Prabhakaran Dorairaj

Prabhakaran Dorairaj
Centre for Chronic Disease Control | CCDC

Doctor of Medicine

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934
Publications
331,112
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (934)
Article
Background Blood pressure control has a pivotal role in reducing the incidence and recurrence of stroke. May Measurement Month (MMM), which was initiated in 2017 by the International Society of Hypertension, is the largest global blood pressure screening campaign. We aim to compare MMM participants with and without a previous history of stroke and...
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Objective The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the use of telemedicine to maintain continuity of care for patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a nurse-led teleconsultation strategy for CVD management during the COVID-19 pandemic in India and evaluated the impact of nurse-led tel...
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Background and aims: Limited data exist on the cardiovascular manifestations and risk factors in people hospitalized with COVID-19 from low-and middle-income countries. This study aims to describe cardiovascular risk factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in low, lower-middle, upper-middle-and high-...
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Background and aims: Limited data exist on the cardiovascular manifestations and risk factors in people hospitalized with COVID-19 from low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to describe cardiovascular risk factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in low, lower-middle, upper-middle- and hi...
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Aim To estimate the prevalence, socio-demographic determinants, common disease combinations, and health impact of multimorbidity among a young rural population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey among participants aged ≥30 years in rural Punjab, North India, from Jan 2019 to April 2019. Multimorbidity was defined as the coexistence of...
Article
Background: People of South Asian ancestry are at high risk for type 2 diabetes, but the time to disease progression in this population is not fully understood. Methods: We analyzed data from 2714 adults aged ≥20 years, enrolled in the Chennai site of the prospective Cardiometabolic risk reduction in South Asia (CARRS) study. Participants had 75g O...
Article
Background: Among South Asians, women have higher prevalence of diabetes than men, but few studies have examined gender differences in incidence. Methods: We analyzed data from 2714 adults aged ≥20 years, enrolled in the Chennai site of prospective Cardiometabolic risk reduction in South Asia (CARRS) study. We defined normal glucose tolerance (NGT)...
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Background The growing burden of hypertension and diabetes is one of the major public health challenges being faced by the health system in India. Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) that assist with tailoring evidence-based management approaches combined with task-shifting from more specialized to less specialized providers may together enhan...
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Yoga-based interventions can be effective in preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We developed a Yoga programme for T2DM prevention (YOGA-DP) and conducted a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) among high-risk people in India. This qualitative study’s objective was to identify and explore participants’ trial- and intervention-relat...
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Poor infant young child feeding (IYCF) practices result in malnutrition, poor psychosocial development, poor school performance and less productivity in later life, thereby perpetuating a vicious cycle. The current study aims to characterize the IYCF practices during the first year of life in a maternal–child birth cohort (DHANI) in Belagavi, Karna...
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Background Managing the role of dairy foods in healthy and sustainable food systems is challenging. Milk production is associated with greenhouse gas emissions and milk-based processed foods can be high in fat, sugar and salt; yet, milk production provides income generating opportunities for farmers and dairy foods provide essential nutrients to yo...
Article
Importance: Cumulative exposure to high blood pressure (BP) is an adverse prognostic marker. Assessments of BP control over time, such as time at target, have been developed but assessments of the effects of BP-lowering interventions on such measures are lacking. Objective: To evaluate whether low-dose triple combination antihypertensive therapy...
Article
Objective We estimated the prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors among young adults with type 1 diabetes and compared them with the general population without diabetes. Methods Participants were young adults (aged 20 years and above) with type 1 diabetes, from the Delhi and Chennai sites of the ICMR -Young Diabetes Registry (YDR) and their ag...
Article
Background Population‐wide reduction in mean blood pressure is proposed as a key strategy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the effectiveness of a task‐sharing strategy involving frontline health workers in the primary prevention of elevated blood pressure. Methods and Results We conducted DISHA (Diet and lifestyle Int...
Article
Importance: Women with recent gestational diabetes (GDM) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Objective: To investigate whether a resource-appropriate and context-appropriate lifestyle intervention could prevent glycemic deterioration among women with recent GDM in South Asia. Design, setting, and participants: This randomized, p...
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Objective: To estimate the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic bronchitis in eight countries in South Asia through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We searched MEDLINE® Complete, Web of Science, Embase®, Scopus, CINAHL and reference lists of screened studies for research on the prevalence of COPD...
Article
In India, data from large HF registries has demonstrated significantly lower 5-year mortality rates for patients with HFrEF discharged on guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT), revealing an important target for intervention to improve clinical outcomes. Hospital-based quality improvement initiatives to increase rates of GDMT at hospital dischar...
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Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of disease ranging from simple steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), through to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. We assessed the prevalence, spectrum, and determinants of NAFLD among adults in urban and rural North India. Methods A representative sample of adults aged 30...
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Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of disease ranging from simple steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), through to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. We assessed the prevalence, spectrum, and determinants of NAFLD among adults in urban and rural North India. Methods A representative sample of adults aged 30...
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As blood-derived miRNAs (c-miRNAs) are modulated by exercise and nutrition, we postulated that they might be used to monitor the effects of a lifestyle intervention (LI) to prevent diabetes development. To challenge this hypothesis, obese Asian Indian pre-diabetic patients were submitted to diet modifications and physical activity for 4 months (LI...
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Background: The prevalence of multimorbidity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is thought to be rising rapidly. Research on the state of healthcare for multimorbidity in LMICs is needed to provide an impetus for integration of care across conditions, a baseline to monitor progress, and information for targeting of interventions to those...
Article
This study aims to provide evidence on how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted chronic disease care in diverse settings across Asia. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted to assess the health, social, and economic consequences of the pandemic in India, China, Hong Kong, Korea, and Vietnam using standardized questionnaires. Overall, 5672 participant...
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Background Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important structural component of human brain and retina. Evidence exists linking nutritional status of pregnant mothers and cognitive functions of their born infants. The DHANI (Maternal DHA Supplementation and Offspring Neurodevelopment in India) trial was implemented to evaluate the effect of maternal...
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Objectives The Government of India prohibited the sale of tobacco products during the COVID-19 lockdown to prevent spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study assessed the tobacco cessation behaviour and its predictors among adult tobacco users during the initial COVID-19 lockdown period in India. Study design : Cross-sectional study. Methods A cr...
Conference Paper
A. Ganpule-Rao, K.A. Brown, Rosemerry Green, M. Dubey, N. Srinivasapura Venkateshmurthy, H. Pandey, P. Jarhyan, A. Prasad Maddury, R. Khatkar, D. Prabhakaran, Sailesh Mohan (1) Food insecurity, dietary diversity, and malnutrition in North and South India / (2) Comparison of diets in North and South India with EAT Lancet diet. (1) Introduction: Food...
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India is experiencing a nutrition transition, with sales of packaged and processed foods rapidly increasing in recent years. This study sought to understand the views and experiences of self-help groups about highly processed, packaged food in Visakhapatnam, India, using the Photovoice method. Participants were able to record, reflect on and critiq...
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Background Coronary heart disease, a leading cause of death globally, is amenable to lifestyle interventions. The family environment can affect the ability or willingness of individuals to make lifestyle changes. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a targeted family-based intervention for reduction of total cardiovascular risk in individuals wi...
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Background: Sex differences in presentation, management, and outcomes of heart failure (HF) have been observed, but it is uncertain whether these differences exist in South India. Objective: We describe sex differences in presentation, management, and in-hospital outcomes in patients hospitalized with HF in South India and explore sex-based diff...
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Given the substantial benefit accrued from effective interventions in the management of hypertension and their potential for scalability in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), the WHF has now revisited and updated the ‘Roadmap for raised BP’ as ‘Roadmap for hypertension’ by incorporating new developments in science and policy. Even though cost...
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More than twenty percent of all cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths are caused by air pollution — more than three million deaths every year — and these numbers will continue to rise unless the global community takes action. Nine out of ten people worldwide breathe polluted air, which disproportionately affects those living in low-resource settings....
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Background: Yoga-based interventions can be effective in preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We developed a Yoga program for T2DM prevention (YOGA-DP) among high-risk people and conducted a feasibility randomized controlled trial (RCT) in India. The objective of this study was to identify and explore why potential participants declined to p...
Article
Full-text available
Background: An epidemic of chronic kidney disease is occurring in rural communities in low-income and middle-income countries that do not share common kidney disease risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension. This chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology occurs primarily in agricultural communities in Central America and South Asia. Consequ...
Preprint
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Background The world witnessed a highly contagious and deadly disease, COVID-19, towards the end of 2019. India is one of the worst affected countries. We aimed to assess anxiety and depression levels among adult tobacco users and people who recently quit tobacco during COVID − 19 lockdown in India. Methods The study was conducted across two India...
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Ambient particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns PM2.5) levels in Delhi routinely exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for acceptable levels of daily exposure. Only a handful of studies have examined the short-term mortality effects of PM in India, with n...
Article
Background In randomised controlled trials, fixed-dose combination treatments (or polypills) have been shown to reduce a composite of cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary prevention. However, whether or not aspirin should be included, effects on specific outcomes, and effects in key subgroups are unknown. Methods We did an individual partici...
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Background A systematic understanding of the burden of neurological disorders at the subnational level is not readily available for India. We present a comprehensive analysis of the disease burden and trends of neurological disorders at the state level in India. Methods Using all accessible data from multiple sources, we estimated the prevalence or...
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Importance Clinical care quality improvement (QI) strategies are critical to prevent and control cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there is limited evidence regarding which components of the health system–, clinician-, and patient-based QI strategies contribute to their impact on CVD. Objectives To identify, map, and organize evidence on the...
Article
Objectives To compare dietary intake and patterns among adults with and without depression in South Asia. Methods Baseline survey data from the 2015–16 Centre for cArdiometabolic Risk Reduction in South-Asia study, representative of three urban South Asian cities (n = 13 588), were analyzed. Non-pregnant adults ≥ 20 years completed interviewer-adm...
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Aim. Studies on the changes in the presentation and management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during the COVID-19 pandemic from low- and middle-income countries are limited. We sought to determine the changes in the number of admissions, management practices, and outcomes of AMI during the pandemic period in India. Methods & Results. In this...
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Objective People with chronic conditions are known to be vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to describe patients’ lived experiences, challenges faced by people with chronic conditions, their coping strategies, and the social and economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, setting and participants We conducted a qualitative...
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Introduction: In 2016, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) led to 17.9 million deaths worldwide, representing 31% of all global deaths. CVDs are the leading cause of mortality worldwide and significant barriers to achieving the sustainable development goals. Modern medicines have been significant in improving health outcomes. However, non-adherence to...
Article
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in South Asia, with rapidly increasing prevalence of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hyperlipidemia over the last two decades. Atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) affects South Asians earlier in life and at lower body weights, which is not fully explained by differential burden of conv...
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Aims May Measurement Month is a global screening campaign to raise awareness regarding elevated blood pressure (BP). With the growing burden of hypertension, it is imperative to regularly assess the disease’s prevalence, risk factors, and awareness levels in a country. The current prevalence of hypertension in India as per the National Family Healt...
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Background: Despite declines in deaths from rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in Africa over the past 30 years, it remains a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality on the continent. We present an investment case for interventions to prevent and manage RHD in the African Union (AU). Methods: We created a cohort state-transition model t...
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Background Certain oral bacterial pathogens may play a role in oral carcinogenesis. We assessed the feasibility of conducting a population-based study in India to examine the distributions and levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis , Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia in relation to oral leukoplakia (a potentially malignant disorder) and...
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The current COVID-19 pandemic has challenged health systems and communities globally. As such, several countries have embarked on national COVID-19 vaccination programmes in order to curb spread of the disease. However, at present, there isn't yet enough dosages to enable vaccination of the general population. Different vaccine prioritization strat...