Professor Farzad Sharifian

Professor Farzad Sharifian
Monash University (Australia) · School of Languages, Literatures, Cultures and Linguistics

PhD

About

96
Publications
114,802
Reads
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2,653
Citations
Introduction
Professor Farzad Sharifian is a pioneer of Cultural Linguistics and holds the Chair in Cultural Linguistics at Monash University.[1] He has developed a theoretical and an analytical framework of cultural cognition, cultural conceptualisations, and language, which draw on and expands the analytical tools and theoretical advancements in several disciplines and sub-disciplines, including cognitive psychology, anthropology, distributed cognition, and complexity science. You can access some interviews and speeches by Professor Sharifian here: https://farzadsharifian.com/multimedia/
Additional affiliations
June 2003 - February 2005
University of Western Australia
Position
  • Australian Research Council Post-Doctoral Fellow

Publications

Publications (96)
Article
This study examined the processing of hyponmy in L1 and two levels of performance (overall and high proficiency) in L2 in a group of Persian-English bilinguals. In two experiments, the same participants detected semantic relation in hyponymy pairs (i.e., hyponym-superordinate vs. superordinate-hyponym) in L1 (experiment 1) and L2 (experiment 2). Th...
Article
Schema theory provides a meeting place for the studies of language, culture, and cognition. Cultural knowledge and experience are represented in the form of cognitive schemas, which underlie the production of cultural discourse. Thus, an examination of distinctive patterns of discourse produced by cultural groups may provide us with an understandin...
Article
The present study investigated whether in bilingual memory, activation of a node in a lexicon, through presentation of the relevant word stimulus, would spread to a lower node in the other lexicon. Two experiments examined the priming effect of a higher node in one lexicon on the task of translation of a lower node in the other lexicon. In Experime...
Article
The present study investigated, within the framework of spreading activation model, whether or not nodes are activated in a hierarchical fashion in the memory network. If, for example, activation of plant spreads to flower and then to rose, subjects should take longer to detect the relation between plant and rose than that between either plant and...
Article
Full-text available
There has been growing interest in the study of the human conceptual system across several disciplines and sub-disciplines in the last two decades. Cognitive scientists have been involved in modeling the architecture of the human conceptual system. For instance, a fairly recent paradigm in cognitive science called "connectionism" models the human c...
Chapter
Cultural Linguistics is an interdisciplinary sub-branch of linguistics that explores the relationship between language and cultural conceptualisations.
Article
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en This study explores the critical barriers to English language learning for Afghan refugee women in Australia. Using data from 23 individual interviews and five focus group discussions, these show that although the participants received formal support from the Australian Government, the majority still struggled to learn English effectively. A the...
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Introduction of online communications and social networking sites have provided a new channel for sharing ideas and opinions all over the world. The present study aimed to investigate how gender can play a role in the realization of Persian and English compliment responses commented by EFL learners on social networking sites. To this end, a sample...
Article
This study explores the perceptions of English language teachers about the place and relevance of world Englishes (WEs) in English language teaching (ELT) in Australia. For this aim, 56 English teachers from all Kachruvian Circles working in Australia were interviewed. The interviews were thematically and qualitatively analysed and the results indi...
Article
This paper explores conceptualisations of xoshbaxti (‘happiness / prosperity’) and baxt (‘fate / luck’) in Persian, adopting a combined historical and contemporary analysis. The expression xoshbaxti consists of the free morphemes xosh (‘pleasant’) and baxt (‘fate’). The root of baxt originates from the Proto-Indo-European language ( bʰeh₂g ). An hi...
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Introduction of Cultural Linguistics in the modern ages of communication can address the issue of cultural schema transfer in online communication. Despite a good number of studies on a compliment, this pragmatic behavior has not been examined in the context of online communications such as social networking sites where compliments are commonly pai...
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In this paper, the framework of cultural linguistics is employed to examine how older people from two different ethnic backgrounds in Australia conceptualize ageing and their own experience of ageing. The paper employs a qualitative method for the instantiations of interviews from two focus groups of Australian women. The results indicated that wom...
Article
World Englishes as a discipline has developed more than half a century of research and practice. It is closely connected with such other disciplines as applied linguistics, sociolinguistics, and applied cultural linguistics. In this paper, we adopt a holistic analytical framework drawing upon world Englishes and applied cultural linguistics with re...
Article
Full-text available
Cultural Linguistics is an emerging field within linguistics that focuses on the interrelation between language and cultural cognition. Over the last decade or so, Cultural Linguistics has witnessed tremendous growth and development theory-, methodology-, and application-wise. While the initial step towards Cultural Linguistics was taken by Palmer...
Chapter
We age from the moment we are born. This is a completely natural process, and yet ageing is now a matter of strong taboo. No one wants to evoke it too vividly, and the fall-out is a flourishing of verbal vanishing creams and linguistic makeovers in the form of euphemism. And yet, as baby boomers are reaching retirement age and wish to remain active...
Article
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This study explored perceptions of English language teachers in Australia regarding the existence and legitimacy of world Englishes (WE). A group of 27 teachers of English language intensive courses for overseas students (ELICOS) from 10 countries in the Asia-Pacific region were interviewed. Qualitative analysis of the interview responses indicated...
Article
The present study sets out to investigate the role of ‘culture’ as one of the many important factors that influence the evaluation of (im)politeness in Persian from a Cultural Linguistics perspective. The paper argues that Cultural Linguistics, and in particular the notion of cultural schema, has the potential to offer a robust analytical framework...
Article
Considerable depth and breadth of research on Chinese English has been undertaken over the last three to four decades, contributing to the epistemological advancement of a number of academic disciplines, including world Englishes, Intercultural Communication, and Cultural Linguistics. Researching Chinese English involves engaging in ongoing theoret...
Book
Full-text available
This groundbreaking collection represents the broad scope of cutting-edge research in Cultural Linguistics, a burgeoning field of interdisciplinary inquiry into the relationships between language and cultural cognition. The materials surveyed in its chapters demonstrate how cultural conceptualisations encoded in language relate to all aspects of hu...
Chapter
This chapter explores the role of ‘culture’ in perceptions of impoliteness from a Cultural Linguistics perspective. Recent studies of impoliteness have identified a number of factors that influence speakers’ perception of (im)polite language use. The chapter argues that Cultural Linguistics has the potential to offer a robust analytical framework f...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cultural Linguistics is a recently developed discipline with multidisciplinary origins that explores the relationship between language and cultural conceptualisations. In particular, Cultural Linguistics explores the features of human languages that encode culturally constructed conceptualisations of the whole range of human experience. It offers a...
Chapter
One of the most evolving areas of euphemisms in present-day society is ageing. As baby boomers are reaching retirement age and wish to remain active for many more decades, they are redefining the concept of ageing considerably. This redefinition is all the more relevant in Australia, which has the third highest proportion of people aged over 65 in...
Chapter
What makes a variety of English distinct from others lies not only in its phonology, lexis, syntax, discourse, and pragmatics, but also in the distinctive ways that its speakers encode their cultural conceptualisations. There has been considerable research on different varieties of English at both linguistic and cultural levels. In particular, over...
Article
Culture representation in English language teaching (ELT) materials has grown as one of the prominent areas of research. This study employed Cultural Linguistics to analyse a reading section – both text and visual – in unit 8 of English 11 that is locally developed for Vietnamese high school students of grade 11 for analysis. The study shows that t...
Article
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This article aims to contribute to scholarly attempts to clarify the claims made by the early proponents of linguistic relativity. It also presents an account of the recently developed area of Cultural Linguistics and outlines how the scope of this multidisciplinary area of research differs from that of studies dedicated to linguistic relativity. F...
Chapter
This chapter explores the relationship between cultural pragmatic schemas, pragmemes, and practs, from the perspective of Cultural Linguistics (Sharifian, Cultural conceptualisations and language: theoretical framework and applications. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2011; Cultural linguistics. In: F. Sharifian (ed) The Routledge handbook of language a...
Article
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In line with other aspects of globalisation, the unprecedented global spread of English has led to an increase in the degree to which the language has become localised, serving to encode the communicate needs of various speech communities. This dual process of globalisation and localisation of English may be referred to as the "glocalisation" of th...
Article
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This paper examines conceptualizations of temperature in contemporary Persian, from the perspective of Cultural Linguistics. Several expressions in which temperature terms are used reflect cultural metaphors where temperature is used as a source domain for conceptual mapping to the domain of emotion. The paper also examines particular cultural (fol...
Article
Cultural Linguistics is a multidisciplinary field of research that explores how features of human languages and language varieties are entrenched in cultural conceptualisations such as cultural schemas (models), cultural categories, and cultural-conceptual metaphors. This paper presents an overview of the emerging field of Cultural Linguistics and...
Data
Full-text available
Chapter
In the broadest sense of the term, “cultural linguistics” refers to the subbranch of linguistics that explores the relationship between language and culture.Keywords:language variation and change;linguistic anthropology;World Englishes;sociocultural language studies
Chapter
Teaching English in multicultural, and what I would term multi-varietal, contexts presents a unique challenge as the question is often raised by English teachers as to whose culture and which variety should be taught. Australia presents such a context, where the multicultural fabric of the society has been well established, and where a wide range o...
Article
This special issue of the journal is dedicated to the memory of Michael Clyne. The papers published here were originally presented at a roundtable organised by the Language and Society Centre at Monash University, a research centre founded by Michael. They present research on topics which occupied Michael throughout his career: the language use of...
Article
Full-text available
In its journey across the globe, English has become increasingly localised by many communities of speakers around the world, adopting it to encode and express their cultural conceptualisations, a process which may be called glocalisation of the language. The glocalisation of English and the dynamics of increased contact between people from differen...
Article
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The aim of this study was to explore pragmalinguistic strategies employed by a group of Iranian English language learners when making refusals to invitations, requests, offers and suggestions in their first (Persian) and second (English) languages. Data were collected from 86 participants through a Discourse Completion Test (DCT). The social va...
Article
Traditionally, many studies of second language acquisition (SLA) were based on the assumption that learning a new language mainly involves learning a set of grammatical rules, lexical items, and certain new sounds and sound combinations. However, for many second language learners, learning a second language may involve contact and interactions with...
Article
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This paper explores the Persian cultural pragmatic schema of sharmandegi 'being ashamed,' which underlies the enactment of several speech acts in Persian. These include expressing gratitude, offering goods and services, requesting goods and services, apology, refusal, and accepting offers. For instance, the schema encourages Persian speakers to use...
Article
This paper reveals how intercultural communication can be examined from the perspective of cultural conceptualisations using the analytical tools of ‘cultural schemas’ and ‘cultural categories’. It focuses on an analysis of miscommunication between speakers of Aboriginal English and Australian English, miscommunication which has often disadvantaged...
Article
Figurative language is used in all domains of communication, including political discourse. And since figurative language is largely socio-culturally constructed it presents a significant locus for misinterpretation or even manipulation when it collides with the realm of international politics. This paper presents an analysis of several cases of th...
Book
The rapid global spread of the English language has serious linguistic, ideological, socio-cultural, political, and pedagogical implications as it creates both positive interactions and negative tensions between global and local forces. Accordingly, debate about issues such as the native/non-native divide, the politics of an international language,...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, there has been a rapid evolution in the demographics of English speaking communities and individuals around the world, with an unprecedented growth in the number of users and learners of English. In the majority of cases, these learners and users are those who would traditionally have been classified as “non-native” speakers. This...
Chapter
It is well known that students who speak 'non-standard' dialects are disempowered in education systems which recognise only the standard variety. In Australia this affects the majority of Aboriginal students, for whom Aboriginal English is the home language. The problem is, however, more subtle than simply one of linguistic interference, since many...
Book
Full-text available
Aims and Scope: One of the central themes in cognitive linguistics is the uniquely human development of some higher potential called the "mind" and, more particularly, the intertwining of body and mind, which has come to be known as embodiment. Several books and volumes have explored this theme in length. However, the interaction between culture, b...
Chapter
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The history of mankind has been characterized by attempts to understand the universe and the human being itself. Humans are so uniquely able to understand because they have a "mind" that distinguishes them from lower species. As the centre of some or all of the faculties of feeling, thinking, and knowing, the mind has traditionally been the definin...
Chapter
This chapter explores conceptualizations that are reflected in the use of Persian expressions that include the body-part term del 'heart-stomach'. This body-part term provides a conceptual base for profiling a relatively large number of conceptualizations in Persian. By examining a number of expressions from Modern Persian the chapter shows how del...
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This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of Australian Aboriginal English in the classroom in the light of a recent survey. Aboriginal English is often correlated with low academic performance and poor school attendance. The paper argues that in any discussion of the school role of students ‘home talk, a range of factors need to be examined,...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter presents an integrative view of cognition as a system that emerges from the interactions between the members of a cultural group. Members of a cultural group negotiate and renegotiate their emergent cultural cognition across time and space. Emergent cultural cognition is the locus of cultural conceptualisations such as cultural models,...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the relationship between speech acts and cultural conceptualizations by examining the degree to which compliment responses produced by Persian speakers in their L1 and L2 (English) are informed by the Persian cultural schema of shekasteh-nafsi 'modesty'. The schema, which appears to be rooted in certain cultural-spiritual tradit...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, there has been a rapid evolution in the demographics of English speaking communities and individuals around the world, with an unprecedented growth in the number of users and learners of English. In the majority of cases, these learners and users are those who would traditionally have been classified as "non-native" speakers. This...
Article
In recent years, there has been a rapid evolution in the demographics of English speaking communities and individuals around the world, with an unprecedented growth in the number of users and learners of English. In the majority of cases, these learners and users are those who would traditionally have been classified as “non-native” speakers. This...
Article
This paper seeks to highlight some of the complexities involved in translating key concepts in international politics. By examining how concepts such as “concession”, “compromise” and “jihad22. “Jihad.” Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary . < http://www.m-w.com/ >. View all references” may be rendered into Persian, the paper shows how these culturall...
Article
Most linguistic studies of subject–verb agreement have thus far attempted to account for this phenomenon in terms of either syntax or semantics. Kim (2004) [Kim, J., 2004. Hybrid agreement in English. Linguistics 42 (6), 1105–1128] proposes a ‘hybrid analysis’, which allows for a morphosyntactic agreement and a semantic agreement within the same se...
Article
  Studies of world Englishes have traditionally fallen within the scope of sociolinguistics, applied linguistics, English studies, lexicography and critical linguistics. This paper is an attempt to show how these studies can be complemented by an emerging approach that employs the analytic tools and frameworks developed in cognitive and cultural li...
Article
Learning a second dialect entails learning new schemas, and in some cases learning a whole new set of language schemas as well as cultural schemas. Most Australian Aboriginal children live in a bicultural and bidialectal context. They are exposed, to a greater or lesser extent, to the discourse of Australian English and internalise some of its sche...
Article
Full-text available
This study is as an attempt to explicate the Persian cultural schema of shekasteh-nafsi ‘modesty’. The schema motivates the speakers to downplay their talents, skills, achievements, etc. while praising a similar trait in their interlocutors. The schema also encourages the speakers to reassign the compliment to the giver of the compliment, a family...
Article
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This study explored conceptualisations that two groups of Aboriginal and Anglo- Australian students attending metropolitan schools in Western Australia instantiate through the use of English words. At the time of the study, many educators believed that both these groups of students spoke the same dialect. A group of 30Aboriginal primary school stud...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this inquiry was to find out whether there is any relationship between the ability to determine fact and opinion, and overall reading comprehension skill in L2. This question was explored across three proficiency levels. Ninety-two (31 male and 61 female) Iranian senior university students participated in the study. The overall reading a...
Article
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The study reported in this paper explored the schemas that Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal educators bring to the task of comprehending oral narratives produced by Aboriginal children. During each data collection session, a participant listened to a series of eight passages and tried to recall each passage immediately after listening. The participant...
Article
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This paper reports on the development ofnew course materials for teaching health and nutrition to Aboriginal Health Workers in Western Australia, The process ofdevelopment began with the observation of the delivery ofhealth and nutrition education with existing materials and the complete reorganisation and rewriting ofthose texts. The evaluation pr...
Article
This study reports on the use of like in Aboriginal English teen talk. The analysis of a sub-corpus of 40 adolescent texts from a corpus of 100 narratives by speakers of Aboriginal English in Western Australia revealed that like is often employed by these speakers, and that it achieves a multitude of functions. In general it is observed that like m...
Article
This paper first elaborates on the notions of conceptualisation and cultural conceptualisations. Cultural conceptualisations enable the members of a cultural group to think, so to speak, in one mind. These conceptualisations are not equally imprinted in the minds of people but are rather represented in a distributed fashion across the minds in a cu...
Article
This article examines how cultural schema theory has been employed to explore some aspects of Aboriginal English oral discourse. The merit of this approach lies in the explanatory tools provided by cultural schema theory in accounting for those features of oral discourse in Aboriginal English which are distinctive and which often impair its lucidit...
Article
Miscommunication between Australian Aboriginal students and their non-Aboriginal teachers has, among other things, contributed to the educational underachievement of these students. This miscommunication has arisen from certain cultural and linguistic incompatibilities between the students and the teacher. Aboriginal students mainly speak Aborigina...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter presents a model of cognition as an attribute of groups and not just individuals, bringing into play cultural conceptualizations as the instrument of analysis. In this sense, cognition is viewed as an emergent phenomenon resulting from the interactions between the members of a group, who form a cognitive network across time and space....

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This is an edited volume which will be published by Springer in 2017.