R. Michael Bagby

R. Michael Bagby
University of Toronto | U of T · Department of Psychology

Ph.D., ABAP., C. Psych.

About

529
Publications
394,153
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
40,741
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2004 - present
University of Toronto
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Senior Scientist

Publications

Publications (529)
Article
Although evidence-based psychotherapies, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), produce comparable average outcomes, it is plausible that some patients who possess one or more specific characteristics may respond better to one over the other. Addressing this what works best for whom question, researchers h...
Article
In their review of examination of the self-report Personality Inventory for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; PID-5) factor structure and joint factor analysis of this instrument with other self-report measures of personality and psychopathology, Clark and Watson (2022) make argument for a set of modifica...
Article
Full-text available
Pathological Gambling (PG) has been linked to both specific personality traits and personality disorders (PDs). However, previous studies have used a wide variety of research designs that preclude clear conclusions about the personality features that distinguish adults with PG from other groups. The current investigation seeks to advance this resea...
Article
Full-text available
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) instruments have a rich history of the inclusion of embedded strategies to identify invalidating response styles—such as non-responding, inconsistent responding, and noncredible underreporting or overreporting of symptoms—and to identify the impact of such response styles on substantive test sc...
Article
The introduction of the alternative model of personality disorders in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Model of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) represented a substantive change in how personality disorders (PDs) are diagnosed. One barrier to its adoption (among several) in clinical practice, however, is...
Article
Full-text available
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are the two most frequently diagnosed and researched DSM-5 personality disorders, and both are characterized by high levels of trait neuroticism. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an enzyme of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), has been linked to regulation of mood thr...
Article
Background The N400 event-related brain potential (ERP) semantic priming effect is thought to reflect activation by meaningful stimuli of related concepts in semantic memory and has been found to be deficient in schizophrenia. We tested the hypothesis that, among individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis, N400 semantic priming deficits...
Article
Criterion B of the alternative model of personality disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), outlines maladaptive trait dimensions that characterize personality disorders. Emerging evidence from bifactor confirmatory factor analyses suggest these traits are related at a higher order level by a ge...
Article
The current study provided a novel investigation of relations among particular types of childhood maltreatment (emotional versus physical versus sexual maltreatment), specific cognitive schema themes, and the generation of dependent versus independent life events. Participants included 227 adolescents and emerging adults (74% female; aged 12‐29) in...
Article
The Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) assesses the five pathological personality trait domains that comprise the descriptive core of the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD). The PID-5 five-domain factor structure is aligned with the AMPD and is reported as replicable across samples in the U.S., in other countries, and...
Article
As part of a broader project to create a comprehensive self-report measure for the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology consortium, we developed preliminary scales to assess internalizing symptoms. The item pool was created in four steps: (a) clarifying the range of content to be assessed, (b) identifying target constructs to guide item writing...
Article
The 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) is the most widely used measure to assess the personality construct of alexithymia and is composed of three-factor analytically derived subscales. These subscales measure and represent three critical, theoretically based facets of alexithymia. The subscales are distinct, yet highly interrelated and onl...
Article
Full-text available
Background Antidepressant medication and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) are both recommended interventions in depression treatment guidelines based on literature reviews and meta-analyses. However, ‘conventional’ meta-analyses comparing their efficacy are limited by their reliance on reported study-level information and a narrow focus on depress...
Article
Objective: Previous research shows elevated disability in psychotic disorders. However, co-occurring symptomatology has been increasingly highlighted as predictive of clinical outcomes in the psychotic spectrum. The current study investigates how both psychotic and nonpsychotic symptom domains predict functioning across psychotic disorders. Metho...
Article
Four subtypes of the alexithymia construct have been proposed based on different response patterns to the Cognitive and Affective dimensions of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ). Previous studies investigating whether alexithymia subtypes can be statistically estimated have not found complete support for these specific subtypes. Th...
Article
Transient expressions of positive psychotic symptoms, referred to as "psychotic-like experiences," can be measured in the general population. With an increase in attention to investigate underlying causes of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), such as personality traits, we investigated pathological personality traits (i.e., using the Personality In...
Article
Shortcomings of approaches to classifying psychopathology based on expert consensus have given rise to contemporary efforts to classify psychopathology quantitatively. In this paper, we review progress in achieving a quantitative and empirical classification of psychopathology. A substantial empirical literature indicates that psychopathology is ge...
Chapter
Surveys of clinical psychologists exploring the distribution of their time across the provision of services in their practice reveal that most clinical psychologists devote a considerable amount of time to psychological assessment, and this has held steady over several decades (Archer et al., 2006; Camara et al., 2000; Wright et al., 2017). This wa...
Article
Aim Deficits in synchronous, gamma-frequency neural oscillations may contribute to schizophrenia patients’ real-world functional impairment and can be measured electroencephalographically using the auditory steady-state response (ASSR). Gamma ASSR deficits have been reported in schizophrenia patients and individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for...
Article
In this article, we present the hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology (HiTOP), an evidence-based alternative to the categorical approach to diagnostic classification that has considerable promise for integrative psychotherapy research and practice. We first review issues associated with the categorical approach that may have constrained advances...
Article
Objective: The alexithymia personality construct encompasses difficulties identifying and describing feelings, restricted imaginal processes, and an externally oriented cognitive style. The construct was derived initially from observations of patients with classic psychosomatic diseases. The self-report 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) is...
Article
Full-text available
Personality has been correlated with differences in cytokine expression, an indicator of peripheral inflammation; however, the associations between personality and central markers of inflammation have never been investigated in vivo in humans. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, and the first responders to tissue d...
Article
Full-text available
In the article “Examining the ‘Traditional Background Hypothesis’ for the MMPI-2–RF L-r Scores in a Muslim Faith–Based Sample,” by R. Michael Bagby, Karin A. Onno, Ardeshir Mortezaei, and Martin Sellbom (Psychological Assessment, 2020, Vol. 32, No. 10, pp. 991–995, http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/ 10.1037/pas0000941), the word “not” was...
Article
The American Psychiatric Association supported the development of several instruments to assess personality pathology according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) Section III. These instruments include self- and informant report forms as well as clinician-rated measures of personality traits and impairment...
Article
Impulsive personality traits have well-documented associations with at-risk drinking, although the role of impaired control over alcohol in these associations requires further study. Additionally, it remains unknown whether such relationships differ in the context of concurrent depressive disorder, which is a priority due to the high rates of mood...
Article
Full-text available
Amygdala-prefrontal cortex (PFC) functional impairments have been linked to emotion dysregulation and aggression in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the major catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid anandamide, has been proposed as a key regulator of the amygdala-PFC circuit that subserves emotion regulatio...
Article
Childhood maltreatment is widely implicated as the strongest developmental risk factor for depression onset. The current research is novel in examining the fine-grained associations of childhood emotional versus physical versus sexual maltreatment to indices of the severity, course, and presence of anxiety and trauma-related psychopathology in depr...
Article
Objective: Twenty-five years ago, this journal published two articles reporting the development and initial validation of the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Since then the literature on alexithymia has burgeoned with the vast majority of this research using the TAS-20, including multiple language translations of the scale. Method: I...
Article
The diagnostic operationalization of personality disorders is at the crossroads. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5), includes 2 separate systems for the diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs)-1 that is purely categorical (Section II) and 1 that is primarily dimensional (Section III). The International Class...
Article
Objective: Diagnosis is a cornerstone of clinical practice for mental health care providers, yet traditional diagnostic systems have well-known shortcomings, including inadequate reliability, high comorbidity, and marked within-diagnosis heterogeneity. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a data-driven, hierarchically based alte...
Article
Aim: The N400 event-related potential is a neurophysiological index of cognitive processing of real-world knowledge. In healthy populations, N400 amplitude is smaller in response to stimuli that are more related to preceding context. This 'N400 semantic priming effect' is thought to reflect activation of contextually related information in semanti...
Article
The 11th edition of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11; World Health Organization, 2018) is scheduled to include a major shift in the classification of personality disorders. All (but one) of the ICD-10 categorical personality disorder syndromes will be deleted from the ICD-11, replaced by a five-domain...
Article
Hierarchical, quantitative models of psychopathology focus primarily on higher-order constructs, whereas less is known about the structure and content comprising lower-order dimensions of psychopathology. Here, we address this gap in the literature by using targeted factor analysis to integrate the 25 maladaptive facet-level traits of the Personali...
Article
Full-text available
Hierarchical, quantitative models of psychopathology focus primarily on higher-order constructs, whereas less is known about the structure and content comprising lower-order dimensions of psychopathology. Here, we address this gap in the literature by using targeted factor analysis to integrate the 25 maladaptive facet-level traits of the Personali...
Article
Full-text available
The 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), recently approved by the World Health Organization, contains a new diagnostic approach for personality disorders. This approach partly involves the consideration of 5 dimensional trait domain qualifiers-Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Dissocial,...
Preprint
The eleventh edition of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), recently approved by the World Health Organization, contains a new diagnostic approach for personality disorders. This approach partly involves the consideration of five dimensional trait domain qualifiers – Negative Affectivity, Detachment, D...
Article
Studies examining the associations between categorical assessments of eating disorders (ED) and personality have produced some inconsistent findings. The present study aimed to clarify these inconsistencies by implementing a dimensional approach when assessing ED behaviors and personality psychopathology. Associations between pathological personali...
Preprint
A proposed feature of personality pathology involves disturbances in identity, of which a lack of insight is one such manifestation. From recommendations in the literature, one potential approach to assess and quantify such impairment and link it to personality pathology, would be to obtain self- and informant reports and subsequently index the deg...
Article
The categorical model of personality disorder classification in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM–5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) is highly and fundamentally problematic. Proposed for DSM–5 and provided within Section III (for Emerging Measures and Models) was the...
Article
Aim: In the clinical high-risk (CHR) state for psychosis, both negative symptoms and lower cognitive function have been associated with poorer daily functioning. Recent evidence suggests that negative symptoms share overlapping variability with cognition and may partially mediate the relationship between cognition and functioning. However, the nat...
Article
Full-text available
A proposed feature of personality pathology involves disturbances in identity, of which a lack of insight is one such manifestation. From recommendations in the literature, one potential approach to assess and quantify such impairment and link it to personality pathology, would be to obtain self-reports and informant reports and subsequently index...
Article
The Personality Inventory for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (PID-5) has become a popular measure of personality pathology, with widespread usage extending beyond its original purpose to aid in the diagnosis of personality disorders. There are 2 methods for scoring the 5 higher order domain scales (Negative Affect, Detachme...
Article
The International Classification of Disease (11th ed.; ICD-11) personality disorder (PD) proposal characterizes personality psychopathology using an overall impairment severity dimension as well as dysfunctional personality style on the basis of five trait domain qualifiers: Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Dissociality, Disinhibition, and Anankas...
Article
The experience sampling method (ESM) has revealed associations between fluctuations in stress and positive symptoms in psychosis. It is unknown, however, how negative symptoms including anhedonia respond to stress. Stress is divided according to its source: event-related stress stemming from negative events, and activity-related stress stemming fro...
Article
For more than a century, research on psychopathology has focused on categorical diagnoses. Although this work has produced major discoveries, growing evidence points to the superiority of a dimensional approach to the science of mental illness. Here we outline one such dimensional system-the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP)-that is...
Article
Importance Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) is an important, high-density enzyme in the brain that generates oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide production, alters mitochondrial function, and metabolizes nonserotonergic monoamines. Recent advances in positron emission tomography radioligand development for MAO-B in humans enable highly quantitative me...
Article
Background: Childhood maltreatment is one of the strongest predictors of sexual and peer bullying re-victimization. However, it is not clear which types of maltreatment are associated with the greatest risk. Objective: The current study examined the differential relations of maternal- versus paternal-perpetrated emotional maltreatment, neglect,...
Article
Background: Patient outcome expectancy - the belief that treatment will lead to an improvement in symptoms – is linked to favourable therapeutic outcomes in major depressive disorder (MDD). The present study extends this literature by investigating the temporal dynamics of expectancy, and by exploring whether expectancy during treatment is linked t...
Article
Although the higher order structure of the Personality Inventory for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012), is well-established, the lower order structure and facet-to-domain assignment is inconsistent across studies. Some studies used the five-factor mod...
Article
Neurophysiological measures of cognitive functioning that are abnormal in patients with schizophrenia are promising candidate biomarkers for predicting development of psychosis in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR). We examined the relationships among event-related brain potential (ERP) measures of early sensory, pre-attentional, and attention...
Article
The association between depression and neuroticism is complex; however, because of the difficulty in assessing neuroticism during mood episodes, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to decompose neuroticism into finer grained elements that were uncorrelated with psychiatric symptoms and exam...
Article
Background Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for adult depression, its efficacy and efficiency may be enhanced by better understanding its mechanism(s) of action. According to the theoretical model of CBT, symptom improvement occurs via reductions in maladaptive cognition. However, previous research has no...
Preprint
In this paper we present the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP), an evidence-based alternative to the categorical approach to diagnostic classification with considerable promise for integrative psychotherapy research and practice. We first review issues associated with the categorical approach that may have constrained advances in psy...
Article
The alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) is outlined in Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. This model includes 25 dimensional trait facets that are used as criteria for six personality disorders in addition to impairment in functioning. Numerous previous studies have examined the d...
Article
Full-text available
The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) is a questionnaire developed to assess the five domains represented in the alternative model for personality disorders proposed in Section III of the DSM-5. This study examined the ability of the PID-5 to distinguish between different mental disorders compared to a questionnaire measure of the five-factor...
Article
Full-text available
The article Normative and maladaptive personality trait models of mood, psychotic, and substance use disorders, written by Laura M. Heath, Lauren Drvaric, Christian S. Hendershot, Lena C. Quilty, and R. Michael Bagby was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal.
Article
Demoralization is defined as a pervasive, generalized negative emotional construct present in psychiatric disorders and a variety of medical conditions. Demoralization is also conceptualized as a ubiquitous affective-laden factor common to most forms of psychopathology that increases the magnitude of intercorrelations among putatively distinct psyc...
Article
Full-text available
Shortcomings of approaches to classifying psychopathology based on expert consensus have given rise to contemporary efforts to classify psychopathology quantitatively. In this paper, we review progress in achieving a quantitative and empirical classification of psychopathology. A substantial empirical literature indicates that psychopathology is ge...
Article
Cambridge Core - Health and Clinical Psychology - Alexithymia - edited by Olivier Luminet