Pipsa Saharinen

Pipsa Saharinen
University of Helsinki | HY · Translational Cancer Biology

PhD

About

104
Publications
12,655
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6,842
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2017 - present
University of Helsinki
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (104)
Preprint
Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), a hyperplasia consisting of enlarged malformed vasculature and spindle-shaped cells, the main proliferative component of KS. While spindle cells express markers of lymphatic and blood endothelium, the origin of spindle cells is unknown. Endothelial precursor cells...
Article
Full-text available
Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) induces lymphangiogenesis via VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR3), encoded by the most frequently mutated gene in human primary lymphedema. Angiopoietins (Angs) and their Tie receptors regulate lymphatic vessel development and mutations of the ANGPT2 gene were recently found in human primary lymphedema. However, t...
Article
Background and aims Secretory phospholipase A2 (PLA2) hydrolyzes LDL phospholipids generating modified LDL particles (PLA2-LDL) with increased atherogenic properties. Exocytosis of Weibel–Palade bodies (WPB) releases angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) and externalizes P-selectin, which both play important roles in vascular inflammation. Here, we investigated th...
Article
Primary lymphedema is caused by developmental and functional defects of the lymphatic vascular system that result in accumulation of protein-rich fluid in tissues, resulting in edema. The 28 currently known genes causing primary lymphedema can explain <30% of cases. Angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1) and ANGPT2 function via the TIE1-TIE2 (tyrosine kinase with...
Chapter
Tumor blood vessel formation (angiogenesis) is essential for tumor growth and metastasis. Two main endothelial ligand–receptor pathways regulating angiogenesis are vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor and angiopoietin-TIE receptor pathways. The angiopoietin-TIE pathway is required for the remodeling and maturation of the blood and lym...
Article
Most non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) contain nontargetable mutations, including KRAS, TP53, or STK11/LKB1 alterations. By coupling ex vivo drug sensitivity profiling with in vivo drug response studies, we aimed to identify drug vulnerabilities for these NSCLC subtypes. Primary adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) or adenocarcinoma (AC) cultures were e...
Article
Increased capillary leakage is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with sepsis and cytokine release syndrome (CRS) that develops as a side effect of novel chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell cancer immunotherapies. CRS and sepsis are characterized by immune activation, resulting in elevated circulating levels of inflammatory cyto...
Article
Full-text available
Loss of endothelial integrity promotes capillary leakage in numerous diseases, including sepsis, but there are no effective therapies for preserving endothelial barrier function. Angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) is a context-dependent regulator of vascular leakage that signals via both endothelial TEK receptor tyrosine kinase (TIE2) and integrins. Here, we...
Article
Full-text available
Lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis correlate with poor clinical outcome in melanoma. However, the mechanisms of lymphatic dissemination in distant metastasis remain incompletely understood. We show here that exposure of expansively growing human WM852 melanoma cells, but not singly invasive Bowes cells, to lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC...
Data
related to Figure 2 and containing more than two fold significantly altered genes.
Data
related to Figure 2 and containing all genes significantly up- and downregulated listed for both cell lines in the selected pathways.
Article
Angiopoietins signal through TIE receptors to control both developmental and homeostatic processes that can go awry in genetic diseases and cancer. This SnapShot illustrates key elements of angiopoietin signaling in normal and disease contexts.
Article
The endothelial angiopoietin (ANG)-TIE growth factor receptor pathway regulates vascular permeability and pathological vascular remodelling during inflammation, tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. Drugs that target the ANG-TIE pathway are in clinical development for oncological and ophthalmological applications. The aim is to complement current vas...
Article
Full-text available
The endothelial cell (EC)-specific receptor tyrosine kinases Tie1 and Tie2 are necessary for the remodeling and maturation of blood and lymphatic vessels. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) growth factor is a Tie2 agonist, whereas Ang2 functions as a context-dependent agonist/antagonist. The orphan receptor Tie1 modulates Tie2 activation, which is induced by as...
Article
Full-text available
Endothelial cells that form the inner layer of blood and lymphatic vessels are important regulators of vascular functions and centrally involved in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In addition to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor pathway, the angiopoietin (Ang)–Tie system is a second endothelial cell specific ligand–recep...
Article
Angiopoietin-2 (ANG2) regulates blood vessel remodeling in many pathological conditions through differential effects on Tie2 signaling. While ANG2 competes with ANG1 to inhibit Tie2, it can paradoxically also promote Tie2 phosphorylation (p-Tie2). A related paradox is that both inactivation and overactivation of Tie2 can result in vascular remodeli...
Article
Full-text available
The angiopoietin/Tie (ANG/Tie) receptor system controls developmental and tumor angiogenesis, inflammatory vascular remodeling, and vessel leakage. ANG1 is a Tie2 agonist that promotes vascular stabilization in inflammation and sepsis, whereas ANG2 is a context-dependent Tie2 agonist or antagonist. A limited understanding of ANG signaling mechanism...
Article
Objective: To evaluate Ang-2 expression alone and in combination with expression of cell proliferation and cell survival markers (MIB-1 and Bcl-2) and angiogenesis markers (VEGFR3 and CD31), and the associations of these markers with renal cell cancer (RCC) in long-term survival. Patients and methods: Our study included 224 patients with RCC who...
Article
Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is a major driver of lymphangiogenesis in embryos and adults. Vegfc gene deletion in mouse embryos results in failure of lymphangiogenesis, fluid accumulation in tissues, and lethality. The VEGF-C receptors VEGFR3 and VEGFR2 are required for embryonic blood vessel formation. The related VEGF is essentia...
Article
Background: In transplantation-associated ischemia/reperfusion injury (Tx-IRI), tumor necrosis factor alpha and damage-associated molecular patterns promote caspase-8 and -9 apoptotic and receptor-interacting protein kinase-1 and -3 (RIPK1/3) necroptotic pathway activation. The extent of cell death and the counterbalance between apoptosis and regu...
Article
Full-text available
The Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2, Angpt2) growth factor is a context-dependent antagonist/agonist ligand of the endothelial Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase and known to promote tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. Angiopoietin antagonists have been tested in clinical cancer trials in combination with VEGF-based anti-angiogenic therapy, including sunitinib, wh...
Data
Distribution of patients according to Ang2 and CD31 expression scores. (A-B) The distribution of patients (n = 136) according to the Ang2 (A) and CD31 (B) expression scores (from negative (0) to high (3) expression), and further categorisation into the low and high expression categories. (C) The distribution of patients according to both Ang2 and C...
Data
Correlation of Ang2, CD31, Ki-67 and response scores. (A) Spearman rank order correlation between Ang2 and CD31 expression scores, and (B) Ang2 expression and response scores. Boxplots alongside the xy-axis represent the distribution of samples based on Ang2, CD31 and response scores. Ang2 scores are distributed primarily towards the lower scores (...
Data
Distribution of patients according to tumour Ang2 and CD31 expression scores in the Ang2 and CD31 high and low categories. (PDF)
Data
Associations between renal cell cancer Ang2 and CD31 expression and objective response rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). (PDF)
Data
Supplementary Information. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) binding to its tyrosine kinase receptor VEGFR-3 drives lymphatic vessel growth during development and in pathological processes. Although the VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 pathway provides a target for treatment of cancer and lymphedema, the physiological functions of VEGF-C in adult vasculature are unknown. We show h...
Article
Background: Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) is an endothelial cell derived growth factor, which promotes tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. Ang2 is a promising target for anti-angiogenic therapies, but its potential as a biomarker for anti-angiogenic therapies remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate expression of the Ang2-Tie...
Article
During angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration is coordinated by integrin-mediated contact with the extra-cellular matrix (ECM), coupled with receptor tyrosine kinase signalling to regulate dynamic cytoskeletal and plasma membrane reorganization. A recent paper by Vitorino et al (2015) defined a new MAP4K4–moesin–talin–β1-integrin pathway that cou...
Article
461 Background: The endothelial growth factor angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) is a target for novel anti-angiogenic therapies, but its potential as a biomarker remains unknown. Methods: We evaluated Ang2, CD31 and Ki67 expression in tumors of 136 patients with metastatic RCC (mRCC) treated with first-line sunitinib from tumor samples. Results: Ang2 was exclu...
Article
Full-text available
Angiopoietins regulate vascular homeostasis via the endothelial Tie receptor tyrosine kinases. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) supports endothelial stabilization via Tie2 activation. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) functions as a context-dependent Tie2 agonist/antagonist promoting pathological angiogenesis, vascular permeability and inflammation. Elucidating Ang2-depe...
Article
Full-text available
The endothelial TIE1 and TIE2 receptor tyrosine kinases form a distinct subfamily characterized by their unique extracellular domains. Together with the angiopoietin growth factors (ANGPT1, ANGPT2, ANGPT4, also abbreviated as ANG), the TIE receptors form an endothelial specific signaling pathway with important functions in the regulation of lymphat...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying coronary artery progenitors and their developmental pathways could inspire novel regenerative treatments for heart disease. Multiple sources of coronary vessels have been proposed, including the sinus venosus (SV), endocardium and proepicardium, but their relative contributions to the coronary circulation and the molecular mechanisms re...
Article
Full-text available
Coronary arteries (CAs) stem from the aorta at 2 highly stereotyped locations, deviations from which can cause myocardial ischemia and death. CA stems form during embryogenesis when peritruncal blood vessels encircle the cardiac outflow tract and invade the aorta, but the underlying patterning mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, using murine mo...
Article
Full-text available
In glaucoma, aqueous outflow into the Schlemm's canal (SC) is obstructed. Despite striking structural and functional similarities with the lymphatic vascular system, it is unknown whether the SC is a blood or lymphatic vessel. Here, we demonstrated the expression of lymphatic endothelial cell markers by the SC in murine and zebrafish models as well...
Article
Transplant ischemia-reperfusion injury (Tx-IRI) and allograft dysfunction remain as two of the major clinical challenges after heart transplantation. We investigated the role of angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) in Tx-IRI and rejection using fully MHC-mismatched rat cardiac allografts. We report that plasma levels of Ang2 were significantly enhanced in the hum...
Article
Full-text available
The endothelial Tie1 receptor is ligand-less, but interacts with the Tie2 receptor for angiopoietins (Angpt). Angpt2 is expressed in tumor blood vessels, and its blockade inhibits tumor angiogenesis. Here we found that Tie1 deletion from the endothelium of adult mice inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth by decreasing endothelial cell survival in...
Article
Full-text available
The endothelial cell is the essential cell type forming the inner layer of the vasculature. Two families of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are almost completely endothelial cell specific: the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors (VEGFR1-3) and the Tie receptors (Tie1 and Tie2). Both are key players governing the generation of blood...
Article
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) after kidney transplantation may result in delayed graft function. We used rat renal artery clamping and transplantation models to investigate cholesterol-independent effects of clinically relevant single-dose peroral simvastatin treatment 2 h before renal ischemia on microvascular injury. The expression of HMG-CoA...
Article
The angiopoietin (Ang) growth factors and the endothelial Tie receptors regulate blood and lymphatic vessel development, and vascular permeability, inflammation, angiogenic remodeling and tumor vascularization in adult tissues. The angiopoietins activate the Tie receptors in unique in trans complexes at endothelial cell-cell and cell-matrix contact...
Article
Full-text available
There is an unmet need for proangiogenic therapeutic molecules for the treatment of tissue ischemia in cardiovascular diseases. However, major inducers of angiogenesis such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF/VEGF-A) have side effects that limit their therapeutic utility in vivo, especially at high concentrations. Angiopoietin-1 has been co...
Article
Full-text available
Angiopoietin 1 (Ang1) is an activating ligand for the endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2, whereas Ang2 acts as a context-dependent agonist or antagonist that has a destabilizing effect on the vasculature. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the versatile functions of Ang2 are poorly understood. We show here that Ang2, but not Ang1, indu...
Article
Full-text available
Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), a ligand for endothelial TEK (Tie2) tyrosine kinase receptor, is induced in hypoxic endothelial cells of tumors, where it promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth. However, the effects of Ang2 on tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis are poorly characterized. We addressed the effect of Ang2 on tumor progression and metastasis...
Article
Full-text available
Twenty years after the discovery of the vascular endothelial Tie receptor tyrosine kinases and 15 years after the discovery of the Tie2 ligand, angiopoietin-1 (Angpt1, also known as Ang1), a study published in the current issue of the JCI reveals an unexpected loss-of-function phenotype of mice conditionally deleted of the Angpt1 gene. The results...
Article
Solid tumors require blood vessels for growth and dissemination, and lymphatic vessels as additional conduits for metastatic spread. The identification of growth factor receptor pathways regulating angiogenesis has led to the clinical approval of the first antiangiogenic molecules targeted against the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-VEGF...
Article
Full-text available
Tie-2 is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family and is required for vascular remodeling and maintenance of mammalian vessel integrity. A number of mutations in the human TIE2 gene have been identified in patients suffering from cutaneomucosal venous malformations and ventricular septal defects. How exactly Tie-2 signaling pathways play dif...
Article
Full-text available
The Claudin-like protein of 24 kDa (CLP24) is a hypoxia-regulated transmembrane protein of unknown function. We show here that clp24 knockdown in Danio rerio and Xenopus laevis results in defective lymphatic development. Targeted disruption of Clp24 in mice led to enlarged lymphatic vessels having an abnormal smooth muscle cell coating. We also sho...
Article
The endothelial cells of the blood and lymphatic vessels are involved in common human diseases. Excess blood and lymphatic vessel growth enhances tumor progression and metastasis, whereas insufficient growth leads to tissue ischemia and lymphedema. Lymphatic and blood vascular endothelial cells are regulated by two endothelial specific receptor tyr...
Article
Studies of Tie1 gene-targeted embryos have demonstrated loss of blood vessel integrity, but the relevance of Tie1 in lymphatic vasculature development is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the swelling observed in Tie1 mutant embryos is associated with lymphatic vascular defects. We could extend the survival of the Tie1-deficient embryos in the...
Article
Full-text available
The lymphatic vasculature is important for the regulation of tissue fluid homeostasis, immune response, and lipid absorption, and the development of in vitro models should allow for a better understanding of the mechanisms regulating lymphatic vascular growth, repair, and function. Here we report isolation and characterization of lymphatic endothel...
Article
Full-text available
Heterozygous mutations in VEGFR3 have been identified in some familial cases with dominantly inherited primary congenital lymphoedema, known as Nonne-Milroy disease. Recessive cases of primary lymphoedema with a genetic cause are not known, except for two families with syndromic hypotrichosis-lymphoedema-telangiectasia, with a SOX18 mutation. In th...
Article
Full-text available
The receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2, and its activating ligand Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), are required for vascular remodelling and vessel integrity, whereas Ang2 may counteract these functions. However, it is not known how Tie2 transduces these different signals. Here, we show that Ang1 induces unique Tie2 complexes in mobile and confluent endothelial c...
Chapter
The Tie1 and Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinases and the angiopoietin growth factor ligands, Ang1-4, are essential for vascular maturation. Targeted deletion of any of the Tie1,Tie2 or Ang1 genes in mice results in embryonic lethality during embryonic days 9.5–13.5. The receptors are expressed mainly in endothelial cells, while Ang1 is produced by periv...
Article
Full-text available
The in vivo functions of lymphatic endothelial cells depend on their microenvironment, which cannot be fully reproduced in vitro. Because of technical limitations, gene expression in uncultured, "ex vivo" lymphatic endothelial cells has not been characterized at the molecular level. We combined tissue micropreparation and direct cell isolation with...