PingSun Leung

PingSun Leung
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa | UH Manoa · Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management

Ph.D.

About

279
Publications
64,749
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,370
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1981 - present
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Position
  • Professor
January 1981 - present
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (279)
Article
Fish and seafood (seafoods in short) are nutritious and environment-friendly aquatic foods that receive increasing attention for their existing and potential contribution to global food security and nutrition. With a general perception or premise that growing and wealthier world population would demand much more seafoods to satisfy their needs for...
Book
Full-text available
While diversified aquaculture could reduce both biological and financial risks, the private sector may lack incentives to diversify the species composition of aquaculture production because developing or adopting new species tends to be costly and risky. Conversely, concentrating on the most efficient species can benefit from economies of scale in...
Preprint
Full-text available
The final version of the paper (with a slightly different title) was published in Global Food Security 33 (100641). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2022.100641
Article
Previous empirical studies reveal conflicting results of estimating the price differential between locally produced foods and their imported counterparts. This study aims to identify possible key determinants of these diverse findings under the 5W1H conceptual scaffold. We conduct a meta-analysis of the empirical evidence on price premiums or disco...
Article
Full-text available
The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is one of the most destructive pests worldwide. In Hawaii, coffee farmers have adjusted their farm management practices to deal with CBB since its introduction in 2010. This study addresses decisions coffee farmers make to combat damage from the coffee berry borer in Hawaii. The decision to spray o...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the market dynamics of local and imported foods in Honolulu’s retail market. Our study employs weekly Nielsen scanner data covering 3 years for four selected foods, namely lettuce, tomatoes, milk, and eggs. The results from vector-autoregressive models and impulse response functions indicate that the prices of imported foods are exog...
Article
Gross value added (GVA) is a common indicator of an industry/sector’s economic performance. While an economy’s total GVA is always equal to its total final use, an individual industry/sector’s GVA is usually not equal to its final use. Yet an accounting identity between an industry/sector’s GVA and the final use of multiple industries/sectors can b...
Article
Full-text available
Analyzing tradeoffs among ecological, economic, and management goals with respect to marine reserve network design is an important facet of systematic conservation planning. We designed an integer linear programming model to quantify tradeoffs among five marine reserve network aspects: ecological conservation value, economic opportunity cost, geogr...
Article
The local food movement in Hawaii has been gaining traction in recent years. However, it is unclear whether consumers’ preference for locally produced food items translates to a higher price, compared to imported alternatives, over time. According to short-term (eg single-year) scanner data, the results of hedonic pricing studies on the existence a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Abstract We assess the impact of the coffee berry borer (CBB) on the Hawai'i coffee industry shortly after the discovery of the pest in 2010. A direct comparison using 2012 Ag Census data to our baseline study based on the 2007 Ag Census (Woodill et al. 2014) shows little impact. The analysis was expanded to use an annual series starting from 1992...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The contribution of aquaculture and fisheries to gross domestic product (GDP) is one of the most widely used indicators of its economic performance. Despite strong interest in and great efforts made towards assessing the contribution of aquaculture and fisheries to GDP, there is a general lack of understanding or consensus on how to properly measur...
Article
No-take marine reserves are common strategies used in spatial fisheries management. There are at least four general objectives for marine reserve design: (1) maximizing conservation, (2) minimizing total reserve area, (3) maximizing reserve compactness, and (4) minimizing socioeconomic opportunity cost (e.g., fisheries revenue). A spatial optimizat...
Article
Full-text available
We develop a fully calibrated positive mathematical programming model for Hawaii’s local food systems—which captures the production and the consumer sides of the market. Then we use the model to assess two proposed policies—a general excise tax (GET) exemption on locally produced foods, and an investment in agricultural infrastructure. For the GET...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Tilapia is the world’s most popular aquaculture species, farmed mostly in earthen ponds. Experience in China, the largest tilapia farming country, is used to develop and calibrate a bioeconomic model of intensive tilapia pond culture. The model is used to simulate the impacts of climate, technical and/or economic factors on farming performance and...
Article
Local food has become the foci of food self-sufficiency and sustainable development. This work explores the dynamic interactions between local and imported food in Hawaii, which is a typical small, open economy and an ideal market for a local food system study. Retail scanner data of three major grocery chain stores are used to construct a time ser...
Article
Full-text available
Integrated pest management strategies were adopted to combat the coffee berry borer (CBB) after its arrival in Hawaii in 2010. A decision tree framework is used to model the CBB integrated pest management recommendations, for potential use by growers and to assist in developing and evaluating management strategies and policies. The model focuses on...
Article
Locally grown oysters became available in Hawai‘i in 2014, for the first time in decades. It is unclear if these bivalve shellfish will successfully infiltrate the market when imported products similar in nature have long been the only source of fresh, shell stock products. This study investigates chef preferences for oyster attributes to determine...
Article
We present a vessel and target-specific positive mathematical programming model (PMP) for Hawaii's longline fishing fleet. Although common in agricultural economics, PMP modeling is rarely attempted in fisheries. To demonstrate the flexibility of the PMP framework, we separate tuna and swordfish production technologies into three policy-relevant fi...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional fishpond aquaculture in Hawai‘i has declined since global trade provided access to cheaper, imported food. Farming non-native species like the Pacific oyster may prove more profitable than traditional species, and may help maintain the practice of fishpond aquaculture. Little literature exists on the economics of Hawai‘i’s oyster cultur...
Article
Harvesting common-pool fishery resources is often a competitive activity and important questions remain about the costs and benefits of engaging in cooperative behavior. Here, we link comprehensive data on fisher's information exchange networks and economic productivity to test hypotheses about when it pays to cooperate by exchanging different type...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A short-term projection model is developed to assess and monitor potential future fish demand and supply gaps at the country (nearly 200 countries or territories), regional (about 40 country groups), and global levels for nine species groups. Salient results at the global, regional and country levels are presented in the main text. Key results for...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This article updates the contribution of agriculture to Hawai‘i’s economy as measured in terms of GDP, employment, labor income, and sales. Overall, the chosen metrics show a slightly declining trend as the state’s diversifying economy outpaces the growth of agriculture in recent years. In 2013, agriculture contributed to 1.2% of nominal GDP, 1.0%...
Article
Full-text available
Social networks can profoundly affect human behavior, which is the primary force driving environmental change. However, empirical evidence linking microlevel social interactions to large-scale environmental outcomes has remained scarce. Here, we leverage comprehensive data on information-sharing networks among large-scale commercial tuna fishers to...
Article
Full-text available
Hedonic modeling and retail scanner data were utilized to investigate the influence of local, organic, nutrition benefits, and other attributes of shell eggs on retail price premium in Hawaii. Within a revealed preference framework, the analysis of local and organic attributes, simultaneously, under a single unified setting is important, as such wo...
Article
There is a growing body of literature positively linking dimensions of social capital to economic benefits. Yet recent research also points to a potential “dark side” of social capital, where over-embeddedness in networks and the pressures associated with brokerage are hypothesized to constrain actors, having a negative effect on economic outcomes....
Article
Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, econ...
Article
Full-text available
This article utilizes the 2011 Nielsen scanner data for the Honolulu fresh tomato market to explore the existence of price premium for local food. Hedonic analysis is conducted to delineate the price impact of the local attribute. Contrary to the widely perceived local price premium in the consumer preference literature, mixed results of price prem...
Article
"Buying local" has become one of the most important trends in food marketing. Despite widespread public attention, the influence of the "local" attribute on food prices is not well understood. We aim to begin to fill this gap in research by exploring the presence of a price premium for "local" in actual market transactions. Using scanner data on fr...
Article
Full-text available
In the 1990’s, Little Fire Ants (LFA) found its way to the island of Hawaii, most likely traveling with a shipment of potted plants from Florida. These plants were subsequently sold to consumers along the east coast of the Island, along with Little Fire Ant colonies living in the potting medium. LFA is now thriving and continues to spread. Fifteen...
Article
With retail scanner data, we applied hedonic price modeling to explore price premiums for organic, local, and other product attributes of fluid milk in Hawaii. Within the context of revealed preference, this analysis of organic and local attributes, under a single unified framework, is significant, as research in this area is deficient in the exist...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaponics, the symbiotic integration of aquaculture and hydroponics, has been touted as a sustainable food production technology. While there is anecdotal evidence, there are only a few studies on the economics of commercial aquaponics. In this study, we collect economic and production information from three aquaponic farms to investigate the econ...
Article
This study investigated if Hawaii chefs use wild seafood products over farm-raised and local over imports. Chefs were asked to estimate their purchases for shrimp, tuna, mahimahi, and salmon. Chefs were also asked to choose products within conjoint choice experiments to indirectly determine their preferences. Price is the most important attribute f...
Article
Full-text available
Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others...
Article
A multi-objective programming model has been applied to investigate conflicting goals of the Norwegian cod fisheries. The goals included in this article are economic rent and employment. Fisheries managers are confronted with the problem of how best to allocate the total allowable catch (TAC) of cod among eight vessel groups. Compromise solutions t...
Book
http://www.adb.org/publications/making-globalization-work-better-poor-through-contract-farming
Technical Report
Full-text available
The little fire ant (LFA), Wasmannia auropunctata, threatens native biodiversity, alters tropical ecosystems, impairs human health, impedes tourism, diminishes agricultural productivity, mars horticulture sales, and accordingly ranks among the world's worst invasive species. LFA will sting endangered reptiles and birds, interfering with reproductio...
Article
Due to expanding trade and increasing concentration of production during the past few decades, small local farms have faced ever-growing competitive pressures. We investigate the impacts of this globalization on production of local food by examining Hawaiʻi’s open island economy and econometrically evaluating impacts of import competition on the gr...
Article
This study examines the technical efficiency (TE) of aquaculture farms in Hawaii. Policy makers and industry participants interested in assessing the economic outlook of aquaculture production not only have to assess measures of profitability and financial health, but also measures of production efficiency. We estimate the TE of the state's aquafar...
Conference Paper
The final report of the World Commission on the Environment and Development, also known as the Brundtl and Report, defines sustainable development as" development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Subsequent international efforts such as the Rio de Janeiro Conference...
Article
Full-text available
As public interest in food security continues in Hawai‘i and elsewhere in the United States of America, so does the deluge of competing food concepts. Many issues in these overlapping concepts remain hazy, with various proponents advocating for different objectives. While food self-sufficiency is less desirable from an efficiency or trade standpoin...
Article
We apply the target revenue model, a version of prospect theory, to investigate how fishermen adjust their trip length to changes in daily revenue. The key finding is that certain groups of fishermen seem more likely to behave according to the target revenue model rather than to the standard model of labor supply. We also find that vessel capacity...
Article
Full-text available
At the current time, Hawai‘i lacks an established set of benchmark estimates on the availability of food for market consumption and its supply sources. This paper serves to fill a persistent gap in the existing literature by providing an estimation framework to map the existing food supply flows from various sources and to determine the various lev...
Article
Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) models include a comprehensive accounting of regional income and institutional factors, and are intended to be capable of assessing distributional analysis. However, in practice, studies generally construct models that are not appropriately designed to capture income linkages. In this study, we demonstrate the use of...
Article
Full-text available
This investigation uses farm-level data from the U.S. Census of Agriculture to evaluate the economic performance of the aquaculture industry in Hawaii. We first examine the entire aquaculture industry by assessing its profitability, efficiency, and input cost structure over time and across economic farm sizes; we then proceed to analyze the farms a...
Article
Full-text available
2013. The influence of ethnic diversity on social network structure in a common-pool resource system: implications for collaborative management. Ecology and Society 18(1): 23. ABSTRACT. Social networks have recently been identified as key features in facilitating or constraining collaborative arrangements that can enhance resource governance and ad...
Conference Paper
The final report of the World Commission on the Environment and Development, also known as the Brundtland Report, defines sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present with-out compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Subsequent international efforts such as the Rio de Janeiro Conference...
Conference Paper
Fishery Management Model of Hawaii's Longline Fisheries (FMMHLF) is an agent-based simulation model designed for assessing the potential impacts of alternative fisheries regulatory policies on Hawaii's longline fisheries (HLF). By HLF we refer to Hawaii's fleet of longline fishing vessels and their owners and operators; and the regulatory agencies...
Article
Full-text available
Measures of consumption and supply sources of seafood can provide valuable input to research and policy planning of a viable food system. This article fills a gap in the existing literature by mapping the existing seafood supply flows from various sources (local, domestic U.S., and foreign) in Hawai‘i. The authors trace the seafood transshipment of...
Article
We are pleased to present this special issue of Marine Resource Economics consisting of selected papers from the North American Association of Fisheries Economists (NAAFE) Forum held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA from May 11 to 13, 2011. The seven selected papers cover a wide range of fisheries economics areas, reflecting the general, yet rather diverse...
Article
In this paper, we modified the two-region trade model developed by Dunn et al. (Agribusiness 3(4):393–402, 1987) for a small, open economy by incorporating the effect of transport cost on production cost. We then used the model to investigate the welfare impacts of rising transport cost in terms of consumer and producer surpluses, using the vegetab...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This study provides a comparison of seafood consumption and commercial supply sources between Hawaii and the overall United States. Measures of consumption in per capita expenditure, total edible weight, and per capita edible weight are presented. Seafood consumption by species and supply origin are also reported.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction to Information Systems and Decision Technologies for Sustainable Development Minitrack
Article
Full-text available
Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) are important components in healthy diets. Adequate intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) maintains proper neurodevelopment and reduces the risk of heart disease. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are found primarily in fish, seafood, eggs, sup...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This study compares the prices of different agricultural production inputs faced by Hawaii farmers with those faced by farmers from other competiting countries. The inputs under review include labor, energy, fertilizer, land, agricultural machinery, water, transportation, and financing.
Article
Even though international and regional fish markets may be geographically dispersed, the prices across different markets may exhibit long-run spatial linkages, suggesting that certain locations are integrated and that prices provide relevant market signals. In other words, it is possible that fish prices in different markets may vary in the short r...
Article
A conceptual model of a stochastic production process is proposed which illuminates the business perils associated with shortfalls in yields of aquacultured freshwater prawns. Commercial production data are statistically analyzed within the context of the model to measure the extent to which yield variability engenders financial risks for prawn pro...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the dynamics of a firm whose advertisements and sales contribute to its customers’ stock of goodwill. An advertising campaign precedes the firm’s sales when the marginal product of advertisement is sufficiently large (e.g., Amazon Kindle and Apple Macintosh), whereas sales of a new brand of a familiar product may start without ad...
Technical Report
Full-text available
After two decades of development and refinement, the Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) has been touted as the most comprehensive way to measure the economic contribution of tourism to a destination's gross domestic product. However, recent literature has pointed out that the TSA is deficient in that it does not yield the indirect contribution of tour...
Article
The paper explored the Bayesian hierarchical model as a possible way to incorporate growth variability in estimating shrimp growth function to enhance forecasting accuracy, using data from 16 growout ponds of a commercial shrimp farm in Hawaii. Based on a dataset of 571 weekly growth observations, the Bayesian hierarchical model is found to fit the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This study analyzes the comparative advantage of selected agricultural products of Hawaii in the Japanese market over the period 1995-2008, using the normalized revealed comparative advantage index. Results reveal that Hawaii is losing its comparative and competitive advantages in the Japanese market in some of its traditional agricultural products...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This study analyzes the comparative advantage of selected agricultural products of Hawaii in the Japanese market over the period 1995-2008, using the normalized revealed comparative advantage index. Results reveal that Hawaii is losing its comparative and competitive advantages in the Japanese market in some of its traditional agricultural products...