Quirine A.M. Eijkman

Quirine A.M. Eijkman
Hogeschool Utrecht · Centre of Social Innovation (KSI)

Phd. Utrecht University

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73
Publications
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369
Citations

Publications

Publications (73)
Article
Full-text available
The realization of human rights standards depends in part on the commitment of local actors. It can be argued that local public service professionals such as social workers can also be regarded as key players. The possible role of social workers becomes imperative if these professionals are working in a policy context that is not congruent with hum...
Article
Twee jaar na de inwerkingtreding van de Wet op de inlichtingen- en veiligheidsdiensten 2017 (Wiv 2017) is de evaluatie van start gegaan. Deze vervroegde wetsevaluatie is oorspronkelijk geïnitieerd vanwege de uitslag van het raadgevend referendum over de Wiv 2017. Uit het maatschappelijk debat rondom het raadgevend referendum bleek dat mensen zich m...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the fight against terrorism and political violence has focused more on anticipating the threats that they pose. Therefore, early detection of ideas by local professionals has become an important part of the preventive approach in countering radicalization. Frontline workers who operate in the arteries of society are encouraged to i...
Article
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Early detection of radicalization processes that may lead to violent extremism takes place in a grey area. Primarily because no one can truly predict when someone poses a risk before there are any indications of criminal acts. The local police have been given an important role in countering violent extremism (CVE) policy; namely proactive informati...
Article
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Frontline professionals such as social workers and civil servants play a crucial role in countering violent extremism. Because of their direct contact with society, firstliners are tasked with detecting individuals that may threaten national security and the democratic rule of law. Preliminary screening takes place during the pre-crime phase. Howev...
Article
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This research examines the legal capabilities of social care practitioners involved in a new decision-making process, ‘the kitchen table conversation’, used since the introduction of the 2015 Social Support Act in the Netherlands. This law delegates social care allocation to the local authorities, who employ social care practitioners to assess and...
Chapter
Met de Nederlandse Wet op de inlichtingen- en veiligheidsdiensten zijn ingrijpende veranderingen ingevoerd betreffende de bevoegdheden om informatie te verzamelen veranderd. Vanwege de nieuwe techniekneutrale benadering zijn zowel de civiele als de militaire inlichtingendiensten nu bevoegd grote hoeveelheden communicatieverkeer te onderscheppen, de...
Technical Report
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Omdat wet- en regelgeving lastig te doorgronden kunnen zijn, staan in verschillende Nederlandse gemeenten sociaal raadslieden de eerstelijns professionals in wijkteams bij. Deze rechtshulpverleners adviseren en ondersteunen individuele burgers en sociaal werkers op juridisch gebied. Zodoende leveren zij tezamen met de sociale professionals in de wi...
Technical Report
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Met de transities in het sociaal domein en de daarmee veranderende rol van de sociaal werker wordt een mensenrechtenbenadering relevanter. Het sociaal werk wordt steeds vaker geprofileerd als ‘mensenrechtenberoep’ omdat deze professionals een brugfunctie vervullen tussen de leefwereld van burgers en het lokale beleid. Sociaal werkers in wijkteams b...
Article
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The importance of specific professions for human rights realization is increasingly recognized. Journalists, teachers, and civil servants are all considered to play a role because their work affects individual rights. This is also the case for social workers. The connection between social work and human rights is evident in the large amount of lite...
Technical Report
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Dit verkennende onderzoek richt zich op risico-inschattingen van lokale veiligheidsprofessionals aangaande de volgende vraag: in hoeverre is een jongere over wie signalen van vermeende radicalisering binnenkomen, bereid om geweld te gebruiken? In de meeste gevallen gaat het wellicht om vijandige uitingen of gedrag, maar niet om jongeren die voornem...
Article
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This article explores the challenges local youth workers face at the intersection of providing social care and detecting violent extremism. Extremism and other radical ideologies are often assumed to be a harbinger of terrorism. Even though both are still a rare phenomenon among adolescents, European states have become highly concerned with being a...
Technical Report
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In 2018, the new Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017 (Wet op de Inlichtingen- en veiligheidsdiensten, Wiv) will enter into force. It replaces the previous 2002 Act and incorporates many reforms to the information gathering powers of the two intelligence and security services as well as to the accountability and oversight mechanisms. D...
Article
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By analysing intelligence-gathering reform legislation this article discusses access to justice for communications interception by the intelligence and security services. In the aftermath of the Snowden revelations, sophisticated oversight systems for bulk communications surveillance are being established across the globe. In the Netherlands prior...
Chapter
Human rights groups are increasingly calling for the protection of their right to privacy in relation to the bulk surveillance and interception of their personal communications. Some are advocating through strategic litigation. This advocacy tool is often chosen when there is weak political or public support for an issue. Nonetheless, as a strategy...
Article
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Mensenrechten krijgen steeds meer aandacht in Nederland op lokaal niveau, zo ook binnen het sociaal werk. Met de transities in het sociale domein en de daarbij veranderende rol van de sociaal werker kunnen mensenrechten een handzaam perspectief bieden. Hoe komen sociaal werkers in hun werk in aanraking met mensenrechten? En hoe wordt er nagedacht o...
Article
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The flexible deployment of drones in the public domain, is in this article assessed from a legal philosophical perspective. On the basis of theories of Dworkin and Moore the distinction between individual rights and collective security policy goals is discussed. Mobile cameras in the public domain reflect how innovative technological tools challeng...
Technical Report
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Sinds de invoering van de Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning (Wmo) wordt gemeentelijk gefinancierde zorg pas toegekend nadat de gemeente onderzoek heeft gedaan naar de persoonlijke situatie van de betreffende burger. Dit heeft de rol van lokale sociale professionals drastisch veranderd: deze heeft naast zorgkennis nu ook juridische kennis nodig. He...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores whether local youth workers are able to operate on the intersection of social care and detecting violent extremism. Extremism and radical ideologies are often assumed to be a harbinger of terrorism. Even though both still are a rare phenomenon amongst adolescents, European states have issued a clear message to be alert of the...
Conference Paper
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Dit rapport verkent of de lokale jongerenwerker bij machte is om te opereren op het snijvlak van maatschappelijk welzijn en signalering van gewelddadig extremisme. Extremisme en radicaal gedachtegoed worden vaak verondersteld een voorbode van terrorisme te zijn. Hoewel extremisme onder jongeren een zeldzaam fenomeen blijkt, en uitreizen om zich aan...
Article
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This article is about the effect of local tailored interventions to counter (violent) extremism, and therefore contributes to the academic and policy debates. It focusses on local, professional perspectives on person-specific interventions utilising a Dutch case study as the basis. The interventions are part of the wider-ranging counter terrorism p...
Book
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Access to justice is the hallmark of a just society in which people can assert their dignity with equality on the basis of laws and regulations without running the risk of being ignored or persecuted. Whether you are rich or poor, young or old, a detainee, a newcomer to the Netherlands, or undocumented, you can seek justice online, for instance, or...
Chapter
In the international arena there are some encouraging developments in relation to accountability and transparency for the use of armed drones. It is increasingly recognized that remote pilotless aircraft have become part of modern warfare, and that sometimes they are also used outside the context of armed conflict. Subsequently, both international...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Watch Out 4 the Label Terrorist!: The Dutch Local Person Specific Approach to Countering Terrorism and (Violent) Extremism Reviewed Abstract For over a decade the Dutch authorities have developed their so-called ‘comprehensive or broad approach’ to counter terrorism and violent extremism. This entails that, on the one hand, counter-terrorism and...
Article
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This article discusses, from the local professional perspective, access to justice for person-specific interventions to prevent or counter (violent) extremism in Europe. Using a Dutch case study it focusses on legal protection for hand-tailored interferences that are part of a wider-ranging counter-terrorism policy. While the so-called person-speci...
Article
This article empirically assesses the applicability of structural-level hypotheses for involvement in terrorism within the context of European homegrown jihadism. It uses these hypotheses to study how structural factors influenced involvement in the Dutch “Hofstadgroup.” Structural factors enabled the group’s emergence and its participants’ adoptio...
Data
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This article focuses on the special criminal procedures for the use of intelligence in terrorist trials in Canada, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Since 9/11 and the terror attacks in London and Madrid, gathering intelligence as well as the prosecution of suspects of terrorist crimes have become strategic tools in countering terrori...
Article
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Free Access! Via Routledge Terrorism Collection: http://explore.tandfonline.com/page/pgas/terrorism-collection/terrorism-counter Behaviors or expressions can (inadvertently) communicate the intention or capability to commit a terrorist attack. Such pre-attack “indicators” can be used to improve police services’ ability to detect and interdict terr...
Article
In the international arena there are some encouraging developments in relation to accountability and transparency for the use of armed drones. It is increasingly recognized that remote pilotless aircraft have become part of modern warfare, and that sometimes they are also used outside the context of armed conflict. Subsequently, both international...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the Dutch Hofstadgroup's status in the literature as a prime example of a homegrown Salafi-Jihadist terrorist network, the authors, using newly available primary sources, argue that this classification is to a large extent unwarranted. The lack of a rudimentary organizational structure, the existence of divergent views on the legitimacy and...
Article
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This Research Note provides a chronological overview of the most important events that occurred during the 2002-2005 existence of the Dutch Hofstadgroup. This group is frequently cited as a leading example of the 'homegrown' jihadist threat that arose in Europe from 2004 onwards. Despite this status in the literature, a detailed and above all prima...
Article
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This article focusses on the Sauerland terror plot, which is considered the most important homegrown jihadist threat to Germany since the London- and Madrid bombings. It provides an in-depth description of the backgrounds of key associates of the cell, their role in preparing for the intended attacks, how the plot itself came to be and how it evolv...
Article
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Digital security governance – the use of digital personal data for threat analysis on the basis of (automated) risk profiling – enhances terrorism risk management in Europe. European security strategies emphasise that information and communication technology increasingly play a key role in preventing and anticipating threats such as terrorism and c...
Article
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Research can only be as good as the data on which it is based. Unfortunately for scholars in the field of terrorism studies, getting access to reliable primary sources, such as government archives and interviews with (former) terrorists, has been a long-standing challenge. The good news is that the last couple of years have seen some important impr...
Chapter
Dit artikel analyseert hoe mensenrechtentraining binnen de sociale context van stedelijke politieeenheden in Costa Rica wordt geïntroduceerd. Daarmee draagt het bij aan debatten over politiehervormingen en mensenrechten in Latijns-Amerika. Hoewel Costa Rica, het ‘Zwitserland’ van de regio, geen leger heeft en beschikt over een sterke rechtsstaat en...
Article
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Open source intelligence (OSINT) is increasingly used for security and safety purposes. Even though security - and intelligence agencies and the police are using messages on social networking sites, weblogs, blogs or apps, state accountability mechanisms found it difficult to adapt to the online culture. Consider for instance the dilemma that open...
Chapter
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This chapter explores on the basis of qualitative data the complexities of implementing human rights within the Costa Rican police system. By focussing on one case study it contributes to in-depth debates on the dynamics between law and society. Human rights seek social change, which is partly directed at state officials who are involved in abuses....
Article
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This article discusses the use of surveillance, storage of personal information, biometrics, satellite technology and other forms of ICT technology for security purposes. Although technology is a powerful tool to fight terrorism, it is also a means for increasing social control by the state. Henceforth, there is a risk that panoptic surveillance, w...
Article
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This article discusses how civil society mobilizes international human rights to advocate for more privacy and personal data protection. In comparison to other European countries, privacy advocacy has commenced relatively recently in the Netherlands. Since 2009, civil society has expressed its concern about increased state surveillance at the inter...
Article
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This country report sets the context for research on the impact of counter-terrorism legislation and policies on racial, ethnic and religious minority communities in the Netherlands. Despite the fact that over the last decade various security measures have been assessed, there are few studies on their context-specific effect. This report discusses...
Article
This article discusses the use of surveillance, storage of personal information, biometrics, satellite technology and other forms of ICT technology for security purposes. Although technology is a powerful tool to fight terrorism, it is also a means for increasing social control by the state. Henceforth, there is a risk that panoptic surveillance, w...
Article
Full-text available
This article focuses on the special criminal procedures for the use of intelligence in terrorist trials in Canada, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Since 9/11 and the terror attacks in London and Madrid, gathering intelligence as well as the prosecution of suspects of terrorist crimes have become strategic tools in countering terrori...
Article
Full-text available
Visual surveillance has become a key technological tool in the prevention of terrorism and other serious crimes. From a human rights perspective, however, its use requires proper checks and balances, especially because there is a risk that – quoting Mathiesen on Foucault – panoptic surveillance, where the few view the many, develops. Furthermore, w...
Article
As a result of the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the bombings in Madrid and London, a prevention-focused counter-terrorism approach has developed across the European Union. Preventive counter-terrorism is appealing because it implies interventions that remove the ability or, better still, the motivation of potential terrorists to carry out their letha...
Article
Full-text available
As a result of the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the bombings in Madrid and London, a prevention focussed counter‐terrorism approach has developed across the European Union (EU). While the majority of these laws, regulations and policies recognise the importance of the rule of law and human rights, it remains relevant to examine whether in theory and...
Article
Full-text available
As a result of the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the bombings in Madrid and London, a prevention focussed counter‐terrorism approach has developed across the European Union (EU). While the majority of these laws, regulations and policies recognise the importance of the rule of law and human rights, it remains relevant to examine whether in theory and...
Chapter
From a human rights perspective technology led policing raises questions in relation to police accountability. As part of the development of the surveillance society new police technologies including biometric databases, data collection and analysis, Automatic Number Plate Recognition Systems and Conductive Energy Devices both facilitate and hinder...
Article
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A range of political and social developments in the Netherlands suggest that ethnic profiling in political and social discourse is no longer seen as a taboo. Increasingly ethnic profiling is perceived as part of the solution to ‘the problem’ of terrorism, radicalisation, integration, violent crime, serious public nuisance or public safety. Although...
Article
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The importance of the local perspective on transitional justice processes in post-conflict societies is discussed in this article. By focusing not only on reparations as transitional justice institutions, but also on the perception of ordinary people of their legitimacy, it analyses how these kinds of efforts potentially contribute to a sense of ju...
Chapter
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In the first section, the implementation of community policing in Costa Rica is reviewed. This is followed by an analysis of the role of key law enforcement officials at the local police station level. In the third and fourth sections, police officers’ interpretations of community policing and their compliance with (or resistance to) police human r...
Book
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This empirical study discusses how the police of a non-transitional society in Latin America responded to the implementation of human rights? On the basis of qualitative and quantitative data that was collected during fieldwork periods between 2003 and 2006, it evaluates the effect of police human rights strategies upon the Costa Rican national pol...
Article
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At the end of the last decade many Latin American states initiated public security reform. This included police human rights strategies, which aim to improve police officers' compliance with human rights. Particular strategies emphasized the development of police legal expertise. In Costa Rica this was done through professionalizing police legal tr...
Article
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This article discusses the implementation of human rights within police systems from a socio-legal point of view. It contributes to debates on the dynamics between law and society. Human rights law seek social change, which is partly directed at those who commit abuses. In many parts of the world people associate policing with human rights violatio...
Article
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This article focuses on police accountability from the perspective of police officers in Costa Rica. With the Public Force as a case study, it unravels police officer perceptions of the accountability process. By concentrating on internal and external police accountability mechanisms, it contributes to debates on human rights implementation within...
Article
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Over more than a decade ago an anthropologist called Myrna Elizabeth Mack Chang was murdered in Guatemala City. It was widely believed to have been a politically-motivated killing. Since then her relatives and others have attempted to seek justice both on a national level and a regional level. They have pursued the case through the Inter-American s...
Article
Democratic values relate to rights protected by political values and institutions. Therefore the consolidation of democracy in Latin America could lead to an increased respect for human rights. Although this region of the world is no longer threatened by military interventions, democratic rule is challenged by a variety of crises. Social, economic,...

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Projects (8)
Project
My PhD research ‘Human Rights and Social Work: Challenges of local professionals at the frontline’ explores how professionals in social district teams can contribute to human rights realization in the context of decentralization and how well social work education prepares students for a human rights perspective.