Qiang Zhang

Qiang Zhang
Tsinghua University | TH · Department of Earth System Science

PhD

About

378
Publications
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35,675
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Publications

Publications (378)
Article
Full-text available
There are more than 30,000 biomass- and fossil-fuel-burning power plants now operating worldwide, reflecting a tremendously diverse infrastructure, which ranges in capacity from less than a megawatt to more than a gigawatt. In 2010, 68.7% of electricity generated globally came from these power plants, compared with 64.2% in 1990. Although the elect...
Article
Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emis...
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To reduce airborne soot, organics and sulphates, tailored strategies for each must be established and coal use limited, say Qiang Zhang, Kebin He and Hong Huo.
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The MIX inventory is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. Emissions are estimated for all major anthropogenic sources in 29 countries and regions in Asia. W...
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A new inventory of air pollutant emissions in Asia in the year 2006 is developed to support the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B) funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Emissions are estimated for all major anthropogenic sources, excluding biomass burning. We estimate total Asian anthropog...
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The past three decades have witnessed the dramatic expansion of global biomass‐ and fossil fuel‐fired power plants, but the tremendously diverse power infrastructure shapes different spatial and temporal CO2 emission characteristics. Here, by combining Global Power plant Emissions Database (GPED v1.1) constructed in this study and the previously de...
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Climate change mitigation measures can yield substantial air quality improvements while emerging clean air measures in developing countries can also lead to CO 2 emission mitigation co-benefits by affecting the local energy system. Here, we evaluate the effect of China’s stringent clean air actions on its energy use and CO 2 emissions from 2013-202...
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Understanding carbon sources and sinks across the Earth's surface is fundamental in climate science and policy; thus, these topics have been extensively studied but have yet to be fully resolved and are associated with massive debate regarding the sign and magnitude of the carbon budget from global to regional scales. Developing new models and esti...
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Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra, that indicate the dependence of CCN number concentrations (NCCN) on supersaturation, are important factors in aerosol–cloud interactions. Owing to the lack of direct measurements of NCCN, calculating the CCN spectra based on conventional observational data of aerosols is important to obtain NCCN; however, th...
Preprint
Air quality network data in China and South Korea show very high year-round mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter (PM) between 2.5 $\mu$m and 10 $\mu$m aerodynamic diameter, as inferred by the difference between PM10 and PM2.5 observations. This coarse PM averages 47 $\mu$g m$^{-3}$ in the North China Plain (NCP) region in 2015-2019 and...
Preprint
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors to the formation of ozone (O3) and secondary organic aero-sols (SOA) and can also have direct human health impacts. Generally, given the range and number of VOC species, their emissions are poorly characterised. The VOC levels in Beijing during two campaigns (APHH) were investigated using a...
Article
A great challenge for haze pollution mitigation with the existing emission control measures in China is ozone (O3) increase. The chemical processes leading to weakened haze mitigation are still poorly understood. Our work identifies the enhanced aging chemistries of black carbon (BC) with increasing O3 as an essential driver to weaken haze mitigati...
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Terrestrial ecosystems in China receive the world’s largest amount of reactive nitrogen (N) deposition. Recent controls on nitrogen oxides (NO x = NO + NO 2 ) emissions in China to tackle air pollution are expected to decrease N deposition, yet the observed N deposition fluxes remain almost stagnant. Here we show that the effectiveness of NO x emis...
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International trade separates consumption of goods from related environmental impacts, including greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and land-use change (together referred to as “land-use emissions”). Through use of new emissions estimates and a multiregional input-output model, we evaluated land-use emissions embodied in global trade from 20...
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Global industrialization and urbanization processes enabled a diverse cement production boom over the past three decades, as cement is the most important building construction material. Consequently, the cement industry is the second-largest industrial CO 2 emitter (~25% of global industrial CO 2 emissions) globally. In this study, the Global Cemen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding carbon sources and sinks across the Earth’s surface is fundamental in climate science and policy; thus, these topics have been extensively studied but have yet to be fully resolved and are associated with massive debate regarding the sign and magnitude of the carbon budget from global to regional scales. Developing new models and esti...
Article
Full-text available
The World Health Organization has issued new air quality guidelines (AQG). Based on 2020 data, achieving the new AQG for PM2.5 could prevent an additional 285,000 chronic deaths and 13,000 acute deaths, across China, compared with the previous AQG. The new AQG can better protect health but cannot be achieved without coordinated air-pollution-contro...
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High spatial resolution PM2.5 data products covering a long time period are urgently needed to support population exposure assessment and refined air quality management. In this study, we provided complete-coverage PM2.5 predictions with a 1-km spatial resolution from 2000 to the present under the Tracking Air Pollution in China (TAP) framework. To...
Article
Effective density is one of the most important physical properties of atmospheric particles. It is closely linked to particle chemical composition and morphology and could provide special information on particle emissions and aging processes. In this study, size-resolved particle effective density was measured with a combined differential mobility...
Article
Background Over 3 million people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor PM2·5 air pollution, and more than a quarter of these premature deaths occur in China. In addition to clean-air policies that target pollution emissions, climate policies aimed at reducing fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (eg, to avoid 1·5°C of warming) might also...
Preprint
The past three decades have witnessed the dramatic expansion of global biomass- and fossil fuel-fired power plants, but the tremendously diverse power infrastructure shapes different spatial and temporal CO2 emission characteristics. Here, by combining Global Power plant Emissions Database (GPED v1.1) constructed in this study and the previously de...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the exposure data sets from the Tracking Air Pollution in China (TAP, http://tapdata.org.cn/), we characterized the spatiotemporal variations in PM2.5 and O3 exposures and quantified the long- and short-term exposure related premature deaths during 2013–2020 with respect to the two-stage clean air actions (2013–2017 and 2018–2020). We find...
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This paper presents the first development and evaluation of a reduced-complexity air quality model for China. In this study, the reduced-complexity Intervention Model for Air Pollution over China (InMAP-China) is developed by linking a regional air quality model, a reduced-complexity air quality model, an emission inventory database for China, and...
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Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) are important precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosols in PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm), both of which cause severe climate, ecosystem, and human health damages. As one of the major anthropogenic sources, onroad vehicles are subject to relatively la...
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Reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuel- and biomass-fired power plants often also reduces air pollution, benefitting both climate and public health. Here, we examine the relationship of climate and health benefits by modelling individual electricity-generating units worldwide across a range of climate–energy policy scenarios. We estimate that ~92%...
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Geostationary satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) instruments can augment surface monitoring of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality, but this requires better understanding of the AOD–PM2.5 relationship. Here we use the GEOS-C...
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Precise and high-resolution carbon dioxide (CO2) emission data is of great importance of achieving the carbon neutrality around the world. Here we present for the first time the near-real-time Global Gridded Daily CO2 Emissions Dataset (called GRACED) from fossil fuel and cement production with a global spatial-resolution of 0.1° by 0.1° and a temp...
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Between 2002 and 2017, China’s gross domestic product grew by 284%, but this surge was accompanied by a similarly prodigious growth in energy consumption, air pollution and air pollution-related deaths. Here we use a combination of index decomposition analysis and chemical transport modelling to quantify the relative influence of eight different fa...
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Intensive agricultural activities in the North China Plain (NCP) lead to substantial emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from soil, while the role of this source on local severe ozone pollution is unknown. Here we use a mechanistic parameterization of soil NO x emissions combined with two atmospheric chemistry models to investigate the issue. We f...
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Air pollution has altered the Earth’s radiation balance, disturbed the ecosystem, and increased human morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, a full-coverage high-resolution air pollutant data set with timely updates and historical long-term records is essential to support both research and environmental management. Here, for the first time, we devel...
Article
The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, which has a resource-dependent economy dominated by clusters of heavy industries, has long borne the highest PM2.5 pollution levels in China, prompting serious concerns about the region's disease burden. Pollution-intensive industries in the BTH region not only meet local consumer demands but also those of ot...
Preprint
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Geostationary satellite sensors over East Asia (GOCI and AHI) are now providing continuous mapping of aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm to improve monitoring of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality. Here we evaluate our understanding of the physical relationships between AOD and PM2.5 over East Asia by using the GEOS-Chem atmospheric che...
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Anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (ASOA), formed from anthropogenic emissions of organic compounds, constitutes a substantial fraction of the mass of submicron aerosol in populated areas around the world and contributes to poor air quality and premature mortality. However, the precursor sources of ASOA are poorly understood, and there are lar...
Preprint
Full-text available
Precise and high-resolution carbon dioxide (CO2) emission data is of great importance of achieving the carbon neutrality around the world. Here we present for the first time the near-real-time Global Gridded Daily CO2 Emission Datasets (called GRACED) from fossil fuel and cement production with a global spatial-resolution of 0.1{\deg} by 0.1{\deg}...
Article
Full-text available
The contribution of meteorology and emissions to long-term PM2.5 trends is critical for air quality management but has not yet been fully analyzed. Here, we used the combination of a machine learning model, statistical method, and chemical transport model to quantify the meteorological impacts on PM2.5 pollution during 2000–2018. Specifically, we f...
Preprint
Full-text available
Effective density is one of the most important physical properties of atmospheric particles. It is closely linked to particle chemical composition and morphology, and could provide special information on particle emissions and aging processes. In this study, size-resolved particle effective density was measured with a combined DMA-CPMA-CPC system i...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns led to a sharp drop in socio-economic activities in China in 2020, including reductions in fossil fuel use, industry productions, and traffic volumes. The short-term impacts of lockdowns on China's air quality have been measured and reported, however, the changes in anthropogenic emissions have not yet been assessed...
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The sixth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) scenarios provide opportunities to explore global climate and pollution mitigation pathways with socioeconomic features, but they might be limited on regional-scale projections due to inadequate consideration of local policies. Here, we simulated China's PM2.5 air quality with local policy-bas...
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The concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) across China has decreased by 30–50% over the period 2013–2018 due to stringent emission controls. However, the nitrate component of PM2.5 has not responded effectively to decreasing emissions of nitrogen oxides and has actually increased during winter haze pollution events in the North China Pla...
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Background The health impacts of ambient air pollution impose large costs on society. Although all people are exposed to air pollution, the older population (ie, those aged ≥60 years) tends to be disproportionally affected. As a result, there is growing concern about the health impacts of air pollution as many countries undergo rapid population age...
Article
In recent years, severe air pollution still frequently occurs in winter despite the effective implementation of clean air actions in China. Therefore, field measurements of particle composition and gas precursors were collected from December 1, 2018 to January 15, 2019 at an urban site in a central Chinese city to investigate the existing mechanism...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents the first development and evaluation of the reduced-complexity air quality 16 model for China. In this study, a reduced-complexity air quality intervention model over China 17 (InMAPv1.6.1-China, hereafter, InMAP-China) is developed by linking a regional air quality model, a 18 reduced-complexity air quality model, an emission i...
Preprint
Full-text available
International efforts to avoid dangerous climate change have historically focused on reducing energy-related CO 2 emissions from countries with either the largest economies (e.g., the EU and the U.S.) and/or the largest populations (e.g., China and India). However, in recent years, emissions have surged among a different, much less-examined group o...
Preprint
International efforts to avoid dangerous climate change have historically focused on reducing energy-related CO2 emissions from countries with either the largest economies (e.g., the EU and the U.S.) and/or the largest populations (e.g., China and India). However, in recent years, emissions have surged among a different and much less-examined group...
Preprint
Full-text available
Air pollution has altered the Earth radiation balance, disturbed the ecosystem and increased human morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, a full-coverage high-resolution air pollutant dataset with timely updates and historical long-term records is essential to support both research and environmental management. Here, for the first time, we develop a...
Preprint
Full-text available
The contribution of meteorology and emissions to long-term PM2.5 trends is critical for air quality management but has not yet been fully analyzed. Here, we used a combination of machine learning model, statistical model and chemical transport model to quantify the meteorological impacts on PM2.5 pollution during 2000–2018. Specifically, we first d...
Article
Full-text available
Significance The North China Plain experiences severe summer ozone pollution, but ozone during winter haze (particulate) pollution events has been very low. Here, we show that the abrupt decrease in nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emissions following the COVID-19 lockdown in January 2020 drove fast ozone production during winter haze events to levels approa...
Article
To control the spread of COVID-19, China implemented a series of lockdowns, limiting various offline interactions. This provided an opportunity to study the response of air quality to emissions control. By comparing the characteristics of pollution in the summers of 2019 and 2020, we found a significant decrease in gaseous pollutants in 2020. Howev...
Article
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are essential in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation due to their dual roles as precursors and oxidant producers. In order to explore the dominant contributions of SOA formation from VOCs in central China, 53 VOC species were observed with proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and canister grab...
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China is the largest cement producer and consumer in the world. Cement manufacturing is highly energy-intensive and is one of the major contributors to carbon dioxide (CO2) and air pollutant emissions, which threatens climate mitigation and air quality improvement. In this study, we investigated the decadal changes in carbon dioxide and air polluta...
Article
Ambient air pollution is one of the leading environmental risk factors to human health, largely offsetting economic growth. This study evaluated health burden and cost associated with the short-term and long-term exposure of major air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5] and ozone [O3]) during 2013−2018. We developed a database of gridded da...
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Black carbon (BC) forms an important component of particulate matter globally, due to its impact on climate, the environment and human health. Identifying and quantifying its emission sources are critical for effective policymaking and achieving the desired reduction in air pollution. In this study, we present the first direct measurements of urban...
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Background Exposure to air pollution, a leading contributor to the global burden of disease, can cause economic losses. Driven by clean air policies, the air quality in China, one of the most polluted countries, has improved rapidly since 2013. This has enabled a unique, quasi-experiment to assess the economic impact of air pollution empirically....
Article
Approximately half of satellite aerosol retrievals are missing that limits the application of satellite data in PM2.5 pollution monitoring. To obtain spatiotemporally continuous PM2.5 distributions, various gap-filling methods have been developed, but have rarely been evaluated. Here, we reviewed and summarized four types of gap-filling strategies,...
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Background Air pollutants, particularly fine particulate matters (PM2.5) have been associated with mental disorder such as depression. Clean air policy (CAP, i.e., a series of emission-control actions) has been shown to reduce the public health burden of air pollutions. There were few studies on the health effects of CAP on mental health, particula...
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Background Maternal exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2·5) is associated with pregnancy loss (ie, stillbirth and miscarriage). South Asia has the highest burden of pregnancy loss globally and is one of the most PM2·5 polluted regions in the world. However, knowledge of the relevant exposure–response function for mothers is insufficient. Me...