Plinio Innocenzi

Plinio Innocenzi
Università degli Studi di Sassari | UNISS · Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia

About

310
Publications
51,728
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8,714
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2006 - present
Università degli Studi di Sassari
Position
  • Professor (Full)
June 2002 - May 2005
Università degli Studi di Sassari
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 1998 - May 2002
University of Padova
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (310)
Article
Thermal polymerization of glycine, the simplest amino acid bearing only one alfa carbon atom, is not an efficient process in mild conditions. Hydrothermal processing of glycine produces only small peptides, up to 4 units on average, with only a fraction of glycine that reacts. In the present work, we have used boric acid as a catalyst to promote th...
Article
Full-text available
Heterostructures formed by anatase nanotitania and bidimensional semiconducting materials are expected to become the next-generation photocatalytic materials with an extended operating range and higher performances. The capability of fabricating optically transparent photocatalytic thin films is also a highly demanded technological issue, and incre...
Article
Full-text available
Bioimaging supported by nanoparticles requires low cost, highly emissive and photostable systems with low cytotoxicity. Carbon dots (C-dots) offer a possible solution, even if controlling their properties is not always straightforward, not to mention their potentially simple synthesis and the fact that they do not exhibit long-term photostability i...
Article
The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic due to the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has accelerated the search for innovative antivirals with possibly broad-spectrum efficacy. One of the possible strategies is to inhibit the replication of the virus by preventing or limiting its entry into the cells. Nanomaterials derived from lysine, an essential amino acid c...
Article
Full-text available
Graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) produces enhancement of the Raman signal, which is based on chemical rather than electromagnetic mechanism such as in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Graphene oxide, amino- and guanidine-functionalized graphene oxide, exfoliated graphene, and commercial graphene nanoplatelets have been used to invest...
Chapter
This first chapter introduces the models and theories necessary for a basic understanding of mesoporous materials self-assembly. The self-assembly process that drives the formation of an organized mesoporous structure depends on several chemical-physical processes that must be properly designed and governed. In particular, the interaction between t...
Chapter
Self-assembled materials can be obtained of different compositions; however, due to the specific characteristics of silicon chemistry, silica-based mesostructured materials are among the most intriguing and exciting to study. Therefore, this short volume is dedicated to the silica self-assembly, and in this chapter, we will briefly summarize the fu...
Chapter
This chapter is dedicated to describing self-assembly during the deposition of a thin silica film. It is a very complex process that can be well controlled through an accurate design of the process parameters. The solvent’s evaporation in the precursor sol induces self-organization through the changes of the chemical-physical variables of the syste...
Chapter
One of the most important challenges to be faced in the self-assembly of mesoporous films is the control of the organization on a dimensional scale that extends beyond the micron. Furthermore, defects of different types can form during the self-assembly process, similarly to what is observed in crystalline structures. Defect control is critical bec...
Chapter
Mesoporous materials are defined in general terms by their pore dimension which falls in the 2–10 nm range (Beck and Vartuli in Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 1:76–87, 1996 [1]; Beck et al. in J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114:10834–10843, 1992 [2]). This porosity is coupled with a very high surface area that could be as large as 1000 m² g⁻¹.
Chapter
The characterization of the EISA process by time-resolved and in-situ techniques such as SAXS and ellipsoporosimetry (Boissiere et al. in Langmuir 21:12362–12371, 2005 1), has allowed to follow in real time the disorder to order transition in thin mesoporous films during the deposition process. The techniques have shown how the system evolves from...
Book
This book introduces the fascinating world of self-assembly in mesoporous ordered silica films. Beginning from a single droplet, it guides the reader, in a step-by-step learning process, how to obtain and control ordered porous mesophases in thin films by varying only the precursor chemistry and the process. It explains, in great detail, how order...
Article
Full-text available
Fabrication of hydrophobic thin films from a liquid phase is a hot topic with critical technological issues. Interest in the production of hydrophobic surfaces is growing steadily due to their wide applications in several industrial fields. Thin films from liquid phases can be deposited on different types of surfaces using a wide variety of techniq...
Article
Full-text available
The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) had spread rapidly since December 2019, when it was first identified in Wuhan, China. As of April 2021, more than 130 million cases have been confirmed, with more than 3 million deaths, making it one of the deadliest pandemics in history. Different approaches must be put in place to confront a new pandemic: commu...
Article
Full-text available
The polycondensation of amino acids can originate complex polymers that display fascinating structural and optical properties. Thermally induced amidation of l-lysine allows forming a branched polymer without the support of any catalyst. The polycondensation is completed at 240–250 °C; at higher temperatures, the amino acid degrades. The obtained p...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrite ions pose a severe problem to human health justifying the need for fast and reliable detection of their presence in freshwater. Here we report a method to detect nitrite by photoluminescence of amino-rich carbon dots (C-dots). The dots are synthesized from p-phenylenediamine through a solvothermal treatment in ethanol. When nitrites ions ar...
Article
Full-text available
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is one of the most attractive 2D materials due to its remarkable properties. Combining h-BN with other components (e.g. graphene, carbonitride, semiconductors) to form heterostructures opens new perspectives to developing advanced functional devices. In this review, we have highlighted the state-of-the-art in h-BN het...
Article
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanodots of 10 nm have been synthesized via top-down route from bulk powders. A combination of ultrasonic and thermal treatments in phosphoric acid has been used to achieve edge etching and size reduction to the nanoscale. A new emission in the ultraviolet region, correlated to a characteristic infrared-active vibrati...
Article
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanodots of 10 nm have been synthesized via top-down route from bulk powders. A combination of ultrasonic and thermal treatments in phosphoric acid has been used to achieve edge etching and size reduction to the nanoscale. A new emission in the ultraviolet region, correlated to a characteristic infrared-active vibrati...
Article
Exposure to styrene is a major safety concern in the fibreglass processing industry. This compound is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen. Several types of analytical equipment exist for detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere; however, most of them operate ex-situ or do...
Article
Full-text available
The fabrication of optically active heterostructures in the shape of mesostructured thin films is a highly challenging task. It requires an integrated process to allow in one-step incorporating the two-dimensional materials within the mesoporous ordered host without disrupting the pore organization. Hexagonal boron nitride (BN) nanosheets have been...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular structures of siloxane materials should be highly controlled for achieving advanced functionalities. However, it is still difficult to precisely control the structure of siloxane materials by the sol–gel processing. In the present study, we focused on the silanol groups in the intermediate oligomers and resultant siloxane materials as a k...
Article
Full-text available
Functionalization of boron nitride (BN) materials with hydroxyls has attracted great attention to accomplish better performances at micro- and nanoscale. BN surface hydroxylation, in fact, induces a change in properties and allows expanding the fields of application. In this review, we have summarized the state-of-the-art in developing hydroxylated...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon dots (CDs) are highly-emissive nanoparticles obtained through fast and cheap syntheses. The understanding of CDs’ luminescence, however, is still far from being comprehensive. The intense photoluminescence can have different origins: molecular mechanisms, oxidation of polyaromatic graphene-like layers, and core-shell interactions of carbonac...
Article
Carbonized polymer dots (CPDs), a peculiar type of Carbon dots, show extremely high quantum yields, making them very attractive nanostructures for application in optics and biophotonics. The origin of CPD strong photoluminescence resides in a complicated interplay of several radiative mechanisms. To understand the correlation between CPD processing...
Article
In recent years, carbon dots (CDs) have attracted considerable attention for their potential application in photonics and optoelectronics. One of the main limitations in realizing efficient and reliable solid-state devices is the aggregation-caused quenching effect. At a short distance, the mutual interaction among nanoparticles enhances the non-ra...
Article
Full-text available
The origin of carbon-dots (C-dots) fluorescence and its correlation with the dots structure still lack a comprehensive model. In particular, the core-shell model does not always fit with the experimental results, which, in some cases, suggest a molecular origin of the fluorescence. To gain a better insight, we have studied the response of molecular...
Article
Full-text available
The appearance of new and lethal viruses and their potential threat urgently requires innovative antiviral systems. In addition to the most common and proven pharmacological methods, nanomaterials can represent alternative resources to fight viruses at different stages of infection, by a selective action or in a broad spectrum. A fundamental requir...
Article
Full-text available
Investigating and understanding in detail the sol-to-gel transition in inorganic and hybrid systems is a very challenging task. The transition is a critical phenomenon that can only be described with statistical but not thermodynamic models. Graphic schemes, therefore, cannot easily represent such a complicated process. The sol-to-gel transition ha...
Article
Full-text available
Citrazinic acid (CZA) is a weakly fluorescent molecular compound whose optical properties are dependent on aggregation states and chemical environment. This molecule and its derivatives have been recently identified as the source of the intense blue emission of carbon dots obtained from citric acid with a nitrogen source, such as ammonia or urea. C...
Article
Dual-tethered nanosystems which combine different properties at the nanoscale represent a new fascinating frontier of research. In the present work, we present an example of dual nanosystem designed to enhance the radical scavenging performances. Fulleropyrrolidine has been bonded to cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) to form a dual tethered sy...
Chapter
Leonardo’s machine designs are an extraordinary testimony to the technologies developed during the Renaissance. Leonardo’s Codices contain a repertoire of machines of all types and for different uses. Many of these projects are shown by Leonardo with extreme attention to details and a sophisticated level of technical representation. Leonardo also a...
Article
Full-text available
Highly fluorescent blue and green-emitting carbon dots have been designed to be integrated into sol-gel processing of hybrid organic-inorganic materials through surface modification with an organosilane, 3-(aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES). The carbon dots have been synthesised using citric acid and urea as precursors; the intense fluorescence e...
Article
Understanding the luminescence of carbon dots is a highly challenging task because of the complex reactions involved in the synthesis process. Several by-products form at different reaction stages and become possible sources of emission. Citrazinic acid and its derivatives, in particular, have been identified as intermediates that give rise to blue...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Despite the potential applications in several technological fields, 2D materials are at their early stages. Among them, boron nitride-based systems are still far from having been comprehensively studied. The possibilities of practical applications extend to very varied fields, from mechanics to optics. However, from careful observation of the exper...
Article
Full-text available
The discovery of graphene has paved the way for intense research into 2D materials which is expected to have a tremendous impact on our knowledge of material properties in small dimensions. Among other materials, boron nitride (BN) nanomaterials have shown remarkable features with the possibility of being used in a large variety of devices. Photoni...
Article
Microporous organic-inorganic hybrid silica films have been designed as active platforms to realise a styrene gas sensor. The microporous film has been synthesized by using tetraethylorthosilicate and phenyltriethoxysilane as precursors and a triblock copolymer (Pluronic F127) as a template for the pores. Multilayer films have been employed to incr...
Article
Bottom-up synthesis of fluorescent boron-nitride based dots is a challenging task because an accurate design of the structure-properties relationship is, in general, difficult to achieve. Incorporation of the dots into a solid-state matrix is also another important target to develop light-emitting devices. Two-colour fluorescent boron oxynitride na...
Article
Thermal decomposition of citric acid is one of the most common syntheses of fluorescent C-dots; the reaction pathway is, however, quite complex and the details are still far from being understood. For instance, several intermediates form during the process and they also give rise to fluorescent species. In the present work, the formation of fluores...
Article
Thermal decomposition of citric acid is one of the most common syntheses of fluorescent C‐dots; the reaction pathway is, however, quite complex and the details are still far from being understood. For instance, several intermediates form during the process and they also give rise to fluorescent species. In the present work, the formation of fluores...
Chapter
The sol to gel transition in inorganic systems is a process highly dependent on the synthesis conditions. The chemistry of silicon alkoxides, in particular, is very difficult to handle because so many different species can form from the very beginning of the process and a small change of the synthesis parameters is immediately reflected on the hydr...
Chapter
The sol to gel transition in a bulk gel is a macroscopic event which can be followed using different analytical methods, and even if an accurate determination of the gelation time is always a difficult task, it is possible to obtain reliable measures especially by a combination of several techniques. The liquid phase of the gel remains, even after...
Chapter
The transformation of an inorganic sol into a gel is a complex process which involves several reactions. Hydrolysis and condensation govern the process, but several parameters, such as the pH, the catalyst, the concentration of the precursor, and the temperature, are some of the variables that affect the formation of the final gel and the sol to ge...
Chapter
Giving a clear and widely accepted definition in chemistry and physics is always a pretty difficult task, especially because the frontier of science is continuously moving. Time is a good friend for science because knowledge accumulates and allows getting a wider and deeper understanding of nature; however, it is also more complicated organizing wh...
Chapter
This chapter is dedicated to the methods and techniques which have been used to assess and measure the sol to gel transition and the gel point. The rheological methods have been the first to be applied even if the change in viscosity is not a reliable way to define the gel point. The viscosity gives, however, direct information on the change of the...
Chapter
The sol to gel transition is a critical phenomenon which is observed in systems of different nature and composition. Several theories using different mathematical approaches have been developed with the main purpose of predicting the gel point. These models have been applied to systems which grow in a stochastic way and to different practical probl...
Chapter
Sol-gel processing is a highly versatile method and allows obtaining a large variety of materials of different composition such as oxides, mixed oxides, and hybrid organic-inorganic materials. The chemistry of the process largely depends on the choice of precursors. Inorganic salts, metal alkoxides, and organosilanes are some of the most common com...
Article
Raman spectroscopy is one of the most sensitive analytical techniques with the possibility of reaching single molecule detection through the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Mesoporous materials, which exhibit an organized porosity in the 2–10 nm range, represent an advanced platform for developing SERS-based systems and devices for multip...
Chapter
After a lifetime of wandering around Italy, Leonardo made his way to France in the autumn of 1516, accompanied by his servant Battista, and his beloved pupils Francesco Melzi and Salai. He was tired and sick and likely knew that this might be his final journey. Leonardo brought with him some of his most famous paintings, the Gioconda (Mona Lisa) an...
Chapter
One of the best preserved treasures of the Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana (The Ambrosian Library) in Milan, one of the oldest libraries in the world, is an incredible collection of 1110 folios written by Leonardo da Vinci. They form the so-called Codex Atlanticus. It is the largest surviving collection of notes from Leonardo and has a complicated...
Chapter
On folio 1058v of the Codex Atlanticus, Leonardo traced a small drawing which has garnered much attention despite its size. It is not very flashy in the context of the page but strikes a contemporary observer at first sight. It is a rough sketch of a man hanging from a pyramidal object seemingly made of cloth (Fig. 4.1).
Chapter
During the Renaissance, engineering techniques for shipbuilding were of enormous civilian and military interest. At the time, ships were still powered by traditional systems of sails and oars, but new possibilities started to be proposed. These were mostly exploratory in nature and would only come to fruition centuries later, with the emergence of...
Chapter
The dream of a machine able to remain indefinitely in motion without any external energy source—i.e., the possibility of perpetual motion—is one of those die-hard ideas that still haunts the imagination of many amateur inventors. The history of the search for perpetual motion is full of frustrating attempts, failures, and reattempts in spite of the...
Chapter
As we saw in the previous chapter, Leonardo developed a very special affection for the geometry of solids which guided him into a fascinating exploration of new forms. This work was not only driven by intellectual curiosity but was also inspired by the need to couple function and form in the design of his innovative machines, such as the “automobil...
Chapter
The Renaissance engineers devoted special attention to a particular kind of war instrument: the war chariots. The result of their efforts is an impressive list of mobile systems for warfare: scythed chariots, wagons loaded with soldiers, armored vehicles with protection from external attacks, mobile towers built to break through defensive walls, an...
Chapter
The close relationship between art and science is a distinctive feature of the Renaissance, and, as we have observed again and again, Leonardo represents one of the highest points of this synthesis. The scientific knowledge that he obtained via his studies became a fundamental instrument also for his work as an artist and vice versa. As discussed i...
Chapter
Among the most famous images of Leonardo, next to the paintings of the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper, we can certainly place the Vitruvian Man, a figure that perfectly represents the Renaissance ideal of man as the measure of all things and the center of creation. Few other images have so captured the popular imagination to become a global icon and...
Chapter
Leonardo was an affable and gentle person, and during the course of his whole life, he was surrounded by the affection of his many pupils and friends. In Milan, as we have seen in the previous chapter, he enjoyed something akin to brotherhood with Giacomo Andrea, and he also had a very special friendship with the Tuscan mathematician Luca Pacioli w...
Chapter
The artist-engineers of the Renaissance, including Leonardo, had a special passion, even obsession, for the natural element of water. They dedicated a lot of time to hydraulic studies and to designing innovative machines using water as the driving force. This attraction to water should not come as a surprise. After all, aside from animal power, wat...
Chapter
To indicate the inability to achieve an enterprise or the futility of some theoretical disquisitions, a range of idiomatic expressions are frequently used in our daily conversation, such as discussing “how many angels can stand on the point of a pin” This saying comes from the long disputes of medieval scholars about angelology, which now appear of...
Chapter
Leonardo da Vinci dedicated a full page, folio 33r in the Manuscript B, to illustrating a strange type of gun whose invention he attributed to Archimedes (c. 287 BC–212 BC). Leonardo described system’s working in detail and accompanied the note with two drawings, one showing the instrument’s operation (Fig. 15.1) and the other presenting a design f...
Chapter
Measuring time as accurately as possible has always represented a significant technological challenge. Rather simple time measurement systems had been developed since antiquity, such as hourglasses, sundials, and water clocks, but it was only with the advent of the first mechanical systems in the late Middle Ages that the way would be paved for the...
Chapter
The construction of the Cupola of the cathedral in Florence (Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore) by the Florentine architect Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446) represents one of those influencing events that are capable of affecting the course of history—in this case the history of art and technology. The Cupola is not only one of the greatest maste...
Chapter
The general perception of Leonardo da Vinci as a self-educated genius who suddenly appeared in Florence during the Renaissance is highly fascinating and romantic, but unfortunately quite far from the reality. This popular image does not take into account the extraordinarily fertile environment of the time, when versatile artists and architects were...
Article
Graphene oxide/iron (III -VI) oxides nanocomposites have been produced with a fast and one-pot synthesis. K2FeO4 (Fe(VI)-based compound), obtained from a dry synthesis, has been used as a green oxidant of graphite to produce graphene oxide, avoiding the use of the toxic permanganates. Graphene oxide flakes with a low oxidation degree and decorated...
Article
Full-text available
A highly sensitive and selective Raman sensor has been developed by combining molecularly imprinted cavities, silver nanoparticles, and graphene oxide into a hybrid organic-inorganic film. The molecular imprinted nanocomposite material is an advanced platform that exhibits Graphene-mediated Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering. The sensing layers have...
Article
Full-text available
MIL-88A (Fe) MOF crystals were nucleated and grown around a polymer core containing superparamagnetic nanoparticles to assemble a new class of biocompatible particles for magnetophoretic drug delivery of dopamine. The carrier enabled efficient targeted release, dopamine protection from oxidative damage, long-term delivery and improved drug delivery...
Chapter
Organic-inorganic sol-gel hybrid materials (OIHM) possess a high variability in configurations and arrangements of the organic and inorganic components, whose interaction can be mainly regulated through different weak or strong iono-covalent bonds. They can be prepared employing organically modified alkoxides which contain one or more covalent bond...
Chapter
This chapter wishes to provide the reader with some examples of composite materials obtained through integration of carbon-based nanostructures, graphene and carbon dots, into mesoporous materials and some of the issues thereof. After a brief introduction to the chemistry of graphene and its derivatives, relevant for understanding the problems asso...
Book
This engaging book places Leonardo da Vinci’s scientific achievements within the wider context of the rapid development that occurred during the Renaissance. It demonstrates how his contributions were not in fact born of isolated genius, but rather part of a rich period of collective advancement in science and technology, which began at least 50 ye...
Article
Full-text available
Mesoporous ordered materials, whose porosity is within the 2–50-nm range, are an ideal host for functional nanoparticles. Mesoporous thin films, in particular, offer a large variety of options for the fabrication of advanced materials and devices based on the host-guest combination of matrix nanoparticles. Nanocomposite mesoporous films embedding m...
Article
Graphene oxide – silver nanoparticle composites (GO-Ag) have been developed as a stable Raman sensing system. The Ag loading and concentration of GO-Ag dispersion have been optimized as a function of the Raman response. The silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been well dispersed and anchored to the GO surface. The system has shown an excellent enhan...
Article
Carbon dots are an emerging class of carbon-based nanostructures produced by low-cost raw materials which exhibit a widely-tunable photoluminescence and a high quantum yield. The potential of these nanomaterials as a substitute of semiconductor quantum dots in optoelectronics and biomedicine is very high, however they need a customized chemistry to...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) are able to store and release oxygen, conferring them scavenger activity against oxidative stress. However, their effects in reproductive systems are not yet well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure of refrigerated ram semen to CeO2NPs for 96 h on the main str...
Article
The photoluminescence of thin films doped with fluorescent dyes, such as rhodamine 6G (Rh6G), is strongly dependent on their concentration and aggregation states. We have doped ZnO dense and mesostructured thin films with different concentrations of Rh6G. The films have been prepared via sol-gel using a block copolymer as template to obtain the mes...
Article
Full-text available
Advanced optical applications of fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) require highly integrated host-guest solid-state materials with a careful design of C-dots – matrix interface to control the optical response. We have developed a new synthesis based on the grafting of an organo-functional silane (3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, GPTMS) on amino-...
Article
A selective sensing platform for the organophosphate paraoxon, a highly toxic organic pollutant, has been designed and tested on water samples. A porous hybrid organic–inorganic film, synthesised using tetraethoxysilane, 1,8-bis(triethoxysilyl) octane and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, has been molecularly imprinted with a structural analogue of p...
Article
The application of titania materials to gas sensing devices based on thin films are of limited utility because they only operate at a high working temperature and exhibit in general a low sensitivity. To overcome these constraints, a new type of oxygen sensor based on mesoporous titania thin films working at room temperature under UV irradiation ha...
Article
The present study investigated whether supplementation with different doses of cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) during in vitro maturation (IVM) of prepubertal ovine oocytes influenced their embryonic development in vitro. Cumulus–oocyte complexes derived from the ovaries of slaughtered prepubertal sheep underwent IVM with CeO2NPs (0, 44, 88...
Article
Green synthesis is one of the hot topics in the chemistry of hybrid organic–inorganic materials. A alcohol-free sol–gel process has been developed to prepare optically transparent hybrid films from an epoxy bearing alkoxide, [2-(3,4-epoxy-cyclohexyl)-ethyl]-trimethoxysilane (ECTMS). The synthesis is simple and effective because only two components,...