Pim Cuijpers

Pim Cuijpers
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam | VU · Department of Clinical Psychology

Ph.D.

About

1,302
Publications
557,789
Reads
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79,874
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - December 2012
Leiden University
January 2011 - present
University of Cape Town
January 2011 - present

Publications

Publications (1,302)
Article
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Background Cognitive therapy and behavioural activation are both widely applied and effective psychotherapies for depression, but it is unclear which works best for whom. Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis allows for examining moderators at the participant level and can provide more precise effect estimates than conventional meta-analy...
Preprint
Background Understanding mental health treatment preferences of adolescents and youth is particularly important for interventions to be acceptable and successful. Person-centered care mandates empowering individuals to take charge of their own health rather than being passive recipients of services. Methods We conducted a discrete choice experimen...
Article
Objective: This study aimed to explore the association of age with individual depression and anxiety symptoms and their connectivity (i.e., number/strength of connections with other symptoms) in girls and boys. Method: Our study comprised cross-sectional data from 31,960 Dutch girls and 32,162 Dutch boys aged 8 to 18 and considered 11 depression...
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Background Examine the onset of a clinical diagnosis of mood (major depression, dysthymia and bipolar disorder)- and anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia without panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia and generalized anxiety disorder) by Body Mass Index levels at baseline in the general adult population over three years. Methods...
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Introduction It is unclear how internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) can be integrated into healthcare systems, and little is known about the optimal level of therapist guidance. The aim of this study is to investigate three different versions of a stepped care model for insomnia (IG1, IG2, IG3) versus treatment as u...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Depression and anxiety are common mental health conditions in college/ university student populations. Offering transdiagnostic, web-based prevention programs, such as ICare Prevent, to those with subclinical complaints has the potential to reduce some barriers to receiving help, e.g., availability of services, privacy considerations, an...
Preprint
Item 10 of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is intended to assess thoughts of intentional self-harm but may also elicit concerns about accidental self-harm. It does not specifically address suicide ideation but, nonetheless, is sometimes used as an indicator of suicidality. The 9-item version of the EPDS (EPDS-9), which omits item 10...
Article
The target article presented a plausible argument that females' susceptibility to threats might be self-protection for staying alive, but some evidence requires scrutiny. We need to consider (1) the biases of narrative reviews, (2) subjective life quality, and (3) the shadow side of extreme reactions to threats before concluding that females' threa...
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Because of the rapidly increasing number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses in many fields, there is an urgent need to step up from meta-analyses to higher levels of aggregation of outcomes of RCTs. Network meta-analyses and umbrella reviews allow higher levels of aggregation of RCT outcomes, but cannot adequately cover the ev...
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Background: Literature highlights that adolescent mental health problems are amenable to treatment, specifically to psychological interventions. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of evidence on the services available for their management especially in low-middle-income contexts. This study aimed to highlight psychological interventions available to...
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The first year of college may carry especially high risk for onset of alcohol use disorders. We assessed the one-year incidence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) among incoming first-year students, predictors of AUD-incidence, prediction accuracy and population impact. A prospective cohort study of first-year college students (baseline: N = 5843; resp...
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Background Many patients with incurable cancer have symptoms affecting their health-related quality of life. The eHealth application ‘Oncokompas’ supports patients to take an active role in managing their palliative care needs, to reduce symptoms and improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This randomized controlled trial was conducted to d...
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Background Most displaced people with mental disorders in low- and middle-income countries do not receive effective care, and their access to care has deteriorated during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Digital mental health interventions are scalable when digital access is adequate, and they can be safely delivered during the COV...
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Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disease morbidity. Combined treatment with antidepressant medication (ADM) plus psychotherapy yields a much higher MDD remission rate than ADM only. But 77% of US MDD patients are nonetheless treated with ADM only despite strong patient preferences for psychotherapy. This mismatch is...
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Background Studies have identified high rates of mental disorders in refugees, but most used self-report measures of psychiatric symptoms. In this study, we examined the percentages of adult refugees and asylum seekers meeting diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder (BPD), and psycho...
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Aims As refugees and asylum seekers are at high risk of developing mental disorders, we assessed the effectiveness of Self-Help Plus (SH + ), a psychological intervention developed by the World Health Organization, in reducing the risk of developing any mental disorders at 12-month follow-up in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in Western Europ...
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Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are highly prevalent among university students and predict impaired college performance and later life role functioning. Yet most students do not receive treatment, especially in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). We aim to evaluate the effects of expanding treatmen...
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Background: Most people with mental disorders in communities exposed to adversity in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) do not receive effective care. Digital mental health interventions are scalable when digital access is adequate, and can be safely delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To examine the effects of a new W...
Article
Psychological treatment of depression can be made more accessible with internet-based interventions. A large number of trials has shown that on average these interventions are more effective when some kind of personal support by a clinician is given compared to unguided interventions. In order to examine whether there are subgroups of patients for...
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Importance: The cost-effectiveness of the Self-Help Plus (SH+) program, a group-based, guided, self-help psychological intervention developed by the World Health Organization for people affected by adversity, is unclear. Objective: To investigate the cost-utility of providing the SH+ intervention combined with enhanced usual care vs enhanced usu...
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Background Mental health-related stigma is a global public health concern and a major barrier to seeking care. In this study, we explored the role of stigma as a barrier to scaling up mental health services in primary health care (PHC) centres in Lebanon. We focused on the experiences of Healthcare Providers (HCPs) providing services to patients wi...
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Purpose This study aims to link scores of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale short version (RCADS-25) to the metric of the PROMIS pediatric item banks Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in a general Dutch population sample. Methods The RCADS-25 and PROMIS pediatric item banks Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms were administered online to 2,8...
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Introduction: The World Health Organization's (WHO) scalable psychological interventions, such as Problem Management Plus (PM+) and Step-by-Step (SbS) are designed to be cost-effective non-specialist delivered interventions to reduce symptoms of common mental disorders, such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The STR...
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The refugee experience is associated with several potentially traumatic events that increase the risk of developing mental health consequences, including worsening of subjective wellbeing and quality of life, and risk of developing mental disorders. Here we present actions that countries hosting forcibly displaced refugees may implement to decrease...
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Background Prevalence rates of anxiety and depression in adolescence are rising markedly in early adolescence. It is important to quantify the non-fatal disease burden of anxiety and depression, such that early interventions can be well targeted, and resources can be allocated in a just and optimal way. This study aimed to estimate the non-fatal di...
Article
Importance: Task sharing, the training of nonspecialist workers with no formal experience in counseling, is a promising strategy for addressing the large gap in treatment for depression in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Objective: To examine the outcomes and moderators of task-shared psychological interventions associated with depress...
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Background Common mental disorders are frequently experienced by refugees. This study evaluates the impact of a brief, lay provider delivered group-based psychological intervention [Group Problem Management Plus (gPM+)] on the mental health of refugees in a camp, as well as on parenting behavior and children’s mental health. Methods and findings I...
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The current Russian war against Ukraine is of global concern. It builds on the annexation of Crimea in 2014 and subsequently the war in the Donbas region of Ukraine, and has become a large-scale Russian invasion of Ukraine from three directions, Crimea in the south, Russia in the east, and Belarus in the north. Despite the geopolitical background t...
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Network meta‐analysis can synthesize evidence from studies comparing multiple treatments for the same disease. Sometimes the treatments of a network are complex interventions, comprising several independent components in different combinations. A component network meta‐analysis (CNMA) can be used to analyze such data and can in principle disentangl...
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Introduction Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) of young people continue to present a high burden and remain underinvested. This is more so in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), where empirical evidence reveals disruption of SRHR maintenance, need for enhancement of programmes, resources and services during pandemics. Despite th...
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Purpose: Depressive disorders in children and adolescents have an enormous impact on their general quality of life. There is a clear need to effectively treat depression in this age group. Effects of psychotherapy can be enhanced by involving caregivers. In our systematic review and meta-analysis, we examine for the first time the effects of careg...
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Background Although the clinical efficacy and safety of combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the treatment of depressive disorders in children and adolescents have been studied, the results remain controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to study the short-term efficacy and acceptability of combined therapy for children and adolescent...
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Practitioners and researchers alike assume that there is individual variability in the effects of treatments for mental disorders. However, for psychotherapy, up to now this assumption has never been empirically tested. Using a large database of randomized-controlled trials on psychotherapy of depression in adults (306 trials including a total of 5...
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Refugees are at high risk of developing mental disorders. There is no evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that psychological interventions can prevent the onset of mental disorders in this group. We assessed the effectiveness of a self-help psychological intervention developed by the World Health Organization, called Self-Help Plus, i...
Article
Background Recently, we showed that twice weekly sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression lead to better and faster treatment outcomes compared to once weekly sessions (Bruijniks et al., 2020). The present study investigated which pathways of change may account for the effects of different...
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Background: College students face several sources of stress. Self-guided stress management interventions offer an excellent opportunity for scaling up evidence-based interventions for self-management of these stresses. However, little is known about the overall effects of these interventions. Increasing this understanding is essential because self...
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Background Pregnant adolescent girls and young women (AGYW, aged 12–24 years) are at high risk for mental health problems, particularly in the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region. Methods We performed a systematic review of mental health studies among pregnant AGYW in SSA published between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2020 in PubMed, Embase, CINA...
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Introduction Several evidence-based treatments are effective for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet a substantial proportion of patients do not respond or dropout of treatment. We describe the protocol for a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis (IPD-MA) aimed at assessing the effectiveness and adverse effects of p...
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Background: Syrian refugees in Switzerland face several barriers in accessing mental health care. Cost-effective psychological interventions are urgently needed to meet the mental health needs of refugees. Problem Management Plus (PM+) is an evidence-based, psychological intervention delivered by trained non-specialist ‘helpers’. Objective: To ass...
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Introduction In the past four decades, over 700 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 80 meta-analyses have examined the efficacy of psychological treatments for depression. Overwhelming evidence suggests that all types of psychological treatments are effective. Yet, many aspects are still unexplored. Meta-analysts could perform hundreds of poten...
Article
Inleiding: Er is weinig bekend over epidemiologische aspecten (prevalentie, comorbiditeit, impact en zorggebruik) van de depressieve stoornis bij universiteitsstudenten. In een descriptief-epidemiologisch onderzoek naar de depressieve stoornis (volgens DSM-IV) bij eerstejaarsstudenten aan de KU Leuven, België, werden de 12-maanden prevalentie, de p...
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Background In sub-Saharan Africa, there is little data on the challenges faced by young people living with HIV transitioning into adult life. Adapting the socio-ecological framework, this qualitative study investigated the challenges faced by emerging adults living with HIV from a rural Kenyan setting. Additionally, the study explored support syste...
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Background This study investigates associations of several dimensions of childhood adversities (CAs) with lifetime mental disorders, 12-month disorder persistence, and impairment among incoming college students. Methods Data come from the World Mental Health International College Student Initiative (WMH-ICS). Web-based surveys conducted in nine co...
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While randomized trials typically lack sufficient statistical power to identify predictors and moderators of outcome, “individual participant data” (IPD) meta-analyses, which combine primary data of multiple randomized trials, can increase the statistical power to identify predictors and moderators of outcome. We conducted a systematic review of IP...
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Introduction Psychosocial factors predict recovery in patients with spinal pain. Several of these factors are modifiable, such as depression and anxiety. However, primary care physiotherapists who typically manage these patients indicate that they do not feel sufficiently competent and equipped to address these factors optimally. We developed an eH...
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Background Syrian refugees resettled in Turkey show a high prevalence of symptoms of mental disorders. Problem Management Plus (PM+) is an effective psychological intervention delivered by non-specialist health care providers which has shown to decrease psychological distress among people exposed to adversity. In this single-blind pilot randomised...
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Common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, often emerge in college students during the transition into early adulthood. Mental health problems can seriously impact students' functioning, interpersonal relationships, and academic achievement. Actively reaching out to college students with mental health problems and offering them intern...
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Background To address shortages of mental health specialists in low- and middle-income countries, task-shifting approaches have been employed to train nonspecialists to deliver evidence-based scalable psychosocial interventions. Problem Management Plus (PM+) is a brief transdiagnostic nontrauma focused intervention for people affected by adversity....
Article
Objective: The Personalized Advantage Index (PAI) is a method to guide treatment selection by investigating which of two or more treatments is optimal for a given individual. Recently, it was shown that, on average, twice-weekly sessions of psychotherapy for depression lead to better outcomes compared to once-weekly sessions. The present study app...
Article
The high global prevalence of depression, together with the recent acceleration of remote care owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, has prompted increased interest in the efficacy of digital interventions for the treatment of depression. We provide a summary of the latest evidence base for digital interventions in the treatment of depression based on th...
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One of the most used methods to examine sources of heterogeneity in meta-analyses is the so-called ‘subgroup analysis’. In a subgroup analysis, the included studies are divided into two or more subgroups, and it is tested whether the pooled effect sizes found in these subgroups differ significantly from each other. Subgroup analyses can be consider...
Article
Treatments for depression have improved, and their availability has markedly increased since the 1980s. Mysteriously the general population prevalence of depression has not decreased. This “treatment-prevalence paradox” (TPP) raises fundamental questions about the diagnosis and treatment of depression. We propose and evaluate seven explanations for...
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Background Most refugees are less than 18 years and at heightened risk of common mental disorders (CMDs) relative to other youth. Limited evidence exists for psychosocial programsfor youth in low-resource settings. Early Adolescent Skills for Emotions (EASE) was developed by the World Health Organization to address this gap. Objectives This study...
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Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, there is paucity of research on substance use patterns among young people living with HIV (YLWH). To address the gap, we sought to: i) determine the prevalence of substance use, specifically alcohol and illicit drug use, among YLWH compared to their HIV-uninfected peers; ii) investigate the independent associatio...
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Depressive disorders are highly prevalent and are associated with a substantial loss of quality of life for patients and their relatives, with increased levels of morbidity and mortality and with enormous economic costs. Although effective pharmacologic and psychological treatments are available, the effects are modest, relapse rates are high, and...
Article
To the Editor The authors regret to report that Figure 3B was not represented correctly in their Original Investigation, “Effectiveness and Acceptability of Cognitive Behavior Therapy Delivery Formats in Adults With Depression: A Network Meta-analysis,”¹ published in the July 2019 issue. In reviewing the article for a presentation, a coauthor detec...
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Background Self-report screening instruments are frequently used as scalable methods to detect common mental disorders (CMDs), but their validity across cultural and linguistic groups is unclear. We summarized the diagnostic accuracy of brief questionnaires on symptoms of depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Arabic-spe...
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Background The treatment of depression in patients with somatic disorders is crucial, given its negative impact on quality of life (QoL), functioning, and even on the somatic disease prognosis. We aimed to examine the most updated evidence on the effects of psychotherapy in patients with depression and somatic disorders, including HIV, oncological,...
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Background Depression during pregnancy and after the birth of a child is highly prevalent and an important public health problem. Psychological interventions are the first-line treatment and, although a considerable number of randomized trials have been conducted, no recent comprehensive meta-analysis has evaluated treatment effects. Methods We us...
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Objective To examine the prevalence of ADHD and the association of comorbid disorders, and multivariate disorder classes with role impairment in college students. Method About 15,991 freshmen (24 colleges, 9 countries, WMH-ICS) (response rate = 45.6%) completed online WMH-CIDI-SC surveys for 6-month ADHD and six 12-month DSM-IV disorders. We exami...