there are many challenges mi...
Presentation
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The recent migration crisis due to lockdown and pandemic must be located in the nature of the production of urban space and solutions must be sought in relation to the inclusive and sustainable cities and urbanization.
Article
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Increasing urbanization and rising economic inequality are concomitant in India. Though studies have examined the level, pattern and trend of urbanization in Maharashtra, no attempt has been made to examine the level of well-being across local bodies in urban India. Using data from Census of India 2011, this paper examines the variation in communit...
Article
India is a country with one of the largest emigrants with 17 million Indians living outside the country compared with 450 million internal migrants. During the 1970s and the 1980s, there was concern that India was losing its educated and skilled workforce to the Western countries, popularly known as ‘brain drain’. With the recent changes in the glo...
Chapter
Full-text available
With a population of 1.21 billion according to the 2011 census, India is a culturally diverse, lower-middle income country located in south Asia. Data on internal migration have been collected since 1971, primarily by means of decennial censuses, with questions focussing on lifetime migration, duration of residence, reasons for moving and mover cha...
Chapter
A study of migration trends in general, and migration towards urban areas in particular requires an understanding of evolution of urban areas and its association with migration, as urban centres work as a strong pull factor due to the concentration of economic activities and opportunities. This chapter makes an attempt in this direction.
Chapter
This chapter attempts to show the economic and living conditions of people measured through the amenities and assets in rural and urban areas at the state level and among social groups like SCs and STs. It also examines changes experienced during the phase of accelerated economic growth in the decade during 2001 to 2011. The chapter highlights the...
Chapter
The regional pattern of temporary labour migration in India assumes sharp focus when seen in the light of data from the 64th round of the National Sample Survey. The phenomenon is more prevalent in rural areas of the country’s northern and eastern states. This chapter also examines the association between temporary labour migration and its determin...
Chapter
According to the World Travel and Tourism council, India was a tourism hotspot from 2009–2018, with the highest 10-year growth potential. This chapter examines the trends and patterns of domestic tourism flow in India using two rounds of nationally representative secondary sources of domestic tourism in India, 2008–09 and 2014–15 National Sample Su...
Chapter
Migration from Bihar is a predominant phenomenon and mainly adopted as a household livelihood strategy. The nature and pattern of migration differ significantly across the regions and administrative divisions of the state. The present chapter uses the data collected systematically from 2096 households spread in 36 PSUs across the states in 2018 to...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the issues of migration and urbanization, which are much debated in development literature, often highlighting the negative consequences compared to positive impacts. It focuses on the conceptual and theoretical dimensions of the relationship between migration, urbanization and development and also presents their potential an...
Chapter
Gujarat is one of the few states in India which has experienced substantial international outmigration over a period of time, especially since independence. Many studies and reports have found that due to emigration, the state receives a substantial amount of remittance, which is one of the important factors for the socioeconomic transformation of...
Book
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Migration has emerged as an important issue in contemporary global politics and in the discourse around human development. This book highlights the role of migration in socioeconomic development and its interdependence with urbanization, employment, labour and industry. This volume identifies the challenges which migration and the subsequent dynami...
Chapter
This study attempts to understand the process of convergence or divergence of the living conditions across the urban space of Kolkata Municipal Corporation. Evidences are drawn from the ward-level data of Census 2011 and also relevant municipal documents for the city.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Migration has been a historical process shaping citizenship, social structure like caste and class relations, patriarchy and family. Globally, colonialism promoted slave trade and indentured labour followed by immigration to the western world. In the context of India, the migration and mobility has been institutionally denied to the lower castes, a...
Preprint
Full-text available
COVID-19 brought migrant workers and their livelihood at the door step of the Govt and policy makers. Although they have built cities and the nation, their rights and entitlements were not recognized in policy and programmes. This paper presents various dimensions and issues relevant for policy making.
Article
Full-text available
The caste has been a unique social institution in India. It has also emerged in a new form after the mandalisation of caste in the early 1990s resulting into the extension of reservation to Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in government jobs and also in admission to the colleges and universities. The relative size of population of various caste groups...
Chapter
Full-text available
Youth population always shows a higher propensity to migrate. In a vibrant economy, youth out-migrates in response to opportunity while, in a stagnant economic environment, out-migration takes place as the result of distress. Presently rural economy of developing countries like India is facing distress in various dimensions. On one hand, population...
Presentation
Full-text available
It discusses trend, pattern of urbanisation and components of urban growth in Maharashtra- one of India's highly urbanised states. It throws light on the contribution of natural increase, net rural to urban migration and net reclassification of settlements. It also highlights some policy issues.
Chapter
The role of migration and remittances sent by the migrants is a matter of debate in the existing literature on migration research. Using the nationally representative data from the 64th round of National Sample Survey, this paper contributes to the debate about the impact of internal and international remittances on poverty reduction in Uttar Prade...
Article
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This study aims to evaluate the situation of livelihood capital utilisation, its major determinant and rising inequality in its utilisation during economic transformation. It uses primary data of 416 sample households from predefined compared groups (viz. mines exposed versus non-exposed villages) which was collected under the cross-sectional resea...
Article
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Background Mining industries have enormous potential to improve food shortage by providing employment opportunities in its mining vicinity. But, simultaneously, these areas also suffer from ‘resource curse’ due to detrimental effects of mining. Hence, this study examined the effects of coal mining on household food availability and food access amon...
Chapter
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For the countries of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) region, the importance of migration continues to be significant for livelihoods. Migration governance, therefore, is a critical priority (well-established). This chapter focuses on labour migration in the eight HKH countries. It explores the countries’ overall migration experience and, where possib...
Article
Full-text available
The issues of migration and urbanisation are much debated in development literature, but often their negative consequences compared to positive impacts are highlighted. The conceptual and theoretical dimensions of the relationship between migration, urbanisation and development have been summarised, and their potential and actual impact on developm...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
India's rising population and its possibilities of reaping a demographic dividend in near future are faced with challenges of public health, as the current scenario of health and healthcare implies. There are widespread research and interventions on public health, on increasing morbidities, especially those related to lifestyle changes. However, da...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract: Urbanisation has emerged as a global force associated with rising GDP, transformation of agriculture to non-agricultural sector, expansion of infrastructure and changes in the characteristics of population. Urbanisation embodies the forces of agglomeration shaping place and space economy through density, distance and diversity. It is the...
Preprint
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The NRC crisis of Assam is larger than the refugee crisis in Europe in the present times. It is a very sensitive subject that deals with gamut of issues related to citizenship rights, human existence, dignity and the protection of culture. It has taken a serious proportion because immigration is pitted against the collective sense of identity and p...
Book
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In India a high level of hunger and malnutrition persists although we have rapid economic growth in the last two decades. It may take some more time before we eradicate it completely. However, the underprivileged communities like Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Castes, rural and urban poor still suffer the most. This book makes an attempt to study the...
Presentation
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SDGs recognised migration as a key factor for sustainable development unlike Millennium Development Goals.
Conference Paper
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This paper adopts an analytical framework based around several discrete dimensions of migration to provide a detailed account of current internal migration and processes in India. After reviewing the types of migration data and the spatial units used to collect and disseminate migration data in India, the paper presents and summarises existing stud...
Article
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Migration has hardly been recognized as that which shapes social structures, culture and history. Economic aspects and labour market discourse pervade migration studies as opposed to its roots in social theories.
Book
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This book highlights how climate change has affected migration in the Indian subcontinent. Drawing on fi eld research, it argues that extreme weather events such as fl oods, droughts, cyclones, cloudbursts as well as sea level rise, desertifi cation and declining crop productivity have shown higher frequency in recent times and have depleted biophy...
Article
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Migration from India to the Gulf Countries has increased dramatically in recent years. Does it actually have an impact on the joint family structure? India has been known for prevailing type of joint/extended families. This paper aims to throw new evidences for introducing the concept of “federated family”. Using primary survey data collected from...
Book
Full-text available
This book highlights how climate change has affected migration in the Indian subcontinent. Drawing on field research, it argues that extreme weather events such as floods, droughts, cyclones, cloudbursts as well as sea level rise, desertification and declining crop productivity have shown higher frequency in recent times and have depleted bio-physi...
Chapter
This chapter highlights that India is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change as India has a large area in highly vulnerable regions such as coastal zones, mountains and dry lands, and vulnerability in these regions was compounded by underdevelopment and a large population dependent on rain-fed agriculture. It also presents a theoret...
Presentation
Full-text available
This background note summarizes the conceptual and theoretical dimensions of the relationship between migration, urbanization and development and also presents their potential and actual impact on development in general and India in particular. It also argues that the development impact of migration and urbanization much depends upon how the countr...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the overall morbidity prevalence and their differentials among emigrants’ and non-emigrants’ wives in Kerala, India. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on the third round of The Kerala Migration Survey-2007 data. The third round of KMS was perhaps the first survey which has collected data...
Article
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Since the 1970s, urbanisation across the globe has been shaped by corporate capital under the neo-liberal policies of the state. Cities are treated as consumer products with massive private investment in real estate, corporate and public infrastructure, entertainment facilities, and security, to promote corporate urban development. The urban poor,...
Chapter
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Census is a methodology of complete enumeration of all households compared to the sampling strategies of surveys. Surveys also suffer from varying levels of sampling errors depending upon sample size and sampling methods employed. On the other hand, census is free from sampling errors, but suffer from coverage and content errors on the other hand....
Chapter
This study makes an attempt to evaluate the changes in slum population based on the data from Census 2001 & 2011 for the city of Mumbai. Both censuses also provided data on housing conditions, household amenities & assets. This paper also presents a comparative study of slum and non-slum households in housing and living conditions in Mumbai...
Article
While agrarian stress has become a long-term phenomenon in the developing countries like India and land is likely to lose its importance as a determinant of wealth and power in rural areas, households are coping, adapting and securing their livelihood through diversification into non-agricultural activities. The study is aimed to understand the pro...
Article
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By using unit level data on migration from nationally representative National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) for two points of time (1993 and 2007-08), this paper looks at the change in the level of employment related interstate out migration in India. This paper brings out: the change occurred in the rate of interstate out-migration between 199...
Chapter
Although internal migration in India has been shaped by urbanization, its actual contribution vis-a-vis components of natural increase and rural to urban classification remains low (about 20 % of urban growth). On the other hand, while inter-state migration has been an issue of political conflict, the fact remains that majority of the people move w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Using the nationally representative data from the 64th round of National Sample Survey, this paper contributes to the debate about the impact of internal and international remittances on poverty alleviation in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. This paper begins with a discussion of migration, remittances, and poverty at the household level. A vast disparity...
Article
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This paper examines the effect of remittances on the socioeconomic circumstances of poor and non-poor households receiving remittances and also shows the impact of remittances at the source region in India. We use data from the 64 th round of National Sample Survey. It is estimated that there are 3.49 million emigrant households. A vast disparity e...
Article
India is known for sending a large number of indentured labour to Africa and Caribbean to work in sugar cane and plantation agriculture during the colonial rule. However, the emigration to the West started after the Second World War, more specifically after 1965, as a result of the liberalisation of immigration policy of US and other western countr...
Article
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One of the most visible and sound change that rural area is experiencing at present is ‘depeasantation’. Peasantry is losing its importance not just as source of livelihood but way of life also and this is happening all around in developing countries. Youth of rural area are now not able to see their future in agriculture. It is expected that those...
Article
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Research
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There has been a considerable rise in age at marriage of females from about 13 years during the first decade of the twentieth century to about 20 years in the first decade of twenty-first century in most of the states of India, but the pressure to marry early continues in Indian society. The pressure to marry early is exerted by rising dowry, marri...