Pierre Friedlingstein

Pierre Friedlingstein
University of Exeter | UoE

About

392
Publications
264,784
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72,547
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
January 2012 - present
University of Exeter
January 2011 - December 2012
Peking University

Publications

Publications (392)
Article
Full-text available
Biological nitrogen fixation is the main source of new nitrogen into natural terrestrial ecosystems and consequently in the nitrogen cycle in many earth system models. Representation of biological nitrogen fixation varies, and because of the tight coupling between the carbon and nitrogen cycles, previous studies have shown that this affects project...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Australian continent contributes substantially to the year-to-year variability of the global terrestrial carbon dioxide (CO2) sink. However, the scarcity of in-situ observations in remote areas prevents deciphering the processes that force the CO2 flux variability. Here, examining atmospheric CO2 measurements from satellites in the period 2009-...
Article
Full-text available
Day-to-day changes in CO2 emissions from human activities, in particular fossil-fuel combustion and cement production, reflect a complex balance of influences from seasonality, working days, weather and, most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we provide a daily CO2 emissions dataset for the whole year of 2020, calculated from inventory and nea...
Article
Full-text available
The Global Carbon Project estimates that the terrestrial biosphere has absorbed about one‐third of anthropogenic CO2 emissions during the 1959–2019 period. This sink‐estimate is produced by an ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models and is consistent with the land uptake inferred from the residual of emissions and ocean uptake. The purpose of our...
Article
In many regions of the world, frequent and continual dry spells are exacerbating drought conditions, which have severe impacts on vegetation biomes. Vegetation in southern Africa is among the most affected by drought. Here, we assessed the spatiotemporal characteristics of meteorological drought in southern Africa using the standardized precipitati...
Article
Full-text available
Fossil CO 2 emissions in 2021 grew an estimated 4.2% (3.5%–4.8%) to 36.2 billion metric tons compared with 2020, pushing global emissions back close to 2019 levels (36.7 Gt CO 2 ).
Article
Full-text available
The two major Brazilian biomes, the Amazonia and the Cerrado (savanna), are increasingly exposed to fires. The Amazonian Forest is a fire sensitive ecosystem where fires are a typically rare disturbance while the Cerrado is naturally fire-dependent. Human activities, such as landscape fragmentation and land-use management, have modified the fire re...
Article
Full-text available
Southeast Asia is a region known for active land‐use changes (LUC) over the past 60 years; yet, how trends in net CO2 uptake and release resulting from LUC activities (net LUC flux) have changed through past decades remains uncertain. The level of uncertainty in net LUC flux from process‐based models is so high that it cannot be concluded that newe...
Article
Full-text available
p>Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate is critical to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize datasets...
Article
Climate change (CLI), elevated CO2 concentration (CO2), and land use change (LUC) have strongly altered land evapotranspiration (ET) during the recent decades. The fingerprints of these drivers in ET change, however, have not previously been detected due to the lack of these three scenarios from global climate models (GCMs). Here we applied an opti...
Article
Full-text available
Despite efforts to decrease the discrepancy between simulated and observed terrestrial carbon fluxes, the uncertainty in trends and patterns of the land carbon fluxes remains high. This difficulty raises the question of the extent to which the terrestrial carbon cycle is predictable and which processes explain the predictability. Here, the perfect...
Article
Full-text available
Current estimates of the global land carbon sink contain substantial uncertainties on interannual timescales which contribute to a non-closure in the global carbon budget in any given year. This budget imbalance (BIM) partly arises due to the use of imperfect models which are missing or misrepresenting processes. One such omission is the separate t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate is critical to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize data sets...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biological nitrogen fixation is the main source of new nitrogen into natural terrestrial ecosystems and consequently in the nitrogen cycle in many earth system models. Representation of biological nitrogen fixation varies, and because of the tight coupling between the carbon and nitrogen cycles, previous studies have shown this affects net primary...
Preprint
Full-text available
Global fossil CO2 emissions in 2020 decreased 5.4%, from 36.7 Gt CO2 in 2019 to 34.8 Gt CO2 in 2020, an unprecedented decline of ~1.9 Gt CO2. We project that global fossil CO2 emissions in 2021 will rebound 4.9% (4.1% to 5.7%) compared to 2020 to 36.4 Gt CO2, returning nearly to 2019 emission levels of 36.7 Gt CO2. Emissions in China are expected t...
Article
Full-text available
The IPCC Special Report on 1.5 °C concluded that anthropogenic global warming is determined by cumulative anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the non-CO2 radiative forcing level in the decades prior to peak warming. We quantify this using CO2-forcing-equivalent (CO2-fe) emissions. We produce an observationally constrained estimate of the Transient Clim...
Article
Full-text available
Satellite data reveal widespread changes in Earth's vegetation cover. Regions intensively attended to by humans are mostly greening due to land management. Natural vegetation, on the other hand, is exhibiting patterns of both greening and browning in all continents. Factors linked to anthropogenic carbon emissions, such as CO2 fertilization, climat...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate monitoring of vegetation stress is required for better modelling and forecasting of primary production, in a world where heatwaves and droughts are expected to become increasingly prevalent. Variability in formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations in the troposphere is dominated by local emissions of short‐lived biogenic (BVOC) and pyrogenic vola...
Article
Full-text available
Brazil is currently the largest contributor of land use and land cover change (LULCC) carbon dioxide net emissions worldwide, representing 17%–29% of the global total. There is, however, a lack of agreement among different methodologies on the magnitude and trends in LULCC emissions and their geographic distribution. Here we perform an evaluation o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite efforts to decrease the discrepancy between simulated and observed terrestrial carbon fluxes, the uncertainty in trends and patterns of the land carbon fluxes remains high. This difficulty raises the question to what extent the terrestrial carbon cycle is predictable, and which processes explain the predictability. Here, the perfect model a...
Article
Full-text available
Observations from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite have been used to estimate CO2 fluxes in many regions of the globe and provide new insight into the global carbon cycle. The objective of this study is to infer the relationships between patterns in OCO-2 observations and environmental drivers (e.g., temperature, precipitation) a...
Article
Full-text available
Year-to-year variability in CO2 fluxes can yield insight into climate-carbon cycle relationships, a fundamental yet uncertain aspect of the terrestrial carbon cycle. In this study, we use global observations from NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite for years 2015 to 2019 and a geostatistical inverse model to evaluate five years o...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding future changes in the terrestrial carbon cycle is important for reliable projections of climate change and impacts on ecosystems. It is well known that nitrogen (N) could limit plants' response to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and it is therefore important to include a representation of the N cycle in Earth system models. Here...
Article
The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration leads to a CO2 fertilization effect on plants—that is, increased photosynthetic uptake of CO2 by leaves and enhanced water‐use efficiency. Yet, the resulting net impact of CO2 fertilization on plant growth and soil moisture savings at large scale is poorly understood. Drylands provide a natural experimental...
Preprint
Full-text available
The diurnal cycle CO$_2$ emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production reflect seasonality, weather conditions, working days, and more recently the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, for the first time we provide a daily CO$_2$ emission dataset for the whole year of 2020 calculated from inventory and near-real-time activity data (...
Article
Full-text available
The Scenario Model Intercomparison Project (ScenarioMIP) defines and coordinates the main set of future climate projections, based on concentration-driven simulations, within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6). This paper presents a range of its outcomes by synthesizing results from the participating global coupled Earth syst...
Article
Full-text available
Five years after the adoption of the Paris Climate Agreement, growth in global CO2 emissions has begun to falter. The pervasive disruptions from the COVID-19 pandemic have radically altered the trajectory of global CO2 emissions. Contradictory effects of the post-COVID-19 investments in fossil fuel-based infrastructure and the recent strengthening...
Preprint
Full-text available
Satellite data reveal widespread changes of Earth's vegetation cover. Regions intensively attended to by humans are mostly greening due to land management. Natural vegetation, on the other hand, is exhibiting patterns of both greening and browning in all continents. Factors linked to anthropogenic carbon emissions, such as CO2 fertilization, climat...
Article
Full-text available
Non-technical summary: We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding of Earth's sensitivity to carbon dioxide, finds that permafrost thaw could release more carbon emissions than expected and that the uptake of carbon in tropical ecosystems is weakeni...
Article
Full-text available
Inter-annual to decadal variability in the strength of the land and ocean carbon sinks impede accurate predictions of year-to-year atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) growth rate. Such information is crucial to verify the effectiveness of fossil fuel emissions reduction measures. Using a multi-model framework comprising prediction systems initialized...
Article
Full-text available
Representations of the seasonal peak uptake of CO 2 and climate extremes effects have important implications for accurately estimating annual magnitude and inter-annual variations of terrestrial carbon fluxes, however the consistency of such representations among different satellite models and process-based (PB) models remain poorly known. Here we...
Article
Full-text available
The enhanced vegetation productivity driven by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) [i.e., the CO2 fertilization effect (CFE)] sustains an important negative feedback on climate warming, but the temporal dynamics of CFE remain unclear. Using multiple long-term satellite- and ground-based datasets, we showed that global CFE has declined...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we de...
Article
Full-text available
Variability in climate exerts a strong influence on vegetation productivity (gross primary productivity; GPP), and therefore has a large impact on the land carbon sink. However, no direct observations of global GPP exist, and estimates rely on models that are constrained by observations at various spatial and temporal scales. Here, we assess the co...
Article
The remaining carbon budget represents the total amount of CO2 that can still be emitted in the future while limiting global warming to a given temperature target. Remaining carbon budget estimates range widely, however, and this uncertainty can be used to either trivialize the most ambitious mitigation targets by characterizing them as impossible,...
Article
Full-text available
The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from soils to the river network is an overlooked component of the terrestrial soil C budget. Measurements of DOC concentrations in soil, runoff and drainage are scarce and their spatial distribution highly skewed towards industrialized countries. The contribution of terrestrial DOC leaching to the glob...
Preprint
Full-text available
In many regions of the world, frequent and continual dry spells are exacerbating drought conditions, which have severe impacts on vegetation biomes. Vegetation in southern Africa is among the most affected by drought. Here, we assessed the spatiotemporal characteristics of meteorological drought in southern Africa using the Standardized Precipitati...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon cycle feedbacks represent large uncertainties in climate change projections, and the response of soil carbon to climate change contributes the greatest uncertainty to this. Future changes in soil carbon depend on changes in litter and root inputs from plants and especially on reductions in the turnover time of soil carbon (τs) with warming....
Article
Full-text available
The terrestrial biosphere is currently slowing down global warming by absorbing about 30% of human emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). The largest flux of the terrestrial carbon uptake is gross primary production (GPP) defined as the production of carbohydrates by photosynthesis. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to increase GPP (“C...
Article
Full-text available
The nitrogen cycle and its effect on carbon uptake in the terrestrial biosphere is a recent progression in earth system models. As with any new component of a model, it is important to understand the behaviour, strengths, and limitations of the various process representations. Here we assess and compare five land surface models with nitrogen cycles...
Article
Full-text available
Forest production efficiency (FPE) metric describes how efficiently the assimilated carbon is partitioned into plants organs (biomass production, BP) or-more generally-for the production of organic matter (net primary production, NPP). We present a global analysis of the relationship of FPE to stand-age and climate, based on a large compilation of...
Data
The present dataset belongs the paper: Collalti A., Ibrom A., Stockmarr A., Cescatti A., Alkama R., Fernández-Martínez M., Matteucci G., Sitch S., Friedlingstein P., Ciais P., Goll D.S., Nabel J.E.M.S., Pongratz J., Arneth A., Haverd V., Prentice I.C.. “Forest production efficiency increases with growth temperature", Nature Communications, 11, 5322...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Scenario Model Intercomparison Project (ScenarioMIP) defines and coordinates the primary future climate projections within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). This paper presents a range of its outcomes by synthesizing results from the participating global coupled Earth system models for concentration driven simulations....
Article
Full-text available
Results from the fully and biogeochemically coupled simulations in which CO2 increases at a rate of 1 % yr−1 (1pctCO2) from its preindustrial value are analyzed to quantify the magnitude of carbon–concentration and carbon–climate feedback parameters which measure the response of ocean and terrestrial carbon pools to changes in atmospheric CO2 conce...
Article
Full-text available
Land-surface models are important tools for simulation of the past, present, and future capacity of terrestrial ecosystems to absorb anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, fluvial carbon (C) transfers are presently neglected in these models. Using the Amazon basin as a case study, we show that this negligence leads to significant underestimation of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding future changes in the terrestrial carbon cycle is important for reliable projections of climate change and impacts on ecosystems. It is known that nitrogen could limit plants' response to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and is therefore important to include in Earth System Models. Here we present the implementation of the terrest...