Pierre Melchior

Pierre Melchior
Bordeaux INP / ENSEIRB-MATMECA · IMS - UMR 5218 CNRS

Professor

About

202
Publications
19,505
Reads
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2,488
Citations
Citations since 2017
52 Research Items
1193 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
Introduction
Pierre Melchior currently works at the ENSEIRB-MATMECA , Bordeaux INP. Pierre does research in Fractional calculus, Control Systems Engineering, Electrical Engineering path planning, Motion control for Robotics, Autonomous vehicule and UAV.
Additional affiliations
October 1995 - present
Université Bordeaux 1
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 1990 - present
French National Centre for Scientific Research
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Laboratoire de l'Intégration du Matériau au Système (IMS - UMR 5218 CNRS) http://www.ims-bordeaux.fr/

Publications

Publications (202)
Article
This paper proposes a method to design a wind turbulence model based on real wind spectral characteristics. It uses models based on Cole-Cole fractional functions to approximate the wind turbulence power spectral density. Von Kármán model is the most commonly used model but originally designed for aircraft in high altitude. Therefore, it is not sui...
Article
Fractional derivatives are non local operators that has compacity property in terms of parameter number for modeling diffusive phenomenon with very few parameters. One of its main properties is its non-local behavior, as it can be exploited to model long-memory phenomena such as heat transfers. However, such non-locality implies a constant knowledg...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fault detection and isolation on hydraulic systems are very important to ensure safety and avoid disasters. In this paper, a fault detection and isolation method, based on the flatness property of nonlinear systems, is experimentally applied on the three-tank system, which is considered as a popular prototype of hydraulic systems. Specifically, fau...
Article
Fault detection and isolation on hydraulic systems are very important to ensure safety and avoid disasters. In this paper, a fault detection and isolation method, based on the flatness property of nonlinear systems, is experimentally applied on the three-tank system, which is considered as a popular prototype of hydraulic systems. Specifically, fau...
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with recursive continuous-time system identification using fractional-order models. Long-memory recursive prediction error method is proposed for recursive estimation of all parameters of fractional-order models. When differentiation orders are assumed known, least squares and prediction error methods, being direct extensions to fr...
Article
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle applications have highly increased in the last years, from surveillance, exploration, rescue to transport applications. UAVs are more and more autonomous, therefore real-time trajectory planning is necessary and can be achieved thanks to artificial potential fields. The classic Ge & Cui repulsive force solely allows taking i...
Article
Full-text available
System thermal modeling allows heat and temperature simulations for many applications, such as refrigeration design, heat dissipation in power electronics, melting processes and bio-heat transfers. Sufficiently accurate models are especially needed in open-heart surgery where lung thermal modeling will prevent pulmonary cell dying. For simplicity p...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper deals with recursive continuoustime system identification using fractional differentiation models. Long-memory recursive prediction error method is proposed for recursive estimation of all parameters of fractional order models. When differentiation orders are assumed known, least-squares and prediction error methods, being direct extensi...
Chapter
Thermal models often consider low-frequency approximations and are largely based upon RC circuits. If temperature fluctuations are non-negligible, a more accurate model is needed and is proposed through thermal two-port network which is direct extension of the heat equation into matrix formalism. As blood flow plays a major role for heat transfers...
Book
Thermal models often consider low-frequency approximations and are largely based upon RC circuits. If temperature fluctuations are non-negligible, a more accurate model is needed and is proposed through thermal two-port network which is direct extension of the heat equation into matrix formalism. As blood flow plays a major role for heat transfers...
Conference Paper
Sufficiently accurate thermal modeling is necessary for many applications such as heat dissipation, melting processes, building design or even bio-heat transfers in surgery. Circuit models help modeling heat transfer dynamics: this method is simple and is often used to model thermal phenomena. However, such models well approximates low and high fre...
Article
Full-text available
This study proposes an approach to synthesize a three-impulse sequence input shaper with a negative impulse, known as Unity Magnitude (UM) shaper. The corresponding analytic model has been already achieved for undamped and low-damped systems. In this paper, the analytic design of UM shaper is demonstrated for the generalized case of damped systems...
Preprint
Full-text available
Thermal modeling of systems allows heat and temperature simulations for many applications, such as refrigeration design, heat dissipation in power electronics, melting processes and bio-heat transfers. Sufficiently accurate models are especially needed in open-heart surgery where lung thermal modeling will prevent pulmonary cell dying. For simplici...
Article
Obstacle avoidance is one of the main interests regarding path planning. In many situations (mostly those regarding applications in urban environments), the obstacles to be avoided are dynamical and unpredictable. This lack of certainty regarding the environment introduces the need to use local path planning techniques rather than global ones. A we...
Article
This article deals with the issue of tracking a reference optimal trajectory for an autonomous nonlinear vehicle model by designing both lateral and longitudinal robust feedback control and a suited feedforward control. In previous works, a strategy based on a human-driver field of view was used to plan an optimal trajectory reference. The optimiza...
Article
Fractional-order calculus has already proven to be effective in order to model diffusive phenomena, such as heat transfer or anomalous mass transfer. This has led to developments of fractional-order transfer function models and, as a consequence, system identification algorithms have been developed to identify the parameters for this type of struct...
Article
In open-heart surgery, temperature changes may severely damage organ tissues, therefore a better knowledge of thermal transient effects is required to improve temperature control. Heat transfer in a biological context is usually treated by means of empirical relationships or simple resistance models. In some cases, fairly simplified models only inv...
Article
Full-text available
This article deals with the issue of trajectory optimization of autonomous terrestrial vehicles on a specific range handled by the human driver. The main contributions of this paper are a genetic algorithm-potential field combined method for optimized trajectory planning, the definition of the multi-criteria optimization problem by including a time...
Chapter
Quite recently, fractional approaches was greatly used in control engineering area. Several methodologies based on fractional controllers tuning has been treated. In this work, a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) quantitative feedback theory (QFT) method is mixed with a fractional order PD\(^{\mu }\) controller and a fractional prefilter to govern mu...
Article
One of the main problems related to path planning is to find a method which will effectively allow the robot or vehicle to avoid obstacles, provided that these obstacles can be static or dynamic. One of the most interesting methods for path planning is the use of the artificial potential fields in order to create a representation of the environment...
Article
In recent years, applications for drones have increased, from surveillance, exploration, rescue to transport applications. UAVs are more and more autonomous, therefore real-time trajectory planning is necessary and can be achieved with potential fields. A study is proposed to better scale attractive and repulsive forces which has always been proble...
Article
This paper presents a rigorous definition of the isolability of a fault in a flat system whose flat outputs are measured by sensors that are subject to faults. In particular, if only one sensor or actuator is faulty at a time, we show that the isolation of faults can be achieved if a pair of flat outputs satisfies some independence condition. A det...
Article
The current paper presents a method for the computation of fractionally flat outputs for linear fractionally flat systems based on the notion of unimodular completion. This calculation method, which already exists for integer order non-linear flat systems, is extended for the class of fractionally linear flat systems by employing some fractional ca...
Article
Full-text available
Designing and automation of a robust controller and pre-filter for multi-variable processes are a very challenging task. In this study, an automated and simple conception of multivariable QFT (QFT: Quantitative Feedback Theory) is proposed using fractional order controllers design. Contrary to the traditional manual QFT design, our methodology cons...
Chapter
Many experiments and measures have been carried out on skeletal muscles of different species, such as frog, salamander, rabbit, and rat. Exploiting these measures for system identification through non-integer models has led to many promising results. These models are useful in medicine as they help understanding their organ working or dysfunction....
Article
Trajectory planning for autonomous vehicles is a research topical subject. In previous studies, optimal intermediate targets have been used in the Potential Fields (PFs). PFs are only a path planning method, or a reactive obstacle avoidance method and not a trajectory tracking method. In this article, the PFs are interpreted as an on-line control m...
Chapter
The CRONE strategy (French acronym of Commande Robuste d’Ordre Non Entier) is assumed to give rise to a great number of applications in different industrial fields. This paper introduces the design of a second generation controller intended to control in position a two degrees of freedom robot arm. Great performances and robust behaviour are obtain...
Article
Motion control and robust path tracking design are the objective of this paper. The Multi-Input Multi-Output Quantitative Feedback Theory (MIMO-QFT) method is considered. This methodology permits to divide the MIMO system into sub-Multi-Input-Single-Output (MISO) equivalent structures. After obtaining the sub-structures, the objective is the design...
Article
Trajectory planning for autonomous vehicles has significantly increased as more and more ADAS are included in modern cars. It A vehicle definitely needs to globally plan a trajectory, taking all the driving factors into account. For an autonomous terrestrial vehicle, this article proposes using an optimal trajectory on a specific range as a referen...
Article
Full-text available
Path planning is an essential stage for mobile robot control. It is more newsworthy than ever in the automotive context and especially for autonomous vehicle. Also, path planning methods need to be reactive and adaptive regarding life situations, traffic and obstacle crossing. In this paper, a Bézier curve optimization method is proposed to cope wi...
Article
System identification through fractional models is proposed for modeling thermal transfers in the lungs. In general, during open-heart surgery, an extracorporeal circulation is carried out on the patient. First, the lungs are disconnected from the circulatory system so that an artificial heart/lung machine can be plugged on the bloodstream. Pulmona...
Article
This paper is devoted to the study of robust path tracking and motion control. A method based on fractional prefilter synthesis was already advanced and extended to multivariable systems. In previous study, an approach using fractional prefilter of type Davidson Cole is advanced and tested on MIMO systems. The contribution of this work is to extend...
Article
Full-text available
La planification de trajectoire est une partie essentielle pour le contrôle des robots mobiles. Ceci est plus vrai que jamais dans le contexte automobile et tout particulièrement pour le véhicule autonome. Dans ce papier, la méthode des champs de potentiel est proposée afin de respecter ces contraintes. De plus, les véhicules autonomes sont considé...
Article
The main purpose of this study is to determine the input reference value of the vehicle cruise control loop. The closed-loop contains a reference signal filter including a linear feedforward equivalent part and an integrator. Then, according to the speed reference signal variations, the Pacejka formulas are used to determine an acceleration referen...
Article
In this paper, system identification is proposed for closed-loop systems in input/output noisy context. Although instrumental variable techniques exist in the literature, the proposed filtering in input/ouput noisy context is not optimal. Also, three algorithms are proposed, and the closed-loop simplified refined instrumental variable for continuou...
Article
Path planning is an essential stage for mobile robot control. It is more newsworthy than ever in the automotive context and especially for autonomous vehicle. Also, path planning methods need to be adaptive regarding life situations, traffic and obstacle crossing. In this paper, potential field methods are proposed to cope with these constraints an...
Article
In the last few years much effort has been made towards more autonomous vehicles and fuel consumption reduction. This article deals with the issue trajectory optimization of unmanned terrestrial vehicles so as to reduce consumption, travel time or to improve comfort. Main focuses are set on testing different criteria and the possibility of using a...
Article
A novel approach for robust Commande Robuste d'Ordre Non Entier (CRONE) control of multi input multi output (MIMO) systems using quantitative feedback theory (QFT) design is discussed through fractional prefilters with off-diagonal elements. More design flexibility is guaranteed when using the non-diagonal prefilter. For a given system, the CRONE c...
Article
Full-text available
First, heat rod models linking temperature to heat flux density are obtained from system identification using fractional order systems. Then, motion planning of the nominal system is obtained through an open-loop control stemming from flatness principles. Usually, each model should have its own control reference in order to follow a desired output...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an approach to determine the time locations of a three-impulses sequence input shaper known as Unity Magnitude shaper (UM). The analytic design of UM shaper is already achieved for undamped systems and for low-damped ones. In this work, the analytic design for damped systems of such shaper is first developed for second order sys...
Conference Paper
Input shaping command is applied in order to reduce the system vibration. Desired systems inputs are elaborated so that the system finishes the requested evolution without residual vibration and with optimal response time. This approach was developed by N.C. Singer and W.P. Seering first by involving only positive impulses such as ZV (zero vibratio...
Conference Paper
Input shaping is a technique that reduces residual vibration by generating a self-canceling command signal. This technique is developed by N.C. Singer and W.P. Seering for flexible structures, and applied especially in aerospace field and robotics. Traditionally, input shaper has contained only positive impulses. However, negative valued impulses a...
Article
This paper deals with fractional model identification using least-squares (LS) method and instrumental variable (IV) in a noisy output context. A new identification method, which extends LS techniques to fractional system to identify not only the parameters but also the unknown order, is presented. In order to eliminate the bias of identification r...
Article
This paper is devoted to the study of the flatness property of linear time-invariant differential systems of fractional systems. We give two characterizations of fractionally flat outputs and algorithms to compute them. We then present an application to a two dimensional thermal system that we approximate by a fractional model of order $\frac{1}{2}...
Article
A bad initialization of output-error (OE) technique can lead to an inappropriate identification results. In this paper, we introduce a solution to this problem; the basic idea is to estimate the parameters and the fractional order of the noninteger system by a new approach of least-squares (LS) method based on repeated fractional integration to ini...
Article
In trajectory planning, flatness is used to compute inputs generating suitable trajectories, without using any integration. The flatness property of linear controllable time-invariant fractional systems is studied. The formalism of polynomial matrix of the fractional differential operator is used leading to the characterization of fractionally flat...
Article
This paper deals with vehicle longitudinal control performed by a cruise control (CC) system using the CRONE approach. A comparison between this approach, a classical proportional-integral (PI) controller, and an H-infini (Hinf) controller is presented. Simulations with these controllers are performed considering a complex vehicle model obtained fr...
Article
Automatic control has a long history in engineering. At the end of the seventeenth century, Hooke introduced a system of balls rotating around an axis in which the velocity was proportional to the velocity of the windmill: the greater the ball velocity, the larger the gap from the axis activating the windmill sails in order to reduce the velocity....
Article
An approach to path tracking design based on fractional differentiation has been proposed with its application on a multivaribale systems. In previous works, a first approach using Davidson-Cole prefilter has been developed and applied to MIMO (Multi Inputs Multi Outputs) systems. The goal of this paper is the extension of this work using a Frequen...
Article
Linear fractional differentiation models have already proven their efficacy in modeling thermal diffusive phenomena for small temperature variations involving constant thermal parameters such as thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. However, for large temperature variations, encountered in plasma torch or in machining in severe conditions,...
Article
The flatness property is studied for linear time-invariant fractional systems. In the framework of polynomial matrices of the fractional derivative operator, we give a characterization of fractionally flat outputs and a simple algorithm to compute them. These results are applied to a bidimensional thermal system approximated by a fractional transfe...
Article
Full-text available
A new approach to path tracking design based on fractional prefilter was developed in this paper. In path tracking design, the dynamic of actuators must be taken into account in order to reduce overshoots appearing for small displacements. Taking into consideration the maximum velocity, acceleration, jerk, and the bandwidth of the closed-loop on wh...
Article
A method for solving a nonlinear heat diffusion problem based on the use of the Volterra series is presented. Application in a practical configuration shows that the method comes to solve a linear problem at time t with a source term that depends on solutions calculated at previous instants. Unknowns of this linear problem are the generalized trans...
Article
This paper presents a fractional Park model which is intended to characterize skin effect of squirrel cage induction machines. Usual modeling of skin effect is based on a ladder network; it is demonstrated that a fractional impedance is an alternative to this ladder network. The fractional Park’s model has been validated by output error identificat...
Article
Full-text available
Fractional-order differentiation offers new degrees of freedom that simplify the design of high-performance dynamic controllers. The CRONE control system design (CSD) methodology proposes the design of robust controllers by using fractional-order operators. A software toolbox has been developed based on this methodology and is freely available for...
Article
In this paper, motion control and robust path tracking were extended to nonsquare MIMO (Multi-Input Multi-Output) systems having more outputs than inputs. A path-tracking design based on fractional prefilter approach has been developed and extended to control nonsquare MIMO systems. The nonsquare relative gain array (NRG) is used to assess the perf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper develops a fault detection and isolation scheme for fractional order systems. It is an extension to fractional order models of a scheme developed for integer order models to design Generalized Fractional Observers Scheme (GFOS). Such scheme allows to generate residuals perfectly robust to disturbances and to isolate faults. Efficiency of...
Conference Paper
An approach to path tracking using fractional differentiation has been proposed with its application by simulation on a multivaribale system. This approach has been based on direct optimization of the closed loop output. The global transfer function is assimilated to a Davidson-Cole prefilter for which important property doesn't present overshoot o...
Conference Paper
The aim of this paper concerns motion control and robust path tracking design for square MIMO systems. A path tracking approach using fractional differentiation is proposed, based on direct optimization of an I/O Davidson-Cole type transfer function. The main important property of this transfer function is that it does not present overshoot on its...
Conference Paper
In trajectory planning, flatness is used to compute inputs generating suitable trajectories, without using any integration. The extension of linear flat outputs to linear controllable time-invariant fractional systems is put forward by means of polynomial matrix formalism, leading to the notion of fractional flatness. The so-called defining matrice...
Article
This work aims at the preparation of an experiment for the thermal modeling of an ARMCO iron sample (iron of the American Rolling Mill COmpany) for small temperature variations around different operating points. Fractional models have proven their efficacy for modeling thermal diffusion around the ambient temperature and for small variations. Due t...
Article
Full-text available
The CRONE toolbox, developed since the nineties by the CRONE team, is a Matlab toolbox dedicated to fractional calculus and its applications in signal processing and automatic control. It is currently evolving toward an object-oriented version, which allows many enhancements. Three main classes, dedicated to fractional system representations namely...