Premysl Bercík

Premysl Bercík
McMaster University | McMaster · Department of Medicine

MD

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310
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Publications

Publications (310)
Article
Full-text available
Both mast cells and microbiota play important roles in the pathogenesis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), however the precise mechanisms are unknown. Using microbiota-humanized IBS mouse model, we show that colonic mast cells and mast cells co-localized with neurons were higher in mice colonized with IBS microbiota compared with those with healthy...
Article
The gut microbiota has been implicated in chronic pain disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), yet specific pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. We showed that decreasing intake of fermentable carbohydrates improved abdominal pain in patients with IBS, and this was accompanied by changes in the gut microbiota and decreased uri...
Article
Background & Aims Genes and gluten are necessary but insufficient to cause celiac disease (CeD). Altered gut microbiota has been implicated as an additional risk factor. Variability in sampling site may confound interpretation and mechanistic insight, as CeD affects primarily the small intestine. Thus, we characterized CeD microbiota along the duod...
Preprint
Loss of oral tolerance (LOT) to gluten, characterized by a T helper 1 (Th1) gluten-specific immune response, is a hallmark of celiac disease (CeD) and can be triggered by enteric viral infections. We hypothesized that certain gut microbes have the capacity to protect against virus-mediated LOT. By using our previously defined reovirus-mediated LOT...
Article
There has been a dramatic increase in clinical studies examining the relationship between disorders of gut-brain interactions (DGBI) and symptoms evoked by food ingestion in the upper and lower GI tract, but study design is challenging to verify valid endpoints. Consequently, mechanistic studies demonstrating biological relevance, biomarkers and no...
Article
Full-text available
GUT MICROBIOTA MODULATES CGRP PRODUCTION BY DRG NEURONS IN FEMALE MICE Julien Pujo, Giada De Palma, Jun Lu, Stephen M. Collins, Premysl Bercik Background: Abdominal pain is a common complaint in patients with chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that gut microbiota is an important determinant of gut function, includi...
Article
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients often resort to dietary interventions to manage their symptoms, as these are frequently exacerbated by various food items. A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) is now considered by many a first-line treatment option for IBS, as it has been found to...
Article
Background Natural supplements are widely consumed by the general public, with little evidence of mechanistic support. Tryptophan has gained central attention, being transformed by host and gut microbial enzymes into multiple bioactive metabolites that regulate immunity and mood. Indoles are activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), crucia...
Article
Background Patients with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) often suffer from dyspeptic symptoms, such as abdominal pain, bloating, early satiety, nausea and vomiting. T1DM shares genetic risk factors (HLA-DQ2 and DQ8) with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder caused by an immune reaction to gluten. Patients with concomitant T1DM and celiac disease...
Article
Background Age-related deterioration of cognitive function and memory capacity occur in both humans and rodents. For example, significant memory deficits have been reported in conventionally raised (SPF) old mice compared to conventionally raised young mice submitted to a spatial memory task (Prevot et al., 2019, Mol Neuropsychiatry 5, 84–97). Micr...
Article
Background Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of two forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The exact cause of IBD is unknown but altered host-microbe interactions and genetic susceptibility are involved in its pathogenesis. Many patients with IBD do not respond to biological therapies targeting single cytokines, therefore new therapies that target...
Article
Background Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare, small-to-medium sized-vessel vasculitis that typically involves the sinus, respiratory, and renal systems. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is rarely involved, but its exact frequency is poorly characterized. GI symptoms have been reported to occur in up to 10% of acute presentations, and...
Article
Background Recent evidence suggests an increasing prevalence of gut dysfunction following C. difficile infection (CDI). The accompanying prolonged antibiotic (AB) exposure likely contributes to chronic gut dysfunction and our ability to induce gut dysfunction in germ free (GF) mice colonized with microbiota from a patient with severe slow transit p...
Article
Background Genes and gluten are necessary, but insufficient to cause celiac disease (CeD), as risk alleles (DQ2 or DQ8) are prevalent in ~30–40% of the healthy population consuming gluten. Gut microbiota shifts and infections have been proposed as risk modulators. Biogeographic characterization of the microbiota in CeD patients and its functional s...
Article
Full-text available
Background Abdominal pain is a common complaint in patients with chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that gut microbiota is an important determinant of gut function, including visceral sensitivity. Germ-free (GF) mice have been shown to display visceral hypersensitivity, which normalizes after colonization. Thus, gut...
Article
Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a debilitating chronic condition with a lifetime prevalence of 4–7% worldwide. Both diet and gut microbiota have been previously associated with anxiety. Aims To investigate whether bacterial taxa and/or nutrients associate with GAD, and whether they differ from those of healthy controls (HC). Meth...
Article
Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex functional gastrointestinal disorder with likely heterogenous pathophysiology, multiple symptoms, and comorbidities. Growing evidence shows that the gut microbiota composition and function are altered in IBS patients. However, identifying the critical drivers of clinical expression remains chal...
Article
Irritable bowel syndrome is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder, affecting up to 9% individuals globally. Although the etiology of this syndrome is likely heterogenous, it presents with its hallmark symptoms of abdominal pain and altered intestinal motility. Moreover, it is considered to be a disorder of the gut-brain interaction,...
Article
Full-text available
Background Corticosteroids (CS) have been used extensively to induce remission in Crohn’s disease (CD); however, they are associated with severe side effects. We hypothesized that the administration of an exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) formula to CS would lead to increased CD remission rates and to decreased CS-related adverse events. We propose...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Gastrointestinal manifestations of systemic sclerosis affect up to 90% of patients, with symptoms including diarrhea and constipation. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is a condition associated with increased numbers of pathogenic bacteria in the small bowel. While currently unknown, it has been suggested that dysregulation of the...
Article
Background Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that is transformed by host and gut microbial enzymes into multiple bioactive metabolites that regulate immunity, mood and circadian rhythms. In particular, indoles, produced by gut bacterial metabolism of tryptophan, have recently gained central attention. Indoles are activators of the aryl hydrocar...
Article
Background The exact cause for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown, however, there is consensus that a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune factors, participate in its pathogenesis. Recently, high salt diet (HSD) has been shown to increase the severity of experimental colitis through depletion of lactobacilli in specific pathog...
Article
Background Age-associated deterioration of cognitive function and memory capacity occur in a variety of mammals, from humans to rodents. For example, significant memory deficits have been reported in conventionally raised (SPF) old mice compared to conventionally raised young mice submitted to a spatial memory task (Prevot et al., Mol Neuropsychiat...
Article
Background Altered gut microbiota composition and function has been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis (UC), but causality and mechanisms remain unknown. Most studies have examined patients with active or treated disease and little is known about microbial compositional or functional changes that occur be...
Article
Full-text available
Background Abdominal pain is a common complaint in patients with chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that gut microbiota is an important determinant of gut function, including visceral sensitivity. Germ-free (GF) mice have been shown to display visceral hypersensitivity, which normalizes after colonization. Sex also a...
Article
Background Studies of germ-free (GF) mice demonstrate that gut microbiota can influence behaviour by modulating neurochemical pathways in the brain, and that bacterial colonization normalizes behavioural deficits in GF-mice. Since disrupted GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling are reported in mood disorders, this study investigated the effect of g...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Conventionally, patients with functional dyspepsia are subgrouped based on upper gastrointestinal symptoms, according to the Rome criteria. However, psychological co-morbidity and extraintestinal symptoms are also relevant to functional gastrointestinal disorders. Aim: To investigate whether it is possible to subgroup people with fun...
Article
Background and aims Altered gut microbiota composition and function have been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis (UC), but causality and mechanisms remain unknown. Methods We applied 16S rRNA gene sequencing, shotgun metagenomic sequencing, in vitro functional assays and gnotobiotic colonizations to defin...
Article
Metabolism of tryptophan by the gut microbiota into derivatives that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contributes to intestinal homeostasis. Many chronic inflammatory conditions, including celiac disease involving a loss of tolerance to dietary gluten, are influenced by cues from the gut microbiota. We investigated whether AhR ligand pr...
Article
Full-text available
The lack of reproducibility of animal experimental results between laboratories, particularly in studies investigating the microbiota, has raised concern among the scientific community. Factors such as environment, stress and sex have been identified as contributors, whereas dietary composition has received less attention. This study firstly evalua...
Article
Full-text available
The World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) a global pandemic in March 2020. Since then, there are more than 34 million cases of COVID-19 leading to more than 1 million deaths worldwide. Numerous studies suggest that celiac disease (CeD), a chronic immune-mediated gastrointestinal condition triggered by gluten, is ass...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Gut microbiome and diet may be important in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and comorbid psychiatric conditions, but the mechanisms are unclear. We will create a large cohort of patients with IBS, IBD and healthy controls, and follow them over time, collecting dietary and mental health information and b...
Article
Background: Gnotobiotic mice colonized with microbiota from patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and comorbid anxiety (IBS+A) display gut dysfunction and anxiety-like behavior compared to mice colonized with microbiota from healthy volunteers. Using this model, we tested the therapeutic potential of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boular...
Article
Full-text available
Background & Aims Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) perceive that their symptoms are triggered by wheat-containing foods. We assessed symptoms and gastrointestinal transit before and after a gluten-free diet (GFD) in unselected patients with IBS and investigated biomarkers associated with symptoms. Methods We performed a prospectiv...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Many patients with celiac disease (CD) experience persistent symptoms despite adhering to the gluten-free diet. Different studies have assessed the use of probiotics as an adjuvant treatment for CD. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in improving gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms an...
Article
The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome and the detection of biomarkers of specific mechanisms and/or predictors of therapeutic response remain elusive. This roadblock reflects, in large part, the complexity and heterogeneity of the disorder. Recently, there has been growing evidence of a dietary and/or microbiome interaction with the host...
Article
Background & Aims There is controversy over the association between celiac disease and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess evidence for an association between celiac disease and IBD. Methods We searched databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Web of Science, CINAHL, DARE, and SIGLE...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Skin lesions in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) may develop as an adverse effect of anti-TNF therapy or other immunomodulatory agents (IA), such as azathioprine or methotrexate. Skin lesions may also represent incidental findings or extra-intestinal manifestations of IBD. Aim of the study: To investigate and describe ski...
Article
Objective: To describe celiac disease (CD) screening rates and glycemic outcomes of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in patients with type 1 diabetes who are asymptomatic for CD. Research design and methods: Asymptomatic patients (8-45 years) were screened for CD. Biopsy-confirmed CD participants were randomized to GFD or gluten-containing diet (GCD) to...
Article
Objective To compare gut microbiome profile (by way of taxon analysis and indices of β‐ and α‐diversity) and inflammatory markers (C‐reactive protein [CRP], interleukin‐6[IL‐6] and tumor necrosis factor‐α [TNF‐α]) of Obsessive‐Compulsive Disorder (OCD) outpatients and non‐psychiatric community controls. Methods We collected morning stool and blood...
Article
Exclusion diets are becoming increasingly popular in the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several mechanisms exist by which food items might cause gastrointestinal symptoms, such as direct osmotic effects of food in the gut lumen, changes to the gut microbiota and immune activation. These effects have been demonstrated in animal models...
Article
Background Patients with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) often suffer with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, such as abdominal pain, bloating, early satiety, nausea and vomiting. T1DM patients are at a higher risk to develop celiac disease, and those patient with both disorders benefit from a gluten-free diet (GFD). However, it is unknown whether GFD...
Article
Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects approximately 4.4% of the global population. Despite its high prevalence, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this disorder. Recent studies in both humans and rodents have suggested that the intestinal microbiota may play a role in depression. Altered microbiota composition has been fou...
Article
Full-text available
Background Abdominal pain is a common complaint in patients with chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Its treatment is of limited efficacy as the pathophysiology is largely unknown. Accumulating evidence suggests that gut microbiota is an important determinant of gut function, including visceral sensitivity. Germ-free (GF) mice have been shown to ha...
Article
Background Increasing evidence suggests that gut microbiota play a key role in gastrointestinal (GI) tract function. We have previously shown that fecal microbiota transplantation diarrhea predominant IBS patients into germ-free mice induces faster GI transit, increased permeability and innate immune activation. However, it is unknown whether gut d...
Article
Background Stressful events in childhood have been associated with the development of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in adulthood, especially irritable bowel syndrome. The influence of early life adverse events in patients with common organic disorders, such as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), has been poorly investi...
Article
Background Celiac disease (CD) has an estimated prevalence of 1% worldwide, including North America. Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which predisposes to development of dysplasia, which can transition to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). GERD is commonly found in patients with CD and ther...
Article
Background Dysbiosis may be defined as a change in the microbial composition or function that results in altered host function. Defensins are antimicrobial peptides, are part of innate immunity, and are important in host defense and maintaining homeostasis. Dysbiosis is a putative mechanism underlying the expression of many functional GI disorders...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Lack of experimental reproducibility, particularly in studies investigating the microbiota, is of growing concern to the scientific community. Factors such as environment, stress, and sex have been identified as contributors, whereas dietary composition has received less attention. Aims To profile the use of standard rodent chows in res...
Article
Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients are subtyped by predominant bowel habit rather than pathophysiological mechanisms and this may underlie challenges in identifying more effective targets for designing new treatments. Metabolomics and microbial analysis can distinguish IBS patients from healthy controls but it is unknown if they can...
Article
Background Intestinal immune homeostasis is maintained by the interplay between microbiota and the mucosal immune system. Changes in gut microbiota have been associated with chronic intestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor that is activated by dietary and environm...
Article
Full-text available
Background Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune disorder triggered by dietary gluten. The only available treatment for celiac disease is strict compliance to the gluten-free diet. Despite adherence to a gluten-free diet, many celiac patients still experience symptoms which may be mediated by the gut microbiota. Different studies have assessed the...
Article
Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common conditions seen by gastroenterologists for which there is no effective cure. The pathophysiology of IBS is multifactorial and poorly understood, but the condition is characterized by chronic abdominal pain accompanied by altered bowel habits in the absence of an underlying structur...
Article
Background Low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polysaccharides, polyols (FODMAP) diet is an elimination diet recommended for the symptom management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It involves reducing the amount of unabsorbed and fermentable carbohydrates in attempt to decrease osmotic overload and gas production...
Article
Background Mental disorders are the leading cause of disabilities worldwide, with depression and anxiety among the most common ones, affecting up to 1/3 of the worldwide population at least once in their lifetime. In both preclinical models and clinical studies, gut microbiota has been associated with altered behavior and anxiety or depression, res...
Article
Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the main cause of liver disease in Western countries and is a frequently reported comorbidity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A complex interaction among polygenic predisposition, IBD-specific risk factors, microbiome, multiple environmental and patients’ factors could explain the develop...
Article
Full-text available
Acne is one of the most common skin diseases worldwide and carries significant health care costs. However, the pathophysiology of this disorder is not well understood. Host-microbiome interactions that affect both the homeostasis of innate and adaptive immunity appear to be a central factor in this disease, with recent observations suggesting that...
Article
Background: Anxiety and mood symptoms often co-occur with gastrointestinal problems, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The extent to which these relate to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is unclear, despite anxiety being a prominent symptom of this disorder. The purpose of this analysis was to examine gastrointestinal symptoms in unmedic...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in developed countries, is characterized by chronic abdominal pain, and altered bowel habits. Objectives Accurate and timely diagnosis is challenging as it relies on symptoms and an evolving set of exclusion criteria to distinguish it...