Qiang Xu

Qiang Xu
Nanjing University of Science and Technology | NJUST · Mechanical engineering

PhD

About

60
Publications
14,822
Reads
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754
Citations
Citations since 2016
36 Research Items
649 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
Additional affiliations
May 2010 - present
Nanjing University of Science and Technology
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (60)
Article
Wood and bark are ubiquitous and obviously the most abundant raw material for various applications including construction. While wood is relatively flammable, the bark is known to have high fire resistance and insulation capabilities due to its high lignin content. This study, therefore, assesses the flammability of different wood species with thei...
Article
Wood is undeniably the most useful and readily available natural raw material. However, the susceptibility of wood products to fire is one of the crucial challenges faced in the wood industry. The fire behaviour of wood is a very complex phenomenon due to the different constituents and their independent reactions to fire. This article presents a th...
Article
Full-text available
Although flame retardants are very effective in reducing the fire hazard of polymeric materials, their presence may be detrimental to mechanical strength. Hence, in order to have a holistic improvement of performance properties, a new approach has been developed wherein biochar is used to host a naturally-occurring flame retardant (lanosol). The is...
Article
The use of 3D printing technology for manufacturing construction materials is gaining popularity, however, only a few studies have reported the fire behavior of such parts. In this research, the fire properties of 3D printed polylactide acid (PLA) parts with varying infill densities along with the tensile properties were analysed. The results from...
Article
Full-text available
To study the practicability of a micro combustion calorimeter to analyze the calorimetry kinetics of wood, a micro combustion calorimeter with 13 heating rates from 0.1 to 5.5 K/s was used to perform the analysis of 10 kinds of common hardwood and softwood samples. As a microscale combustion measurement method, MCC (microscale combustion calorimetr...
Article
Full-text available
Wood-based composites such as wood plastic composites (WPC) are emerging as a sustainable and excellent performance materials consisting of wood reinforced with polymer matrix with a variety of applications in construction industries. In this context, wood-based composite materials used in construction industries have witnessed a vigorous growth, l...
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Low-carbon materials (the ‘carbon’ is related to carbon dioxide emission potential and not elemental carbon) need to be developed and embraced ubiquitously for the sustainable development of human society and mitigate climate change. In the absence of clear consensus in the literature coupled with the presence of certain miss-information, this ‘dis...
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The effect of pyrolysis reactors on the properties of biochars (with a focus on flammability and mechanical characteristics) were investigated by keeping factors such as feedstock, carbonisation temperature, heating rate and residence time constant. The reactors employed were hydrothermal, fixed-bed batch vertical and fixed-bed batch horizontal-tub...
Article
While there have been various attempts in establishing a model that can predict the flammability characteristics of polymers based on their molecular structure, artificial intelligence (AI) presents a promising alternative in tackling this pressing issue. Therefore, a novel approach of adopting AI methods, extreme learning machines (ELMs) and group...
Article
Full-text available
The microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC) is considered to be the most commonly used small-scale fire experiment in material research. It was developed by Richard E. Lyon and Richard Walters from the Federal Aviation Administration and has existed for over two decades. During this period, the apparatus has been used to obtain combustion propertie...
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Biocomposites being environmentally-friendly alternative to synthetic composites are gaining increasing demand for various applications. Hence, biocomposite development should be integrated within a circular economy (CE) model to ensure a sustainable production that is simultaneously innocuous towards the environment. This review presents an overvi...
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Thermal ablation plays an important role in the aerospace field. In this paper, to study the chemical kinetics effects on heat transfer and surface ablation of the charring ablative material during aerodynamic heating, a charring ablation model was established using the finite element method. AVCOAT5026-39H/CG material, one typical thermal protecti...
Article
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Surface ablation and in-depth temperature distribution of the charring material are the key properties of the thermal protection system in re-entry vehicles subjected to aerodynamic heating. To investigate the factors affecting the ablation performance of charring materials, the influence of decomposition reaction and surface recession on ablation...
Article
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TG–FTIR combined technology was used to study the degradation process and gas phase products of epoxy glass fiber reinforced plastic (glass fiber reinforced plastic) under the atmospheres of high purity nitrogen. The pyrolysis characteristics of epoxy glass fiber reinforced plastic were measured under different heating rates (5, 10, 15, 20 °C min−1...
Article
Full-text available
Polyethylene (PE) is one the most used plastics worldwide for a wide range of applications due to its good mechanical and chemical resistance, low density, cost efficiency, ease of processability, non-reactivity, low toxicity, good electric insulation, and good functionality. However, its high flammability and rapid flame spread pose dangers for ce...
Article
The onset of coronavirus pandemic has sparked a shortage of facemasks in almost all nations. Without this personal protective equipment, healthcare providers, essential workers, and the general public are exposed to the risk of infection. In light of the aforementioned, it is critical to balance the supply and demand for masks. COVID-19 will also e...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon based fillers have attracted a great deal of interest in polymer composites because of their ability to beneficially alter properties at low filler concentration, good interfacial bonding with polymer, availability in different forms, etc. The property alteration of polymer composites makes them versatile for applications in various fields,...
Article
Full-text available
Wheat gluten biopolymers generally become excessively rigid when processed without plasticisers, while the use of plasticisers, on the other hand, can deteriorate their mechanical properties. As such, this study investigated the effect of carbon black (CB) as a filler into glycerolplasticised gluten to prepare gluten/CB biocomposites in order to el...
Article
Cellulose nitrate, also known as nitrocellulose (NC), is a highly flammable energetic cellulose derivatives formed by exposing cellulose to nitric acid, whose producing procedure has been greatly employed in daily life and military area. In this study, to explore its pyrolysis and combustion kinetics, NC samples were subjected to isothermal and non...
Conference Paper
Flammability analysis of extruded polystyrene (XPS) has become crucial due to its utilization as insulation material for energy efficient buildings. Using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, the degradation kinetics of two pure XPS from the local market, red and grey ones, were obtained from the results of thermogravity analy...
Article
Soft-computing techniques for fire safety parameter predictions in flammability studies are essential for describing a material fire behaviour. This study proposed, two novel Artificial Intelligence developed models, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) and Random Forest (RF) methods, to model and predict peak heat release rate (pHRR) of...
Article
The aim of the study was to impart fire retardancy in wheat gluten polymer through naturally-occurring additives such as lanosol. The fire properties of lanosol were compared with two other conventional brominated fire retardants (Tetrabromobisphenol A and Hexabromocyclododecane). Samples containing fire retardants and gluten were prepared through...
Article
Full-text available
Predictions of both combustible material flammability and heat release parameters have been long goals in fire safety research, for its complex heat, mass transfer and chemical reaction process in gas phase. In this study, neural network method is employed to predict materials flammability considering its wide application in predicting key properti...
Article
Full-text available
Flammability studies are conducted to evaluate the behavior of materials exposed to fire. In this study, microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) and cone calorimetry methods were applied to acquire the flammability characteristics of red and grey extruded polystyrene (XPS) samples. To understand the effect of changes between parameters, Pearson’s c...
Article
Full-text available
The capability of artificial neural networks in predicting microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC) parameters of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was carried out in this study. Using values of sample mass and corresponding heating rate, feed forward back propagation (FFBP) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) models were developed to pred...
Article
Two-scale tests, microscale and bench scale, are conducted to analyze the flammability of a flexible polyurethane foam. Microscale tests include simultaneous thermal analysis coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC). Evolved gas components, heat release rate per unit mass, total heat release, d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Polymer based materials are used as in industry as in households. They are rapidly developing. Due to their cost, they often replace the traditional materials. The disadvantage of its use, both natural and synthetic polymers, is their sensitivity to flame because of their main constitute element, i.e. carbon. In general, the flammability of polymer...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Since the operation of manned aircraft at forest fires is expensive, in many cases managers miss the aerial reconnaissance however that would be required for the effective intervention. Drones can give real alternatives against traditional reconnaissance, therefore it is important to study both professional and economic effectiveness...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the performance and the response of the frame structures in fire is of a particular importance for structural fire design. The specialized computer program SAFIR enables analysis of different types of structures, constructed with different structural materials. The options of program SAFIR are presented on eight different fire scenari...
Article
Heat release capacity is known as a combination of the thermal stability and combustion properties, which can be used to classify the flammability of materials. It can be derived from microscale combustion calorimeter test results or from additive molar group contributions. PMMA and two kinds of extruded polystyrene were tests by microscale combust...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bench scale tests by Cone calorimeter were conducted to evaluate the fire behaviour of a vinyl based lining material with and without anti-corrosion painting. The samples were tested with two irradiance heat flux, 35kW/m 2 and 50kW/m 2. were used in the predicting flashover time and classifying the lining material from the results of 50kW/m 2 tests...
Article
Flammability of two kinds of two extruded polystyrene foam was tested by micro-scale combustion calorimeter and cone calorimeter. Maximum specific heat release rate, specific heat release, heat release temperature, combustion time and fire growth rates from micro-scale combustion calorimeter tests, and time to ignition, effective net heat of combus...
Article
A serial of tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of specimen mass on the test results for PMMA conducted in a micro-scale combustion calorimeter. Seven heating rates were used to test specimens of mass ranging from 0.5 to 6.0 mg with nominal interval of 0.5 mg. Eighty-five specimens were tested. Heat release rate, onset temperature, temper...
Article
Full-text available
Different scale tests to explore the influence of fiberglass mesh on the fire behaviour of EPS (expanded polystyrene) have been conducted. Micro-scale Combustion Calorimeter (MCC) to measure the heat release rate per unit mass, heat release capacity and the total heat release of EPS and as well as the fiberglass for milligram specimen mass has been...
Article
Full-text available
The melt\shrink effects on the fire behaviour of low-density thermoplastic foam have been studied in a cone calorimeter. The experiments have been performed with four samples of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foams having different thicknesses and two extruded polystyrene (XPS) foams. Decrease in surface area and increase in density, characterizing the...
Article
The thermal properties of EPS foam were tested by simultaneous thermal analysis in a nitrogen environment, using a Netzsch STA 449C TG-DSC. Pyrolysis products were characterized using mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The flammability of EPS foam was examined using microscale combustion calorimetry. Heat release rate, p...
Article
Full-text available
The presented paper deals with the assessment of the impact of Oak wood ageing on the maximum and average heat release rate, average rate of mass loss and yield of carbon monoxide (CO), related to the sample mass loss and heat released. In research, there were analyzed the samples of Oak wood (Quercus robur L.) with dimensions of 100 x 100 x 20 mm....
Article
Microscale thermal analysis, bench scale cone calorimetric and real scale burning tests were conducted to evaluated fire safety performance of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam. Simultaneous thermal analysis was used to study the thermal degradation of the foam in nitrogen, air, and oxygen environments at four heating rates. An endothermic effect is...
Article
Full-text available
Fire behaviour of PVC wall panel was evaluated by bench scale test with Cone calorimeter. Samples were tested with three incident irradiance heat fluxes to get the minimum heat flux required for ignition of the samples from fitting line. This minimum ignition incident heat flux demonstrates the material is of low fire risk under 20 kW/m2, and the p...
Article
The thermal degradation of three typical organic insulation materials, rigid polyurethane (PU) foam, extruded polystyrene (XPS) and expanded polystyrene (EPS) were investigated using thermogravimetry (TG) and simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) coupled with mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG–DSC–MS–FTIR). The Kissinge...
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with the determination of selected fi re properties of spruce wood. It describes the general characteristics of spruce wood, microscopic and macroscopic features. Broad application of this material requires the assessment of its properties regarding the fi re aspects, being a cause of fi re in forests or due to frequent occurrence...
Article
Full-text available
Correlation algorithms are used to analyse the relationship amongst heat release rate, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide generated in cone calorimetry test of material flammability. These correlation algorithms include Pearson’s correlation, Spearman’s rank correlation and Kendall’s rank correlation. Cone test data of seven materials are analysed....
Article
Full-text available
Fire behaviour of a vinyl based lining material with and without anti-corrosion painting has been evaluated through 35 and 50 kW/m 2 cone calorimeter tests. The minimum heat flux requited for surface ignition was estimated. The data were compared by those provided by a revised Kokkala-Thomas's classification index prediction model, the Östman-Tsant...
Article
A series of experiments were conducted to study the fundamental fire and thermal properties of glass-reinforced polyester (GRP) panel material. Both bench-scale and room-scale tests were performed. The GRP was characterized using TGA, DSC, and cone calorimetry. Several predicting models, such as heat release index model, FO-categories model, and mi...
Article
Full-text available
Water mist suppression tests for glass-reinforced polyester panels were conducted in ISO 9705 room. Panels covered part of the room and a wood crib fire was used as fire source to ignite glass-reinforced polyester fire. A four-nozzle water mist suppression equipment was used inside test room on the time of flashover. Heat release rate of the combus...
Article
Full-text available
A serials test of crib fire conducted in a bench scale compartment Total heat flux to the wan is measured by Schmidt-bolter gages in upper zone and lower zone of the compartment The heat flux intensity and distribution of these quasi-steady crib fires is evaluated through these tests The peak value and integral of the measured total heat flux is sc...
Article
Full-text available
Water mist suppression tests for glass-reinforced polyester (GRP) panels were conducted in ISO 9705 room. GRP panels covered part of the room and a wood crib fire was used as fire source to ignite GRP fire. A four-nozzle water mist suppression equipment was used inside test room on the time of flashover. Heat release rate of the combustion inside t...
Article
Full-text available
The BFD curve fitting method of Barnett is adopted to study the compartment temperature-time curves for a series of wood crib fires in an ISO 9705 room. The nominal fire sizes were 0.15 MW, 0.25 MW, 0.5 MW. and 1.0 MW. The cribs were positioned at the corner or the center of the floor of the room. The temperatures within the compartment were measur...
Conference Paper
Tests were conducted with ISO 9705 room to investigate the combustion behavior of medium size wood cribs. Cribs were burnt at the center and corner inside ISO room and also under the hood of the ISO room. Effective heat of combustion and increase rate of heat release rate in growth phase is compared for cribs with different nominal heat release rat...
Article
Cone calorimeter tests were conducted to investigate the flammability of glass-reinforced plastics (GRP) panels. The results gained from these bench scale tests were used to predict the time to flashover in the ISO 9705 room, which was partly covered by GRP panels. Östman and Tsantaridis’ empirical linear regression model and multiple discriminant...
Article
Burning behavior of small-scale wood crib was studied by a serial of cone calorimeter tests. The heat release rate curves of these small wood cribs were different due to porosity factor and this shows that the control condition switches from one to another. The burning of some crib with small porosity factors was self-extinguished in fixed flow rat...
Article
Full-text available
Wood crib fires were studied by using of ISO 9705 Room. These free burning tests with different heat release rate were conducted inside room and outside room (under the hood). Thermal condition around crib fire was measured by using of thermocouples, total heat flux gauge, gas concentration analyzer, and standard instrumentations for heat release r...
Conference Paper
In the research of application potential of water mist fire suppression system for fire fighting in train luggage carriage, a series of experiments were conducted in ISO room on wood crib fire with and without water mist actuation. The results of free burn test without water mist suppression are used as reference in evaluating the efficiency of wat...
Article
Environments have great influence on the development and propagation of flame during fire disaster. When the fire is under the exertion of air flow, the structure of flame is changed by the air flow. The effect results of air flow depend on its flow parameters, such as velocity and flux. The influence of air flow on fire is one of the important par...
Article
Fine water mist can be used to restrain thermal hazard in some special situations, such as information center and telephone exchange center. A set of experiment was conducted to study the interaction of fine water mist with hot objects of different shape. An adjuster was designed to control the surface temperature of them avoiding over-heated. Thes...
Article
Wall plays an important role in building fire. It can be used to block the fire and prevent its propagation. It restricts free air entrainment, heat transfer and radiation from the wall side of fire. In other cases the wall will accelerate fire to spread to ceiling. Experiment research was carried out to study the influence of wall on the shape of...
Article
An online monitoring and alarming instrument, based on ultrasonic emulsifying technology for measuring oil leakage of circulating cooling systems is put forward in this paper. The instrument consists of a data acquisition circuit which is based on a single chip microprocessor, ultrasonic emulsifiers, photoelectric probes, and remote alarming device...
Article
The initial show wave is a non-stationary phenomenon in the initial stage of an exhausted flow field. Its movement characteristic and development process cannot be mastered accurately with the use of contact-type measurement methods, such as pressure and velocity measurements. An experimental study of the shock wave field by use of a Laser Moire De...

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Project (1)
Project
analysis end evaluation of the flammability of polymers used for insulation in energy buildiings