Prakasha Kempaiah

Prakasha Kempaiah
University of New Mexico | UNM · Center for Global Health

About

55
Publications
9,253
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
857
Citations
Citations since 2017
35 Research Items
627 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150

Publications

Publications (55)
Article
Full-text available
Plasmodium falciparum infections remain among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in holoendemic transmission areas. Located within region 5q31.1, the colony-stimulating factor 2 gene ( CSF2 ) encodes granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a hematopoietic growth factor that mediates host immune responses. Since the eff...
Article
Full-text available
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a major global health concern that often causes bloodstream infections in areas of the world affected by malnutrition and comorbidities such as HIV and malaria. Developing a strategy to control the emergence and spread of highly invasive and antimicrobial resistant NTS isolates requires a comprehensive analysis of...
Article
Full-text available
Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread rapidly worldwide and causing serious health and economic loss. In the absence of any effective treatment, various in-silico approaches are being explored towards the therapeutic discovery against COVID-19. Targeting multiple key enzymes of SARS-CoV-2 with a single potential drug could be an importan...
Article
SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 consists of several enzymes with essential functions within its proteome. Here, we focused on repurposing approved and investigational drugs/compounds. We targeted seven proteins with enzymatic activities known to be essential at different stages of the viral cycle including PLpro, 3CLpro, RdRP, Helicase,...
Article
Full-text available
In December of 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus flared in Wuhan, the capital city of the Hubei Province, China. The pathogen has been identified as a novel enveloped RNA beta-coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a disease characterized by severe atypical pneu...
Article
Full-text available
Malaria, a global threat to the human population, remains a challenge partly due to the fast growing drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium species. New therapeutics acting against the pathogenic asexual and sexual stages, including liver-stage malarial infection, had now attained more attention in achieving malaria eradication efforts. In this paper...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence of SARS/MERS drug-resistant COVID-19 with high transmission and mortality has recently been declared a pandemic. Like all coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 is a relatively large virus consisting of several enzymes with essential functions within its proteome. Here, we focused on repurposing approved and investigational drugs by identifying po...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence of SARS/MERS drug-resistant SARS-CoV2 comes with higher rates of transmission and mortality. Like all coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 is a relatively large virus consisting of several enzymes with essential functions within its proteome. Here, we focused on repurposing approved and investigational drugs by identifying potential drugs that a...
Article
Full-text available
Novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 has caused a recent pandemic called COVID-19 and a severe health threat around the world. In the current situation, the virus is rapidly spreading worldwide, and the discovery of vaccine and potential therapeutics are critically essential. The crystal structure for main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, 3-chymotrypsin-lik...
Article
Influenza A and B viruses cause seasonal worldwide influenza epidemics each winter, and are a major public health concern and cause of morbidity and mortality. A substantial reduction in influenza-related deaths can be attributed to both vaccination and administration of oseltamivir (OS), which is approved for oral administration and inhibits viral...
Article
Full-text available
Organometallic compounds are molecules that contain at least one metal-carbon bond. Due to resistance of the Plasmodium parasite to traditional organic antimalarials, the use of organometallic compounds has become widely adopted in antimalarial drug discovery. Ferroquine, which was developed due to the emergence of chloroquine resistance, is curren...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence of SARS/MERS drug resistant COVID-19 with high transmission and mortality has recently been declared a deadly pandemic causing economic chaos and significant health problems. Like all coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 is a large virus that has many druggable components within its proteome. In this study, we focused on repurposing approved and...
Article
Introduction: The unique physicochemical properties and chemical diversity of organofluorine compounds have remarkably contributed for their wide utility in the area of pharmaceuticals, materials and agrochemicals. The noteworthy characteristics of fluorine include high electron affinity, lipophilicity and bioavailability, extending the half-life o...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The unique physicochemical properties and chemical diversity of organofluorine compounds have remarkably contributed for their wide utility in the area of pharmaceuticals, materials and agrochemicals. The noteworthy characteristics of fluorine include high electron affinity, lipophilicity and bioavailability, extending the half-life o...
Article
The global prevalence of leishmaniasis has increased with skyrocketed mortality in the past decade. The causative agent of leishmaniasis is leishmania species, which infects populations in almost all the continents. Prevailing treatment regimens are consistently inefficient with reported side effects, toxicity and drug resistance. This review compl...
Article
In December 2019, outbreak of a novel coronavirus flared in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province, China. The identified pathogen was an enveloped RNA betacoronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The outbreak was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), because the continual spread of t...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the noteworthy advances in the use of chemotherapy for malaria, it continues to constantly affect large number of individuals. New molecules capable of blocking life-cycle of the parasite, preferably through targeting novel pathways and various modes of action, are increasingly becoming area of interest. Phenotypic screening of large chemic...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Severe malarial anemia (SMA) is a leading cause of malaria-related morbidity and mortality in children. The genetic factors that influence development of SMA and inefficient erythropoiesis, a central pathogenic feature of SMA, are only partially understood. Methods: We performed a pilot Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) on childre...
Article
Full-text available
The eradication of malaria remains challenging due to the complex life cycle of Plasmodium and the rapid emergence of drug-resistant forms of P. falciparum and P. vivax. New, effective and inexpensive antimalarials against multiple life stages of the parasite are urgently needed to combat the spread of malaria. Here, we synthesized a set of novel h...
Article
Malaria continues to impinge heavily on mankind, with five continents still under its clasp. Widespread and rapid emergence of drug resistance in the Plasmodium parasite to current therapies accentuate the quest for novel drug targets and antimalarial compounds. Plasmodium parasites, maintain a non-photosynthetic relict organelle known as Apicoplas...
Article
Malaria is a major global health concern with the majority of cases reported in regions of South-East Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, Western Pacific, the Americas, and Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated 216 million worldwide reported cases of malaria in 2016. It is an infection of the red blood cells by parasites of the...
Article
Full-text available
A series of phthalimide analogues, novelized with high-valued bioactive scaffolds was synthesized by means of click-chemistry under non-conventional microwave heating and evaluated as noteworthy growth inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 and W2) in culture. Analogues 6a, 6h and 6 u showed highest activity to inhibit the growth of the parasite...
Article
Full-text available
In Plasmodium falciparum holoendemic transmission regions of western Kenya, life-threatening pediatric malaria manifests primarily as severe malarial anemia (SMA, Hb≤6.0 g/dL with any density parasitemia). To determine the role that CD4+ T-cell-driven inflammatory responses have in the pathogenesis of SMA, peripheral CD4+ T-cell populations and the...
Data
Representative flow cytometry plots of cytokine production and the gating strategy used to set the cut-offs for cytokine-positive and–negative cells. (A) Representative forward versus side scatter gating strategy for the peripheral blood stimulation for the study participants. Dot plot (B) CD4+CD45RA+ T cells, (C) CD4+CD45RA+IFN-γ+ T cells, (D) CD4...
Data
Representative flow cytometry plots showing the gating strategy using isotypic controls and matched IL-17 antibodies to set the cut-offs for cytokine-positive and -negative cells. Isotypic controls 1–3 have their matched IL-17-positive cell cut-offs below them. (TIF)
Data
Characteristics of the study participants stratified by age. Data analysis performed by Mann-Whitney U tests except for gender and sickle cell trait that we compared using χ2 tests. Data are presented as median (IQR); except for gender and sickle cell trait that are presented as n (%). (DOCX)
Data
Representative flow cytometry plots showing the gating strategy using isotypic controls and matched IFN-γ antibodies to set the cut-offs for cytokine-positive and -negative cells. Isotypic controls 1–3 have their matched IFN-γ-positive cell cut-offs below them. (TIF)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The family of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) carries a kinase domain fused to a calmodulin-like domain. The presence of protein kinases devoid of clear mammalian eukaryotic protein kinase orthologues makes them potential targets for therapeutic development. Recent studies on CDPKs have inspired an important primary regulat...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite a reduction in the global burden of malaria, the disease remains responsible for 214 million cases and 438,000 deaths annually with 88% of the mortality occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria control largely depends on effective chemotherapy. However, the historic and current emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant paras...
Poster
Application of whole genome expression profiling is a useful approach for identifying important gene pathways associated with disease outcomes, especially in a multifocal disease such as falciparum malaria. In high transmission regions, malaria commonly manifests as severe malarial anemia [SMA, hemoglobin (Hb)<5.0 g/dL], primarily in infants and yo...
Article
Full-text available
Severe malarial anemia [SMA, hemoglobin (Hb) <5.0 g/dL] is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality among children residing in Plasmodium falciparum transmission regions. Exploration of molecular pathways through global gene expression profiling revealed that SMA was characterized by decreased HSPA1A, a heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 coding g...
Article
Full-text available
Bacteremia and malaria coinfection is a common and life-threatening condition in children residing in sub-Saharan Africa. We previously showed that coinfection with Gram negative (G[−]) enteric Bacilli and Plasmodium falciparum (Pf[+]) was associated with reduced high-density parasitemia (HDP, >10,000 parasites/μL), enhanced respiratory distress, a...
Article
Background: Mycobacterium abscessus causes lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. M abscessus stimulates the host innate immune response via TLR2 on respiratory epithelial cells. Signaling through TLR2 requires the formation of TLR2/TLR1 heterodimers on the cell surface. Methods: The ability of M. abscessus to stimulate the innate immune...
Chapter
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality of infectious disease origin. Here, we focus largely on P. falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa since this geographic region bears the greatest disease burden, resulting in exceedingly high rates of morbidity and mortality. The life cycle, etiology, and epidemiol...
Article
In holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission regions, malarial anemia is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Identifying biomarkers of malaria disease severity is important for identifying at-risk groups and for improved understanding of the molecular pathways that influence clinical outcomes. We have previously shown that de...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mycobacterium abscessus causes lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. M. abscessus stimulates the host innate immune response via TLR2 on respiratory epithelial cells. Signaling through TLR2 requires the formation of TLR2/TLR1 heterodimers on the cell surface. Methods: The ability of M. abscessus to stimulate the innate imm...
Article
In holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission areas, severe malaria primarily occurs in children aged <48 months and manifests as severe malarial anemia [SMA; hemoglobin (Hb) < 6.0 g/dL]. Induction of high levels of prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) through inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important host-defense mechanism against invading pat...
Article
Full-text available
Severe malarial anemia (SMA) is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality in holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission areas. Although dysregulation in cytokine production is an important etiology of SMA, the role of IFN-α in SMA has not been reported. As such, we investigated the relationship between IFN-α promoter polymorphisms [i...
Article
Full-text available
Mycobacterium abscessus has emerged as an important cause of lung infection, particularly in patients with bronchiectasis. Innate immune responses must be highly effective at preventing infection with M. abscessus because it is a ubiquitous environmental saprophyte and normal hosts are not commonly infected. M. abscessus exists as either a glycopep...
Article
Full-text available
Severe malarial anemia (SMA) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children residing in regions where Plasmodium falciparum transmission is holoendemic. Although largely unexplored in children with SMA, interleukin-18 (IL-18) is important for regulating innate and acquired immunity in inflammatory and infectious diseases. As such, we sel...
Article
Full-text available
Greater than 80% of malaria-related mortality occurs in sub-Saharan Africa due to infections with Plasmodium falciparum. The majority of P. falciparum-related mortality occurs in immune-naïve infants and young children, accounting for 18% of all deaths before five years of age. Clinical manifestations of severe falciparum malaria vary according to...
Article
Full-text available
Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among African children. Innate immunity provides the first line of defence against P. falciparum infections, particularly in young children that lack naturally-acquired malarial immunity, such as the population examined here. Consistent with the fact that elevated inte...
Article
Full-text available
Development of protective immunity against Plasmodium falciparum is partially mediated through binding of malaria-specific IgG to Fc gamma (γ) receptors. Variations in human FcγRIIA-H/R-131 and FcγRIIIB-NA1/NA2 affect differential binding of IgG sub-classes. Since variability in FcγR may play an important role in severe malarial anemia (SMA) pathog...
Article
One of the commonest complications of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the development of severe malarial anemia (SMA), which is, at least in part, due to malaria-induced suppression of erythropoiesis. Factors associated with suppression of erythropoiesis and development of SMA include accumulation of malarial pigment (hemozoin, PfHz) in bone marro...
Article
Bovine aprotinin, a reversible inhibitor of plasmin and kallikrein, has been clinically approved for over two decades to prevent perioperative blood loss during cardiac surgery. However, because of postoperative renal dysfunction in thousands of these patients, aprotinin was voluntarily withdrawn from the market. Our earlier studies indicated that...
Article
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) is a serine proteinase inhibitor that induces caspase-mediated apoptosis when offered to a variety of tumor cells. In order to investigate the mechanism of TFPI-2-induced apoptosis, we initially studied the uptake and trafficking of TFPI-2 by HT-1080 cells. Exogenously offered TFPI-2 was rapidly internaliz...
Article
Human TFPI-2 is an extracellular matrix-associated Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor. We previously demonstrated that a human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT-1080, does not express TFPI-2, but genetic restoration of TFPI-2 expression in these cells markedly inhibited their growth and metastasis in vivo. In the present study, either full-length rec...
Article
Human tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) is a 32 kDa extracellular matrix-associated Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor that regulates the plasmin and trypsin- mediated activation of zymogen matrix metalloproteinases and growth factors essential for tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. We previously demonstrated that HT-1080 human f...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that the expression of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), a matrix-associated Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor, is markedly down-regulated in several tumor cells through hypermethylation of the TFPI-2 gene promoter. In the present study, RT-PCR analysis of total RNA from both human normal and tumor cells...

Network

Cited By