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Here we present a multiplex PCR assay to distinguish three widespread brown frog species, Rana temporaria, R. arvalis and R. amurensis, based on amplified fragment length. The system consists of four primers to the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene, with one universal reverse primer and three species-specific forward primers. Theref...
Trematode infection of the second intermediate hosts can lead to changes in their fitness and, as a result, a change in the invasion rate of animal communities. It is especially pronounced during the invasion of parasite species that reduce activity due to the manipulation of hosts through the changes of their morphology and physiology. One of thes...