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Prashini Moodley

Prashini Moodley
PathCare Diagnostic Laboratories · Microbiology

MBChB, MMed, PhD

About

116
Publications
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Publications

Publications (116)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Rotavirus infection and its associated hospitalization of children less than 5 years old in middle- and low-income countries remains a public health challenge. We hypothesized that the Rotarix®potency is affected by non-optimal temperatures which translates into reduced vaccine effectiveness in these settings. Objective: To assess th...
Article
BACKGROUND In KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, the incidence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is driven by the transmission of resistant strains. As data suggest that cases may be spatially clustered, we sought to identify 'hotspots' and describe these communities. METHODS We enrolled XDR-TB patients diagnosed from 2011 to 2014 in eT...
Article
Full-text available
Human rotavirus infection is the leading cause of diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide. In South Africa, diarrhoea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in children less than five years old, and before the vaccine was introduced rotavirus had been reported as causing one-third of all diarrhoeal related hospital admissio...
Article
Full-text available
Human rotavirus infection is the leading cause of diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide. In South Africa, diarrhoea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in children less than five years old, and before the vaccine was introduced rotavirus had been reported as causing one-third of all diarrhoeal related hospital admissio...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We report on the antimicrobial resistance profile of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and the distribution of tetM genes in isolates with high-level tetracycline resistance in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods: Male and female patients presenting with urethral and/or vaginal discharge were recruited into the study. Urethral and cerv...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting millions worldwide. The currently available anti-TB drugs and vaccines have proved insufficient to contain this scourge, necessitating an urgent need for identification of novel drug targets and therapeutic strategies. The disruption of crucial protein-protein...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting millions worldwide. The currently available anti-TB drugs and vaccines have proved insufficient to contain this scourge, necessitating an urgent need for identification of novel drug targets and therapeutic strategies. The disruption of crucial protein-protein...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Intensive care units (ICUs) are designed to care for patients who are often at increased risk of acquiring healthcare-associated infections. The structure of ICUs should be optimally designed to facilitate the care of these critically ill patients, and minimise their risk of infection. National regulations (R158) were developed to gove...
Article
Background: Appropriate infection control policies and practices are key to reducing the risk of healthcare-associated infections in patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Objective: To evaluate infection control in ICUs using the Infection Control Assessment Tool (ICAT). Methods: Six public and five private adult ICUs were included. Seven m...
Article
Full-text available
Background The incidence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the public health sector in South Africa is not known due to the lack of a surveillance system. We report on the challenges experienced in the implementation of a surveillance system for HAIs in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods A passive, paper-based surveillance system was...
Article
Full-text available
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and HIV are individually responsible for the most deaths worldwide among all infectious agents, and coinfection with M.tb and HIV is a significant public health challenge in the developing world. Although the lung is the primary target organ for tuberculosis (TB), M.tb can also cause extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EP...
Article
Full-text available
In 2015, a cluster of respiratory diphtheria cases was reported from KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa. By using whole-genome analysis, we characterized 21 Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates collected from 20 patients and contacts during the outbreak (1 patient was infected with 2 variants of C. diphtheriae). In addition, we included 1 cutan...
Article
An isolated outbreak of diphtheria in South Africa, 2015 – ERRATUM - S. MAHOMED, M. ARCHARY, P. MUTEVEDZI, Y. MAHABEER, P. GOVENDER, G. NTSHOE, W. KUHN, J. THOMAS, A. OLOWOLAGBA, L. BLUMBERG, K. MCCARTHY, K. MLISANA, M. DU PLESSIS, A. VON GOTTBERG, P. MOODLEY
Article
Full-text available
An outbreak of respiratory diphtheria occurred in two health districts in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa in 2015. A multidisciplinary outbreak response team was involved in the investigation and management of the outbreak. Fifteen cases of diphtheria were identified, with ages ranging from 4 to 41 years. Of the 12 cases that were und...
Article
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading cause of death worldwide, especially among individuals infected with HIV. Whereas phylogenetic analysis has revealed M. tuberculosis spread throughout history and in local outbreaks, much less is understood about its dissemination within the body. Here we report genomic analysis of 2,693 samples collecte...
Article
Full-text available
Background In South Africa, drug resistant tuberculosis is a major public health crisis in the face of the colossal HIV pandemic. Methods In an attempt to understand the distribution of drug resistance in our setting, we analysed the rpoB, katG, inhA, pncA and embB genes associated with resistance to key drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis...
Conference Paper
This study focused on assessing factors influencing the effectiveness of the Rotarix® vaccine in children 5 years and below in KwaZulu-Natal. After obtaining written informed consent from parents or guardians, stool and blood specimens were collected from children 5 years and below presenting to a tertiary hospital in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. Demogra...
Article
Full-text available
Although the lung is the primary site of infection of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is capable of causing infection at other sites. In 5–10 % such extra-pulmonary tuberculosis is located in bone tissue of the spine. It is unknown whether host or microbial factors are responsible for the site where extra-pulmonary tuberculosis manifests i...
Article
Full-text available
Genomic tools have revealed genetically diverse pathogens within some hosts. Within-host pathogen diversity, which we refer to as "complex infection", is increasingly recognized as a determinant of treatment outcome for infections like tuberculosis. Complex infection arises through two mechanisms: within-host mutation (which results in clonal heter...
Data
The R package implementing the ClassTR method. The zip file must be unzipped using a non-recursive decompression utility that preserves the internal file structure. The extracted package can then be installed via the R command install.packages(pkgs = “ClassTR_0.1.0.tar.gz”, repos = NULL) from the directory it is unzipped to. (ZIP)
Data
Additional details on the methods used: NP-completeness proof; minimum description length formalism; strain intersection graph; enumeration of optimal solutions; details of the simulation approach; and selection of the best method for ClassTR. (PDF)
Article
The clinical management of tuberculosis is a major challenge in southern Africa. The prevalence of within-host M. tuberculosis genetic heterogeneity and effect on treatment response are not well understood. We enrolled 500 tuberculosis patients in KwaZulu-Natal and followed them through two months of treatment. Using MIRU-VNTR genotyping to identif...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Syndromic management is used to control sexually transmitted diseases in South Africa. Trichomonas vaginalis causes trichomoniasis which results in vaginal discharge in symptomatic patients. This is treated with metronidazole which is included in the syndromic management antimicrobial regime. In order for this regime to be effective, t...
Article
Full-text available
Epigenetics denotes to study the heritable changes occurred in the gene function without any changes in DNA sequence. These epigenetic changes are known to be governed by various factors viz. stress, infection, nutrients, drugs and toxicological agents etc. Recently, it has been identified that different microorganisms can cause the epigenetic chan...
Article
Full-text available
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is an ancient pathogen and a major cause of death worldwide. Although various virulence factors of M. tuberculosis have been identified, its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. TlyA is a virulence factor in several bacterial infections and is evolutionarily conserved in many...
Article
Antibiotic drug discovery has not kept pace with the development of microbial resistance to these agents. There are ever increasing reports where the causative agents of serious infections are multi-drug resistant and in some cases resistant to all known antibiotics. The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae has heighte...
Article
In the course of our search for anti-dormant Mycobacterial substances, nybomycin (1) was re-discovered from the culture broth of a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. on the bioassay-guided separation. Compound 1 showed anti-microbial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG with the MIC of 1.0μg/mL under both actively growi...
Article
Full-text available
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, is an ancient pathogen and a major cause of death worldwide. Although various virulence factors of M.tb have been identified, its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. TlyA is a virulence factor in several bacterial infections and is evolutionarily conserved in many gra...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated a point of care test for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in patients attending a public health clinic in KwaZulu-Natal. The test showed a low sensitivity against PCR and culture (<40%), however a higher specificity was observed (>95%). This test in unsuitable as a screening tool for gonorrhoea. Copyright © 2015, American Society...
Article
Background: We report the prevalence and incidence of 3 treatable sexually transmitted pathogens (Neiserria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis) in women who were HIV infected or at high risk for HIV infection, in pregnancy and postpartum, respectively. Method: Vulvovaginal specimens collected at the first antenatal vis...
Chapter
Mycobacteria have been associated with human and animal disease for millennia. This book is founded on a principle of cross-disciplinary inclusion and the belief that by bringing together all members of the mycobacterial research community we could achieve a better understanding of mycobacteria and the diseases caused by them, and thus contribute t...
Article
Full-text available
Tuberculosis affects nine million individuals and kills almost two million people every year. The only vaccine available, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), has been used since its inception in 1921. Although BCG induces host-protective T helper 1 (Th1) cell immune responses, which play a central role in host protection, its efficacy is unsatisfactory...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives It has been hypothesised that ectopy may be associated with increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this cross-sectional study, we wanted to explore the association between STIs (including HIV) and cervical ectopy. Methods We included 700 sexually active young women attending randomly selected high schools...
Article
Full-text available
Tuberculosis (TB) remains the second highest killer from a single infectious disease worldwide. Current therapy of TB is lengthy and consists of multiple expensive antibiotics, in a strategy referred to as Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS). Although this therapy is effective, it has serious disadvantages. These therapeutic agents are...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Moxifloxacin (MXF) has been advocated for the treatment of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis despite resistance to older-generation fluoroquinolones. We investigated the relationship between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of MXF and mutations in the gyrA and gyrB genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates...
Article
Full-text available
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting millions worldwide. The currently available anti-TB drugs and vaccines have proved insufficient to contain this scourge, necessitating an urgent need for identification of novel drug targets and therapeutic strategies. The disruption of crucial protein-protein i...
Article
Background. Genital tract (GT) inflammation plays a major role in HIV transmission. We aimed to determine the association between symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and HIV RNA levels in plasma and GTs of HIV-infected women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Method. Women with VVC on HAART were recruited from a primary healthc...
Article
Full-text available
Vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common condition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 are key pattern-recognition receptors of the innate immune system in sensing Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways in HIV-infected and unin...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Genital tract (GT) inflammation plays a major role in HIV transmission. We aimed to determine the association between symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and HIV RNA levels in plasma and GTs of HIV-infected women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Method. Women with VVC on HAART were recruited from a primary healthc...
Article
Full-text available
Pregnancy and the postpartum period present important intervention opportunities. Counseling can leverage the motivation women have during this time to change behaviors that may negatively affect their health and the heath of their infants. Pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in South Africa were randomly allocated to treatment (n = 733) a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most common problems leading women to seek advice in primary healthcare facilities. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the associations between some hypothesized factors and the presence of symptomatic VVC. Subjects and methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Genital tract (GT) inflammation plays a major role in HIV transmission. We aimed to determine the association between symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and HIV RNA levels in plasma and GTs of HIV-infected women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Method. Women with VVC on HAART were recruited from a primary healt...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: We sought to determine the association between HIV-induced immunosuppression, virologic correlates, and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study, where HIV infected and uninfected women were studied with VVC being the primary outcome. Ninety-seven HIV-infected and 101 HIV-uninfected women were e...
Article
Full-text available
Multidrug- (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) are commonly associated with Beijing strains. However, in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, which has among the highest incidence and mortality for MDR and XDR TB, data suggest that non-Beijing strains are driving the epidemic. We conducted a retrospective study to characterize the st...
Data
Full-text available
Table showing spoligotype patterns (including binary format) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients in Tugela Ferry, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, 2005–2006.
Article
Full-text available
In drug-resistant TB settings, specimen collection is critical for drug-susceptibility testing (DST). This observational study included multiple specimen types collected from pediatric TB suspects with the aim to determine diagnostic yield and inform clinical practice in children with drug-resistant and drug-susceptible TB. From 03/2009-07/2010, TB...
Article
To determine the accuracy and role of rapid C-reactive protein (CRP) testing in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals with presumed tuberculosis (TB). We enrolled HIV-infected adults (≥18 years)with a cough of ≥2 weeks and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Participants were evaluated for...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-tuberculosis) is a global public health threat, but few data exist elucidating factors driving this epidemic. The initial XDR-tuberculosis report from South Africa suggested transmission is an important factor, but detailed epidemiologic and molecular analyses were not available for further...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the important role of fluoroquinolones and the predominant use of ofloxacin for treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa, there are limited data on ofloxacin pharmacokinetics in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, no ofloxacin pharmacokinetic data from South African patients, and no direct assessment of the rela...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a death associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV infection outside Africa that can be linked to Tugela Ferry (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa), the town most closely associated with the regional epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. This case underscores the international relevance of this regional epidemic, particularly...
Article
Full-text available
In the course of our search for anti-dormant mycobacterial substances from marine organisms, we previously isolated three new aminolipopeptides, named trichoderins A, A1 and B, from the culture of the marine sponge-derived fungus of Trichoderma sp. and determined their chemical structures. To identify the gene that could confer a resistance to tric...