Premila Abraham

Premila Abraham
Christian Medical College Vellore | CMCH-Vellore · Department of Biochemistry

About

64
Publications
3,666
Reads
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1,423
Citations
Citations since 2017
7 Research Items
675 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
Nephrotoxicity is a dose-limiting side effect of long-term use of tenofovir, a reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is used for the treatment of HIV infection and chronic hepatitis B infection. Identifying an agent that prevents tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-induced renal injury can lead to its better tolerance, and a more effective treatment...
Article
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is currently the only nucleotide analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitor that is approved by the Food and Drug administration (FDA), USA, for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In recent days, renal toxicity is becoming common i HIV patients treated with TDF. However, the mechanism of...
Article
Although methotrexate is widely used in clinics as an anticancer agent, it's utility is limited by its gastrointestinal toxicity, the mechanism of which is unclear. The role of NFκB inflammatory pathway in MTX induced mucositis was investigated in the present study. GI injury was induced in adult Wistar rats by the administration of 3 consecutive i...
Article
ABSTRACT The efficacy of methotrexate (MTX), a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug, is limited by intestinal injury. As the mechanism of MTX‐induced small intestinal injury is not clear, there is no definitive treatment for MTX‐induced gastrointestinal injury. The present study investigates the role of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in MTX‐induced...
Article
Background: One of the major toxic side effects of methotrexate (MTX) is enterocolitis, for which there is no efficient standard treatment. Nitric oxide overproduction has been reported to play an important role in MTX-induced mucositis. This study was designed to investigate whether pretreatment with aminoguanidine (AG) - a selective iNOS inhibit...
Article
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is one of the most commonly observed obstetrical complications, affecting between 5–18% of all pregnancies worldwide. In pregnancy, hyperglycemia poses both short-term and long-term risks to the health of women and their offspring. Country-specific estimates have further brought out that India had the highest number of wo...
Article
Nephrotoxicity due to tenofovir treatment of HIV patients has been reported. However, the mechanism of tenofovir nephrotoxicity is not clear. NFκB is an important proinflammatory transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in oxidative stress-induced inflammation. We hypothesised that NFκB proinflammatory signalling pathway may play a role in te...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Methotrexate (MTX) is a structural analogue of folic acid and is widely used in the treatment of leukaemia and other malignancies, rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic disorders. Gastrointestinal mucositis is a frequent dose-limiting side effect of methotrexate (MTX) chemotherapy. The underlying mechanisms of the mucositis is not completel...
Article
Gastrointestinal toxicity is one of the most frequent dose limiting side effects of methotrexate (MTX), a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug. Peroxynitrite (PON) overproduction is reported to contribute to MTX induced gastrointestinal mucositis. However, the consequence of PON overproduction i.e. protein tyrosine nitration and protein cysteine nit...
Article
In pregnancies complicated by diabetes, hyperglycemia and lipid metabolism alterations are associated with both maternal and fetal complications. However the mechanism of metabolic alterations in mothers that contribute to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia is not fully understood. In the present study we investigated the mechanisms underlying hyperg...
Article
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is recommended as a first-line therapy in HIV treatment. However, TDF is nephrotoxic especially with long-term use. Early detection of nephrotoxicity and its prevention are key to avoid irreversible renal damage. This requires knowledge of the mechanism of TDF nephrotoxicity. A reliable animal model is therefore...
Conference Paper
Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for leukemia and other malignancies as well as non-malignant diseases. The efficacy of this drug is often limited by mucositis and intestinal injury which are the major causes of morbidity in children and adults. Despite many studies, the precise mechanism of MTX induced mucositis is sti...
Chapter
Methotrexate is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for leukemia and other malignancies. The efficacy of this drug is often limited by mucositis and intestinal injury, which are the major causes of morbidity in children and adults. We investigated whether melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, could have a protective effect. The rats were pretreate...
Article
The long-term use of tenofovir, a commonly used anti-HIV drug, can result in renal damage. The mechanism of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) nephrotoxicity is not clear, although it has been shown to target proximal tubular mitochondria. In the present study, the effects of chronic TDF treatment on the proximal tubular function, renal mitochondr...
Article
Abstract Background: Nephrotoxicity is a dose-limiting side effect of long-term use of tenofovir, a reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Identifying an agent that prevents tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-induced renal injury can lead to better tolerance to TDF, and a mor...
Article
The efficacy of methotrexate (MTX), a widely used chemotherapeutic drug, is limited by its gastrointestinal toxicity and the mechanism of which is not clear. The present study investigates the possible role of mitochondrial damage in MTX-induced enteritis. Small intestinal injury was induced in Wistar rats by the administration of 7 mg kg(-1) body...
Article
Full-text available
Nephrotoxicity is a dose limiting side effect of tenofovir, a reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is used for the treatment of HIV infection. The mechanism of tenofovir nephrotoxicity is not clear. Tenofovir is specifically toxic to the proximal convoluted tubules and proximal tubular mitochondria are the targets of tenofovir cytotoxicity. Damaged...
Article
The discovery of biotinidase (BTD) deficiency, an inherited biotin-responsive disorder has increased the interest in biotinidase. Impaired serum BTD activity has been reported in patients suffering from chronic liver diseases, and in rats with experimentally induced acute or chronic liver injury. Molecular biology techniques such as tandem mass spe...
Article
Purpose: One of the major toxic side effects of methotrexate (MTX) is enterocolitis. To date, there is no efficient standard treatment for this side effect. Nitrosative stress is reported to play a critical role in MTX-induced mucositis. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether pretreatment with melatonin, an inhibitor of nitro-oxidativ...
Article
Background: Methotrexate is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for leukemia and other malignancies. The efficacy of this drug is often limited by mucositis and intestinal injury, which are the major causes of morbidity in children and adults. Aim: The present study investigates whether melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, could have a protect...
Poster
Full-text available
Nephrotoxicity is a dose limiting side effect of Tenofovir (TDF), a commonly used anti-HIV drug. About 37-45% of patients on anti-HIV drugs suffer from renal damage. As the mechanism of pathogenesis of TDF induced renal damage is not clear, it is necessary to elucidate the mechanism in order to prevent the renal damage. This study investigates the...
Article
The mechanism by which tenofovir (TDF) causes renaldamage is not clear. To examine the role of oxidative stress in TDF induced renal damage. Rats were administered by gavage 600mg /kg body weight Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for 35 days. The kidneys were used for light microscopy and lectron microscopy as well as for the assay of markers of oxi...
Article
Full-text available
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an antineoplastic agent that is used for the treatment of many neoplastic diseases. Renal damage is one of the dose-limiting side effects of CP. Recent studies show that nitrosative stress plays an important role in CP-induced renal damage. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether aminoguanidine (AG), a selective...
Article
Nephrotoxicity is one of the adverse side effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) chemotherapy. In a recent study, we have demonstrated that oxidative stress and glutathione depletion play important roles in CP-induced renal damage. The aim of the study was to verify whether glutamine, the precursor for glutathione synthesis, prevents CP-induced oxidative...
Article
Full-text available
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is widely used in the treatment of cancer and non-malignant disease states such as rheumatoid arthritis. Hemorrhagic cystitis is a major dose-limiting side effect of CP. The incidence of this side effect is related to the dosage and can be as high as 75%. Elimination of the side effects of CP can lead to better tolerance of th...
Article
Electron microscopy was used to examine changes in the subcellular organelles of the rat kidney at different time intervals after a single exposure to cyclophosphamide (CP). The morphological changes were studied at different time points (6 hrs, 16 hrs and 24 hrs) after a single-dose administration of CP. Six rats were killed at each time intervals...
Article
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is widely used in the treatment of tumors and B-cell malignant disease, such as lymphoma, myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Renal damage is one of the dose-limiting side effects of CP. Oxidative stress is reported to play important roles in CP-induced renal damage. To find out whether...
Article
Nephrotoxicity is an adverse side effect of methotrexate (MTX) chemotherapy. The present study verifies whether melatonin, an endogenous antioxidant prevents MTX-induced renal damage. Adult rats were administered 7 mg/kg body weight MTX intraperitoneally for 3 days. In the melatonin pretreated rats, 40 mg/ kg body weight melatonin was administered...
Article
Cyclophosphamide (CP) and its structural analogue ifosfamide are highly effective cytostatic drugs. While both cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide have severe urotoxic side effects, only ifosfamide is thought to be nephrotoxic. The nephrotoxicity of CP in generally overlooked because of normal plasma creatinine levels. Therefore, little information is...
Article
To elucidate the mechanism by which aminoguanidine (AG) protects against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Hemorrhagic cystitis was induced in the rats by administration of a single injection of CP at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally. For the AG pretreatment studies, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with A...
Article
Background: Nephrotoxicity is one of the adverse side effects of methotrexate (MTX) chemotherapy. The mechanism of renotoxicity of MTX is not fully understood. It is essential to understand the mechanism of nephrotoxicity of MTX in order to diminish the side effects and hence maximize the benefits of chemotherapy. Objectives: The aim of the stud...
Article
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an antineoplastic agent that is used for the treatment of many neoplastic diseases. Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a major dose limiting side effect of CP. Recent studies show that aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase is a potent antioxidant and prevents changes caused by oxidative stress such as de...
Article
Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a major dose-limiting side effect of cyclophosphamide (CP). The mechanism by which CP induces cystitis is not clear. Recent studies demonstrate that nitric oxide; (peroxynitrite) is involved in bladder damage caused by CP. However, the molecular targets of peroxynitrite are not known. The present study is aimed at inves...
Article
Methotrexate (MTX), a structural analogue of folic acid, is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for leukemia and other malignancies. One of the major toxic effects of MTX is intestinal injury and enterocolitis .The mechanism of gastrointestinal toxicity of methotrexate has not been investigated completely. Therefore cancer chemotherapy has to b...
Article
Recent studies have shown that paraoxanase (PON1) has protective effect against oxidative stress and hence can act as an antioxidant. A time course study was carried out in order to find out alterations in PON1 activity in cyclophosphamide (CYP) induced renal injury. Eight to ten weeks old female rats were administered CYP at the dose of 150 mg/kg...
Article
The clinical utility of cyclophosphamide (CYP) as an anticancer drug is limited by its urotoxicity and nephrotoxicity and to a lesser extent by its hepatotoxicity. The present study was undertaken in order to find out the reason why liver is least susceptible of the three organs to CYP-induced damage although it is the major site for drug activatio...
Article
Summary The mechanism of gastrointestinal toxicity of methotrexate has not been clarified completely. Therefore cancer chemotherapy has to be accompanied by symptomatic therapy such as anti-biotics and anti-diarrheal drugs. It is important to clarify the mechanism of methotrexate induced intestinal damage to perform cancer chemotherapy effectively...
Article
The anti-cancer drug cyclophosphamide (CYP) is nephrotoxic besides being urotoxic thereby limiting its clinical utility. Since the nephrotoxicity of CYP is less common compared to its urotoxicity, not much importance has been given for the study of mechanism of CYP-induced nephrotoxicity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible...
Article
One of the most common adverse side effects of cyclophosphamide, a potent anticancer drug which limits its clinical utility is its urotoxicity. The mechanism of cyclophosphamide induced uro- toxicity (cystitis) is poorly understood. In the present study the possible role of lysosomal enzymes in cyclophosphamide induced hemorrhagic cystitis was inve...
Article
Gentamicin is an antibiotic that is widely used against serious and life-threatening gram-negative infections. However, its clinical use is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Oxidative stress and nitrosative stress are reported to play important role in gentamicin nephrotoxicity. In the present study we investigated whether ebselen, an inhibitor of oxi...
Article
To date, there is no specific antidote to acetaminophen poisoning. Propylthiouracil (PTU) has been shown to be protective against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver damage in rats; however, the nephroprotective effect of propylthiouracil has not been studied yet. In order to verify this, rats were given different doses of PTU (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg...
Article
Ibuprofen is a commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions from ibuprofen usage include gastric mucosal ulcers and bleeding. The mechanism by which ibuprofen induces gastric mucosal damage is not clear. The present study is an attempt to examine the role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of ibuprofe...
Article
There is no specific treatment for paracetamol-induced renal damage. Vitamin C is an outstanding chain-breaking antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. The present study was undertaken to determine whether large doses of vitamin C are useful in the treatment of paracetamol-induced renal damage. Renal injury was induced in rats by the administrati...
Article
The effect of administration of paracetamol (1 g/kg body wt) on oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in the kidney was studied at various time intervals in adult male Wistar rats. Iindicators of oxidative stress, such as protein thiol, protein carbonyl content and lipid peroxide levels were assayed along with thiol-dependent enzyme activities, g...
Article
Biotinidase, an enzyme that is synthesized by the liver and secreted into the blood, decreases in plasma in both humans and experimental animal liver cirrhosis. In overdose conditions, paracetamol is known to cause centrilobular necrosis in both humans and experimental animals. We determined if there is any alteration in the activity of the enzyme...
Article
The present study was undertaken to determine whether there is any alteration in the activities of lysosomal enzymes in the liver and sera of rats during the course of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced cirrhosis in rats. Cirrhosis was induced by the chronic administration of carbon tetrachloride plus phenobarbitone. N-acetyl glucosaminidase, P-gl...
Article
Protein carbonyl content, a measure of oxidative damage to hepatocellular proteins, and the activities of some thiol-containing proteins were assayed in the liver and plasma, as thiol-containing protein, appear to be targets for free radicals. These may be important in the mechanism of ethanol-induced liver injury. Tap water containing ethanol at t...
Article
Accidental ingestion of Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been shown to result in inflammation of the small bronchial tubes suggesting that acute inhalation of CCl4 is toxic to the lungs. The mechanism by which CCl4 causes damage to the lungs is not clear. The present study is an attempt to examine the possible mechanism of CCl4 induced injury to the...
Article
To investigate the cause of accumulation of oxidised proteins in the livers of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver cirrhosis, the activity of alkaline protease (a high molecular weight, multisubunit cysteine proteinase) was determined in the cirrhotic livers. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the activity of hepatic alkaline prot...
Article
Alcohol is a well known hepatotoxin, and chronic intake of alcohol produces micronodular cirrhosis in humans. The treatment and prevention of alcoholic cirrhosis is still elusive. For most practical purposes rat / carbon tetrachloride model of cirrhosis is the popular model for the study of pathogenesis of cirrhosis. Oxidative damage to lipids and...

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