Piers Steel

Piers Steel
The University of Calgary | HBI · Haskayne School of Business

Doctor of Philosophy (Psychology)

About

101
Publications
413,967
Reads
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11,710
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2002 - present
The University of Calgary
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
September 1997 - June 2002
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Field of study
  • Industrial/Organizational Psychology

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
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One of the challenges in the motivation literature is examining the simultaneous effect of different motivational mechanisms on overall motivation and performance. The motivational congruence theory addresses this by stipulating that different motivational mechanisms can reinforce each other if they have similar effects on the perceived locus of ca...
Article
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We investigated the causes and impact of procrastination on “slippery deadlines,” where the due date is ill-defined and can be autonomously extended, using the unique applied setting of grievance arbitration across two studies. In Study One, using 3 years of observed performance data derived from Canadian arbitration cases and a survey of leading a...
Article
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Moral disengagement refers to a set of cognitive tactics people employ to sidestep moral self regulatory processes that normally prevent wrongdoing. In this study, we present a comprehensive meta-analytic review of the nomological network of moral disengagement at work. First, we test its dispositional and contextual antecedents, theoretical correl...
Article
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Meta-analyses summarize a field’s research base and are therefore highly influential. Despite their value, the standards for an excellent meta-analysis, one that is potentially award-winning, have changed in the last decade. Each step of a meta-analysis is now more formalized, from the identification of relevant articles to coding, moderator analys...
Article
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The effect of performance-contingent reward and choice on motivation and performance continues to be debated. Studies in economics and behavioral psychology consider performance-contingent rewards and choice as two separate motivational mechanisms that reinforce motivation and performance. However, theories on self-determination and motivational cr...
Article
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Scales measuring procrastination focus on different aspects of unnecessary and unwanted delay, delay in task implementation – an increased gap between intention and action – being a core characteristic. However, an inspection of existing procrastination scales reveals that the scales do not distinguish between two facets of implemental delay, onset...
Article
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Procrastination is related to unhealthy personal financial behaviors, such as postponing retirement savings, last minute shopping, and not paying bills on time. The present paper explores factors that could explain why procrastinators demonstrate more financial problems compared to non-procrastinators. Study 1 (N = 675) focused on planning, as both...
Article
This Counterpoint investigates the continued relevance of the 30-year-old Kogut and Singh (KS) index of cultural distance. KS was a seminal contribution, highlighting the relevance of cultural differences in IB. However, since then, simplistic replications of the original arguments and index have prevented us from progressing towards a better under...
Article
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To what extent do employees’ personality traits shape their perceptions of job and life satisfaction? To answer this question, we conducted the largest meta-analysis on the topic to date, summarizing a total of 12,682 correlations among combinations of personality, job satisfaction and life satisfaction. We also sought to refine previous meta-analy...
Article
Despite phenomenal technological progress and exponential growth in computing power, economic growth remains comparative sluggish. In this paper, we investigate two core issues: (1) is there really no connection between ICT and national economic growth? and (2) what factors moderate the ICT–growth relationship? We apply meta‐regression analysis to...
Data
In the last lines of the Uncertainty Avoidance data, the supplementary data file was missing the data for Turkey, moving the last few lines up. While the data reported in the article was correct, the early version had this error. This should fix it.
Article
The MNE integration literature lacks coherence in the use and effectiveness of different integration mechanisms. In this study, we use meta-analytic techniques to quantitatively synthesize and evaluate the impact of centralization, formalization and socialization on knowledge transfer. Our analysis of 89 independent samples, including 15,506 subsid...
Article
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The present study is centered in adapting and validating a Spanish version of the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS). The sample consists of 365 adults aged 18–77 years (M = 37.70, SD = 12.64). Participants were administered two measures of procrastination, the IPS and the Decisional Procrastination Questionnaire, as well as the Big Five Invent...
Data
The Spanish version of the Irrational Procrastination Scale. (DOCX)
Chapter
Full-text available
Motivation and goals not only play a central role in work behavior but in every aspect of our daily lives. Unfortunately, the importance of motivation has led to an unwieldy number of theories on the topic, making understanding or advancement difficult. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the basic building blocks of motivation. We examine t...
Article
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Scales attempting to measure procrastination focus on different facets of the phenomenon, yet they share a common understanding of procrastination as an unnecessary, unwanted, and disadvantageous delay. The present paper examines in a global sample (N = 4,169) five different procrastination scales – Decisional Procrastination Scale (DPS), Irrationa...
Article
Past research indicates that personality facets within the same factor are often differentially related to criteria. This implies that differential weighting of facets may be advantageous. We considered unit weighting, rational weights, and mechanical weights in terms of empirical prediction and theoretical understanding. Two studies indicate that...
Article
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Purpose In this study, the authors revisit the meta-analytic correlates of career satisfaction and demonstrate the use of metaBUS – a database repository of meta-analytic effect sizes and related information from the field of applied psychology. The purpose of this paper is to extend prior meta-analytic research on the topic of career satisfaction...
Article
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Do cultural values enhance financial and subjective well-being (SWB)? Taking a multidisciplinary approach, we meta-analytically reviewed the field, found it thinly covered, and focused on individualism. In counter, we collected a broad array of individual-level data, specifically an Internet sample of 8,438 adult respondents. Individual SWB was mos...
Article
Driver distraction is a growing and pervasive issue that requires multiple solutions. Voice-recognition (V-R) systems may decrease the visual-manual (V-M) demands of a wide range of in-vehicle system and smartphone interactions. However, the degree that V-R systems integrated into vehicles or available in mobile phone applications affect driver dis...
Article
To address new research questions and get a clearer picture of research, scientists and practitioners in human resource management have come to rely heavily on meta-analyses. However, meta-analyses may take months or years to produce and are becoming increasingly difficult to produce as the corpus of available research grows exponentially. We descr...
Article
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Traditionally, cultures have been treated as though they reside exclusively within, or perfectly overlap with countries. Indeed, the terms “country” and “culture” are often used interchangeably. As evidence mounts for substantial within-country cultural variation, and often between-country similarities, the problem with equating country and culture...
Article
Taking Beswick, Rothblum, and Mann's seminal paper on academic procrastination as a starting point, we provide an updated review of academic procrastination and consolidate this knowledge with a procrastination typology. The goal of our study was to show that while the degree of procrastination is largely contingent on the trait of conscientiousnes...
Article
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Procrastination is a pervasive and pathological delay, where we put off despite expecting to be worse off. It is associated with other forms of self-regulatory failure, rooted in our neurobiology, though can be exacerbated by environmental features. Though several effective treatments for it are available, procrastination is self-perpetuating as pr...
Article
The typical assumption that performance is distributed normally has come under question in recent years (e.g., O'Boyle & Aguinis, 2012). The present paper uses a dynamic, computational model of performance-as-results to examine possible sources of such distributions. That is, building off the classic model of job performance (Campbell & Pritchard,...
Article
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Although volumes have been written on spanning the science–practice gap in applied psychology, surprisingly few tangible components of that bridge have actually been constructed. We describe the metaBUS platform that addresses 3 challenges of one gap contributor: information overload. In particular, we describe challenges stemming from: (a) lack of...
Article
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This study compiles information from more than 250 meta-analyses conducted over the past 30 years to assess the magnitude of reported effect sizes in the organizational behavior (OB)/human resources (HR) literatures. Our analysis revealed an average uncorrected effect of r = .227 and an average corrected effect of ρ = .278 (SDρ = .140). Based on th...
Article
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The notion of a “Millennial” generation, much like a “Generation X” or the “Baby Boom” generation, with a strong coherence in terms of values and norms that differ from previous cohorts, has been of dependable interest in the popular press. However, given what we know regarding the proportion of trait expression due to sources largely immune to coh...
Article
Understanding stock-flow relationships is fundamental to the management of operational systems. In their most basic form, stock-flow systems consist of resources that accumulate and flows that change their level. Managing stock-flow systems is an indispensable part of operations management, including supply chain, inventory, and capacity planning....
Article
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We describe the metaBUS project, a large-scale research curation effort supported by the Digging into Data Challenge. This ongoing effort involves the extraction and cu-ration of a corpus of more than one million individual research findings from organizational research. The approach involves the development of a comprehensive hierarchical taxonomy...
Article
Research in the field of medicine has indicated that the presence of research funding can lead to conflicts of interest, resulting in pressures to produce results that are palatable to the funding agency. Using a funding source typology, we examine if similar conflicts of interest exist in the field of management by analyzing over 156,000 effect si...
Article
Scientists in a variety of fields are challenging the traditional research model, often characterized as inefficient, closed source, and untrustworthy. The challenge has come in the form of large-scale collaborative efforts to change the way research is conducted, summarized, and communicated. Such “big science” efforts have led to insights not pos...
Article
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Traditionally, cultures have been seen to reside within countries. The terms “country” and “culture” are often used interchangeably. As evidence of substantial within-country variation in cultural values mounts, the problem with equating country and culture becomes obvious. Based on a meta- analysis of 558 studies that utilized Hofstede’s (1980) mo...
Article
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Text messaging while driving is considered dangerous and known to produce injuries and fatalities. However, the effects of text messaging on driving performance have not been synthesized or summarily estimated. All available experimental studies that measured the effects of text messaging on driving were identified through database searches using v...
Article
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Meta-analytic estimation of effect size variance is critical for determining the degree to which a relationship or finding generalizes across contexts. In most meta-analyses, population effect size variability is estimated by subtracting expected sampling error variance from observed variance, using only information from a limited set of available...
Article
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Procrastination is a self-regulatory failure, whose costs are debated. Here, we establish its impact in the workplace. Using an Internet sample, we assessed 22,053 individuals in terms of their sex, employment status, employment duration, income, occupational attainment and level of procrastination. High levels of procrastination is associated with...
Article
We have long been instructed to match broad outcomes, like performance, with broad predictors, like GMA. The study of personality, for example, is overwhelming at the factor rather than facet level. This session reviews research showing that narrow level data can account for massively more variance even with broad outcomes. • SME Prediction of CWB...
Article
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Based on a meta-analysis of 60 empirical studies, a systematic review and integrative analysis of the empirical research on the effects of cultural values on communication is provided. The most commonly stated hypotheses pertaining to the links between cultural values and communication are summarized and quantitatively tested by the means of meta-a...
Article
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In international joint ventures (IJVs), management control exerted by parent firms is fundamental since it can direct employees' activities to strive for the overall goals, to safeguard parent firms' idiosyncratic investments and to decrease opportunistic behaviors. Using a meta-analytic approach, we investigate the main factors influencing managem...
Article
Procrastination is a common form of self-regulatory failure with substantive connections to lower levels of health, wealth and well-being. Conducting an epidemiological study, we determined the characteristics of prototypical procrastinators from a global sample based on several relevant self-reported demographic variables. Using an internet sampli...
Chapter
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Article
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At the heart of most performance management systems is a reward program. However, even when we are doing everything else right, rewards can go wrong. Here, we explore five ways that external incentives can damage performance, from destroying altruistic behavior to distracting people from the task. Fortunately, most of these downfalls are avoidable....
Article
This meta-analysis offers an updated set of national cultural scores along the dimensions of Hofstede's cultural framework. The meta-analytic national cultural indices have two advantages. First, they are based on a larger and more representative sample than that used in Hofstede's or any other cross-cultural comparison study. The data come from 45...
Article
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The effects of culture in the workplace have been well documented. Because cultures vary across countries, business practices that are effective in some regions may not be effective in others. While cross-country cultural differences have been explored in depth, little is known about cultural variations and dynamics in the context of immigration. O...
Article
At one time, national culture was primarily the concern of tourists and diplomats, having little to do with the workplace. In the latter part of the 20th century, there were a series of international policy changes in many Asian and Eastern European countries that enabled a tidal wave of international joint ventures and outsourcing. Quickly, busine...
Article
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The relationship between innovation and firm performance has been uncertain. In previous empirical tests of both causal directions of the organizational performance and innovation relationship, the temporal sequence of research designs has often been flawed. We meta-analytically test both temporal sequences of this relationship using 158 effect siz...
Article
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The study of culture and cultural values continues to be hotly debated among cross-cultural researchers worldwide. Starting with the seminal work of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, and Hofstede, and continuing with more recent efforts, researchers have continued to develop and empirically examine cultural value frameworks in an attempt to understand how...
Article
We expected that the commentary process would provide valuable feedback to improve our ideas and identify potential obstacles, and we were not disappointed. The commentaries were generally in agreement that synthetic validity is a good idea, although we also received a fair amount of suggestions for improvements, conditional or tempered praise, and...
Article
Although synthetic validation has long been suggested as a practical and defensible approach to establishing validity evidence, synthetic validation techniques are infrequently used and not well understood by the practitioners and researchers they could most benefit. Therefore, we describe the assumptions, origins, and methods for establishing vali...
Article
Culture as a consequence is a neglected topic. Addressing this, we explore what factors are related to and potentially shape culture, what explains cultural variations within countries, and what the relationship is between cultural values at the individual and national levels. To answer these questions, we use a multi-level multivariate meta-analys...
Article
We expected that the commentary process would provide valuable feedback to improve our ideas and identify potential obstacles, and we were not disappointed. The commentaries were generally in agreement that synthetic validity is a good idea, although we also received a fair amount of suggestions for improvements, conditional or tempered praise, and...
Article
Full-text available
Although synthetic validation has long been suggested as a practical and defensible approach to establishing validity evidence, synthetic validation techniques are infrequently used and not well understood by the practitioners and researchers they could most benefit. Therefore, we describe the assumptions, origins, and methods for establishing vali...
Article
Full-text available
Reports an error in "Examining the impact of Culture's consequences: A three-decade, multilevel, meta-analytic review of Hofstede's cultural value dimensions" by Vas Taras, Bradley L. Kirkman and Piers Steel (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2010[May], Vol 95[3], 405-439). Tables 1 and 2 were printed incorrectly due to errors in the production proces...
Article
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Procrastination is increasingly becoming a topic of interest across multiple fields, from finance (as people put off dealing with their money troubles) to health (as people delay seeing their doctors). Still, there is debate about what exactly procrastination is and how it should be operationalized. The fields of neuroscience and behavioral economi...
Article
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Using data from 598 studies representing over 200,000 individuals, we meta-analyzed the relationship between G. Hofstede's (1980a) original 4 cultural value dimensions and a variety of organizationally relevant outcomes. First, values predict outcomes with similar strength (with an overall absolute weighted effect size of rho = 0.18) at the individ...
Article
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Common source bias has been the focus of much attention. To minimize the problem, researchers have sometimes been advised to take measurements of predictors from one observer and measurements of outcomes from another observer or to use separate occasions of measurement. We propose that these efforts to eliminate biases due to common source variance...
Article
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The labor arbitration setting is a unique and exciting venue for developing an understanding of the nexus between personality and task completion. Arbitrators are highly autonomous professionals who have an incentive to render their decisions as expeditiously as possible. They review evidence, analyze submissions, and reach and write a decision, ac...
Article
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After examining 121 instruments for measuring culture, we provide a historical overview and analyze how culture has been operationalized over the last half a century. Our study focuses on the topics of culture definition, dimensionality of culture models, collection and analysis of data for measuring culture, levels of culture measurement, issues o...
Article
This paper develops synthetic validity estimates based on a meta-analytic-weighted least squares (WLS) approach to job component validity (JCV), using position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) estimates of job characteristics, and the Data, People, & Things ratings from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles as indices of job complexity. For the general...
Article
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The present study examined the relationship between two types of chronic procrastination and 12 varied life domains in which individuals report regret. Subjects were 2,887 adults (1,776 women and 1,111 men; M age = 38.63 years; SD = 14.35) from across the United States. Initially, pure arousal (n = 386), avoidant (n = 220), and nonprocrastinators (...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the relationship between two types of chronic procrastination and 12 varied life domains in which individuals report regret. Subjects were 2,887 adults (1,776 women and 1,111 men; M age = 38.63 years; SD = 14.35) from across the United States. Initially, pure arousal (n = 386), avoidant (n = 220), and nonprocrastinators (...
Chapter
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Several postulates, generally derived from Hofstede‘s work, have dominated the field of cross-cultural studies in the past three decades: (1) cultures are values; (2) values are cultures; (3) cultures are extremely stable; (4) culture is the cause, not an effect; (5) a cross-level analysis of culture leads to the ecological fallacy; (6) cultures cl...