Primo Micarelli

Primo Micarelli
Centro Studi Squali - Sharks Studies Centre - Scientific Institute

20.08
 · 
Ph.D.

About

98
Publications
12,303
Reads
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231
Citations
Introduction
Oceanographer and Marine Biologist, (Paris VI° P.&M.Curie University - Master - D.E.A.). Holder of a Ph.D. in Environmental Science (University of Siena), Contract Professor from 2006 to 2011 in Siena University. Head of the Sharks Studies Center - Scientific Institute (Centro Studi Squali - Istituto scientifico riconosciuto MIPAAFT n.1057) of Massa Marittima since 2009 and Curator of the Aquarium Mondo Marino. Author or coauthor of dozens of international scientific publications. Deals since 2001 with Biology and Ecology of Elasmobranchs, Husbandry of Elasmobranchs in Aquarium for laboratory studies about ethology, breeding and conservation. Scientific Coordinator of Scientific expeditions, since 2003, to study Sharks behaviour and ecology.
Research Experience
December 2009 - July 2020
Aquarium Mondo Marino
Position
  • CSS Director and Aquarium Curator
Description
  • Aquarium curator and C.S.S. Director
December 2006 - May 2009
Acquario della Laguna di Orbetello
Position
  • Aquarium Curator
Description
  • Aquarium curator - Scientific supervisor expeditions "Great White Shark Ethology" Southafrica
October 2006 - December 2011
Università degli Studi di Siena
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Gestione dell'Ecosistema Costiero Corso Acquariologia
Education
October 2002 - July 2005
Università degli Studi di Siena
Field of study
  • Scienze Ambientali
October 2000 - October 2000
University of Lorraine
Field of study
  • Aquariology
October 1993 - May 1994
University of Rome Tor Vergata
Field of study
  • Aquatic Environment Management (Prof.Fresi & Cataudella)

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
Full-text available
This study describes the effect of different baits on the attraction, surface behaviour and conditioning of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias during local ecotourism activities. The sightings, behaviours, and pictures used for photographic identification were obtained during August to November 2012–2014 onboard tourist boats in Guadalupe Island,...
Method
Full-text available
While most people have no trouble in recognizing a specimen of S. canicula, the individual animals are much more difficult to distinguish. The specimens show variation in size and cryptic colors of the spots on the skin (black, white and brownish). Unless adopting invasive techniques such as the fin and subcutaneous tags, most of the animals remain...
Article
Full-text available
The Mediterranean Large Elasmobranchs Monitoring (MEDLEM) database contains over 3000 records (more than 4000 individuals) of large elasmobranch species from 20 different countries around the Mediterranean and Black seas, observed from 1666 to 2017. The main species included in the archive are the devil fish (1 813 individuals), the basking shark (...
Article
Determine the evolutionary origin of the heretofore poorly characterized contemporary Great White Shark (GWS; Carcharodon carcharias) of the Mediterranean Sea, using phylogenetic and dispersal vicariance analyses to trace back its global palaeo‐migration pattern. Mediterranean Sea. Carcharodon carcharias. We have built the largest mitochondrial DNA...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual segregation in the lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) is most likely driven by the female strategy of avoidance of the males, which causes the formation of female groups in the nooks and shelters on the seafloor. This strategy allows them to reduce the multiple events of male sexual advances, which are energetically expensive. In...
Poster
Full-text available
Despite Calabria represents an interesting study area due to its geographic position, nothing is known of the presence of sharks and rays in this region. Data presented in this work come from nineteen years of opportunistic fishing surveys (from 2000 to 2019). Our data shows that 53 species of elasmobranchs are present in Calabrian seas: 30 of thes...
Poster
Full-text available
Grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), are included in the IUCN red list as near threatened, however, their biology is still relatively little known. Discordant data are available on their tendency to be site fidelity, studies carried out in Australia indicate limited reef fidelity and evidence of largescale movements within northern Austra...
Poster
Full-text available
In the years 2017, 2018 and 2019 the feeding behavior of the whale shark has been studied off Nosy Be Island (Madagascar). In particular, the investigations involved the description of the behavioral modules of the whale shark and their relationship with the phytoplankton communities. In total, 65 phytoplankton samples were collected in the followi...
Poster
Full-text available
Despite in recent years the interest about the human-made noise effects on marine animals have received notably increasing, at date few studies have investigated the potential role of acoustic masking on animal’s bio-ecological relationship. In this study, we exposed twelve specimens of small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula, Linnaeus 1758)...
Poster
Full-text available
Grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), are included in the IUCN red list as near threatened, however, their biology is still relatively little known. Discordant data are available on their tendency to be site fidelity, studies carried out in Australia indicate limited reef fidelity and evidence of largescale movements within northern Austra...
Poster
Full-text available
From 2005 to 2018 the individual surface behaviour of bait-attracted white sharks during ecotourism activites has been studied off Dyer Island Nature Reserve (South Africa). Observations were made from a commercial cage-diving boat both by observers and by a drone. A total of 235 white sharks has been identified. The individual behavioural units ob...
Poster
Full-text available
The Nursehound, Scyliorhinus stellaris (Linnaeus, 1758), is a benthonic catshark present inshore and offshore in the northeast and eastern central Atlantic, over the continental shelf between southern Scandinavia and Senegal, and is also distributed throughout the Mediterranean. This species is fished by bottom trawls, gill nets, bottom set long li...
Poster
Full-text available
Both trace elements and isotopes analysis were performed on two samples of vertebrae of White Sharks Carcharodon carcharias from Favignana Island (Sicily, central Mediterranean). For the trace elements analysis, the ICP-MS associated by Laser Ablation allowed us to find 36 trace elements. More samples were taken, on the same vertebrae, along a tran...
Poster
Full-text available
Since 2000, the CSS team (Sharks Studies Center), as part of the project: "Ecology and Ethology of the Great White Shark", has been collecting ethological data during Scientific Expeditions organized in South Africa in Gansbaai, 200 km east of Cape Town. In Gansbaai Bay and around Dyer Island and Geyser rock, there is a large population of White Sh...
Poster
Full-text available
It is known that juveniles whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) have tendency to gather, seasonally, in a few coastal areas around the world to feed on zooplankton; however little is known about their food preferences. The CSS (Centro Studi Squali) scientific coordinator of the project “Whale shark feeding ecology” (in partnership with University of Cala...
Poster
Full-text available
Hematology is now a useful diagnostic tool in human and domestic mammalian medicine and is becoming such also in the clinical evaluation of fish. Most of the current knowledge of fish hematology derives from research carried out on agnate organisms like missine and lampreys, on a few species of elasmobranchs and on some species of teleosts, althoug...
Poster
Full-text available
Despite in recent years the interest about the human-made noise effects on marine animals have received notably increasing, at date few studies have investigated the potential role of acoustic masking on animal’s bio-ecological relationship. In this study, we exposed twelve specimens of small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula, Linnaeus 1758)...
Presentation
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) are still exploited in some countries both for special permit and for the non-regulation of these products. Marine apex predators like sharks have the potential to accumulate and biomagnify OCs due to their position in the trophic food web. In this study we analyzed hexachl...
Article
1. Cage diving is the most important activity for the sustainable use of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias). However, information related to their behaviour during ecotourism is scarce. 2. This study provides useful information for monitoring C. carcharias during cage‐ diving activities around Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Surface behaviour of 106 w...
Conference Paper
In this study, we exposed twelve specimens of small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) to biological and anthropogenic sounds in order to assess their behavioural changes potentially referable to pray presence and masking effect due to the shipping noise. Specifically, the sharks held individually in aquarium were exposed to four acoustic exp...
Poster
Full-text available
Most morphometric methods of investigation used on large marine organisms are intrusive, as they involve the capture or the killing of the animal. In the last decade new methods and new technologies have been developed able to supply the same morphometric data avoiding contact with the animal. The result of these efforts was the introduction also i...
Poster
Full-text available
Most morphometric methods of investigation used on large marine organisms are intrusive, as they involve the capture or the killing of the animal. In the last decade new methods and new technologies have been developed able to supply the same morphometric data avoiding contact with the animal. The result of these efforts was the introduction also i...
Conference Paper
Sommario: I top predators sono rappresentati da varie specie di animali che occupano i vertici della rete trofica. Per la loro posizione e per il lungo ciclo vitale sono sottoposti a numerose minacce tra le quali l'accumulo di contaminanti organoclorurati. Sono stati presi in considerazione i top predators marini di diverse specie di Mammiferi odon...
Poster
Full-text available
I NDIVIDUAL IDENTIFICATION OF SHARKS THROUGH DORSAL FIN: A NEW APPROACH THANKS TO ADVANCES IN COMPUTER SCI ENCE
Poster
Full-text available
Since 2016 a ph.D project for reconstructing life history traits of a population of lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) from Central Mediterranean sea has been started. One of the goal of this research is to delineate heavy metals and other trace elements concentration in vertebrae and their effects on the immune system of the species an...
Poster
Full-text available
Individual surface behaviour of white sharks in the presence of bait has been studied from 2005 to 2017 at Dyer Island Natural Reserve (Sotuh-Africa). Observations were made from a commercial cage-diving boat. We observed 220 white sharks that exhibited 9 different types of of individual behaviour: parading, bait following, visual inspection, breac...
Research
The paper confirms the presence of Alopias superciliosus in the Tyrrhenian Sea, giving useful information for a species assessed as "vulnerable" worldwide and "data deficient" for the Mediterranean Sea by IUCN. In the stomach of this shark, 25 specimens of Pseudophyllidea, 4 of Trypanorhyncha and 3 of Anisakis spp. were found. In the gut, the prese...
Article
Full-text available
Background. The blue shark (Prionace glauca, Linnaeus 1758) is one of the most abundant epipelagic shark inhabiting all the oceans except the poles, including the Mediterranean Sea, but its genetic structure has not been confirmed at basin and interoceanic distances. Past tagging programs in the Atlantic Ocean failed to find evidence of migration o...
Data
Cytochrome-b (Cytb), A, and Control Region (CR), B, divergence time analysis of the total BS dataset Node ages on the node labels. Posterior probability on the branches. 95% HPD bars showed for nodes with Posterior > 0.5.
Data
Control region alignment. The sequences will be deposited in the GenBank upon acceptance of the paper
Data
Mismatch Distribution for the four different blue sharks geographical groups for both Cytochrome-b (Cytb) and Control Region (CR) mitochondrial markers
Data
Pairwise Φst values (below the diagonal) and associated p-values (above the diagonal) among the juvenile and immature blue sharks of the three geographical areas estimated at the two mitochondrial markers (Cytochrome b, Cytb; Control Region, CR) *Values that resulted not significant after the Bonferroni correction for multiple tests (a-level of sig...
Data
Cytochrome-b (Cytb) and Control Region (CR) Maximum Likelihood Haplotype Network of Mediterranean and North Atlantic Blue Shark populations detailed per sampling locations
Data
Collected BS individuals categorized by sex and size across sampling areas and regions M, males; F, females; na, unsexed; J, juvenile (TL ≤ 120 cm); Y, young (TL = 120–180 cm); L, large (TL ≥ 180 cm). NATL: North-eastern Atlantic; WMED: Western Mediterranean; EMED: Eastern Mediterranean.
Data
Cytb, A, and control region, B, genetic diversity data from the eight sub-populations South North East Atlantic, SNEATL; North North East Atlantic, NNEATL; West-Mediterranean/Balearic, BALE; South Tyrrhenian Sea, TYRR; Calabria Ionian Sea, IONI; Central Adriatic Sea, CADR; Aegean Sea & Eastern Ionian Greece.
Data
Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of Cytochrome b (Cytb) and Control Region (CR) of the Juvenile and Immature Mediterranean and North-eastern Atlantic Blue Sharks (Prionace glauca)
Data
Cytb alignment. The sequences will be deposited in the GenBank upon acceptance of the paper
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Environmental factors affect behavior during surface predatory activity of Great White.We observed that individual behaviors were exhibited with environmental conditions opposed to those in which social behaviors were observed.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Observations about use of legal and illegal baits during ecotourism activities with Great White Sharks in Guadalupe Island.
Poster
Full-text available
This three year project aims to contribute to the knowledge of the biology and ecology of the common-spotted-catsharks, Scyliorhinus canicula. This is one of the most representative species of sharks in the Mediterranean basin. Specific goals will be to provide information regarding the status of populations of this shark in the Central Tyrrhenian...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
During a 5 days research expedition performed in January, some obsetvations on a whale shark population were performed. Just 7 specimens have been observed and identified This number of sharks is lower than that observed in previous reports in the same period for similar research efforts. Recent remote sensing studies showed summer phytoplanktonic...
Article
Full-text available
During a 5 days research expedition performed in January, some observations on a whale shark population were performed. Just 7 specimens have been observed and identified. This number of sharks is lower than that observed in previous report and similar research efforts. Recent remote sensing studies showed summer phytoplanktonic bloom higher than i...
Article
Full-text available
Nursehound Scyliorhinus stellaris and small spotted catsharks Scyliorhinus canicula are frequently hosted in public aquaria and their husbandry is improving. The reproduction of this species in captive conditions is not difficult and juveniles are easily maintained in laboratory or in thematic tanks showed to the public. Data on juveniles are easil...
Article
Full-text available
In this Collective Article on “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records”, we present additional records of species found in the Mediterranean Sea. These records refer to eight different countries throughout the northern part of the basin, and include 28 species, belonging to five phyla. The findings per country include the following species: Spain: C...
Article
Full-text available
In this Collective Article on “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records”, we present additional records of species found in the Mediterranean Sea. These records refer to eight different countries throughout the northern part of the basin, and include 28 species, belonging to five phyla. The findings per country include the following species: Spain: C...
Article
Full-text available
Top-predators may be extremely vulnerable to environmental contaminants, such as organochlorines (OCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mostly because of their position in the trophic web. In this study, the use of skin biopsy is proposed as a sensitive non-lethal technique for the toxicological assessment of white shark (Carcharod...
Article
Full-text available
Nursehound, Scyliorhinus stellaris (Linnaeus 1758), is a shark of the Scyliorhinidae family, close to the Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus 1758), frequently hosted in public aquaria. Information on biology and ecology is deficiently available regarding this species of sharks. In the Mediterranean basin, they are occasional rare and vulnerable specie...
Research
Full-text available
Induction of the Scallop ovocytes maturation (Pecten maximus) and spawning activation by neurotransmitters:-serotonin-like, dopamine-like et prostaglandin PGE2.
Research
Full-text available
Studying the behaviour of the White Shark is a recent and big challenge. Optimising the photoidentification of White Shark dorsal fins is a basic goal, in order to compare behavioural information in both immature and mature specimens and between females and males. During a 6 years research, from 2009 to 2014, in South Africa, we observed 296 sharks...
Book
Full-text available
Nel quarantennale del film di Spielberg "Lo Squalo" che tanti danni ha provocato a questi splendidi predatori, esce il libro, con la prestigiosa prefazione di Leonard Compagno, sulla storia delle XII Spedizioni scientifiche: "Sulle orme del Grande Squalo bianco", di un'equipe di studiosi italiani del Centro Studi Squali di Massa Marittima in Toscan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Great White Shark, Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758) is widely distributed throughout most oceans in temperate and subtropical regions. It is relatively abundant in the following eight “Great White hot spots”: Central California, Central Chile, New England, the Mediterranean Sea, South Africa, Southern Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. I...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is presented the analyses on the MEDLEM (Mediterranean Large Elasmobranchs Monitoring) database that, up to now, contains more than 2000 records and over 2700 individuals of large elasmobranchs in the Mediterranean coming from 20 different countries. The main species represented in the archive are devil rays (736 individuals), basking sharks (ab...
Poster
Full-text available
The Mediterranean Large Elasmobranchs Monitoring (MEDLEM) database contains more than 2000 records (n>3000 individuals) of large elasmobranchs species from 20 different countries around the Mediterranean Sea caught or observed from 1666 to 2014. The main species represented in the archive are devil rays (736 individuals), basking sharks (682 indivi...
Article
The health status of an emerging Posidonia oceanica meadow, subject to high human impact, was studied. Biometric variables, heavy metals, PAHs and C, N, P contents were determined in sediment and seagrass samples. The meadow was found to grow under oligotrophic conditions and an increase in nutrient content was only recorded in autumn. In sediment,...
Article
Full-text available
Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters); the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain); the salp Salpa maxima (Syria); t...
Article
Full-text available
This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the cont...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Small-spotted catshark and many other benthonic sharks are frequently hosted in public Aquaria and are frequently used for laboratory investigations (Capapè 2006, Mellinger 1994, Guttridge et al. 2009). The observations and research can concern: ethology, physiology, reproduction, feeding etc. The aquariological technical development, allows for th...
Conference Paper
In the last few decades various studies have shown that top predators fishes are sensitive to the toxicological effects of certain compounds, including organochlorine (OCs), in particular the large class od Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs), and Polyciclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Top-predators may be extremely vulnerable to contaminants m...
Chapter
Full-text available
The book is presenting papers from the meeting held in Cesenatico the 22nd of May 2010 at the Ichtyopathology and Hygiene of Fish Products Degree of the Veterinary School of Bologna University, in the framework of activities of the Research Group on Large Pelagic Vertebrates. The idea was to caught some of the main ecological factors that drive the...
Article
Full-text available
During the 2000-2009, a survey study on the spatiotemporal patterns of distribution of large predatory sharks was carried out in the Calabria region. A total of 12 species were recorded and among them the blue shark Prionace glauca and the bluntnose sixgill shark Hexanchus griseus were the most common ones. Also of interest was the frequency of spe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the IUCN Red List Chiloscyllium griseum, C. punctatum and Atelomycterus marmoratus are considered as "Near Threatened" species. Presently, there is a lack of information about their general biology, especially concerning reproduction and population structure. No monitoring measures are carried out by the fishing industry in order to enforce a su...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, Linnaeus 1758), is an apex predator living in almost all the seas of the world, preferring cold-temperate and temperate waters among the 8 and the 25°C. The Great White Shark occurs in both inshore and offshore waters. Known bathymetric range is from just below the surface to just above the bottom down...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Understanding white shark feeding habits and the influence of environmental factors on feeding is an important step for modelling its behaviour and making decisions about the management of aquatic habitats. To better understand what factors drive variation in shark feeding habits and decisions, we studied feeding and attack behaviour in Dyer Island...
Poster
Full-text available
Cloudiness influence on the behavior of white shark during scavenging on surface preys
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this preliminary research was to provide an ethogram of social interactions among white sharks at Dyer Island's Nature Reserve (Gansbaai, South Africa) in the presence of bait. Eighty-three social interactions were observed, both from a boat and from a cage. Seven different interaction types were recognized: swim by; follow give way; fo...