Pierre-Emmanuel Courty

Pierre-Emmanuel Courty
French National Institute for Agriculture, Food, and Environment (INRAE) | INRAE · Department of Plant Health and Environment

PD Dr

About

251
Publications
31,550
Reads
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5,526
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - December 2011
University of Basel
January 2009 - January 2015
University of Basel
Position
  • Principal Investigator

Publications

Publications (251)
Preprint
Full-text available
Increasing the proportion of locally produced plant protein in currently meat-rich diets could substantially reduce greenhouse gas emission and loss of biodiversity. However, plant protein production is hampered by the lack of a cool-season legume equivalent to soybean in agronomic value. Faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) has a high yield potential and is...
Article
Full-text available
Interactions among plants have been long recognized as a major force driving plant community dynamics and crop yield. Surprisingly, our knowledge of the ecological genetics associated with variation of plant–plant interactions remains limited. In this opinion article by scientists from complementary disciplines, the international PLANTCOM network i...
Article
Sorghum is an important worldwide source of food, feed and fibers. Like most plants, it forms mutualistic symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), but the nutritional basis of mycorrhiza-responsiveness is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the transcriptional and physiological responses of sorghum to two different AMF species, Rhizoph...
Article
Acacia saligna is an invasive alien species that has the ability to establish symbiotic relationships with rhizobia. In the present study, genotypic and symbiotic diversity of native rhizobia associated with A. saligna in Tunisia were studied. A total of 100 bacterial strains were selected and three different ribotypes were identified based on rrs...
Article
The study of the organ structure of plants and understanding their physiological complexity requires 3D imaging with subcellular resolution. Most plant organs are highly opaque to light, and their study under optical sectioning microscopes is therefore difficult. In animals, many protocols have been developed to make organs transparent to light usi...
Article
The shifts in adaptive strategies revealed by ecological succession and the mechanisms that facilitate these shifts are fundamental to ecology. These adaptive strategies could be particularly important in communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) mutualistic with sorghum where strong AMF succession replaces initially ruderal species with co...
Chapter
Mycorrhizal plants dominate in most ecosystems and they differ in belowground carbon allocation, capacity of organic nutrient acquisition, impact on soil carbon, and nutrient cycling. So far, to improve our understanding of mycorrhizal contributions to soil C and nutrient cycling, most research has been carried out in very different biomes (e.g., a...
Article
The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis has independently evolved from diverse types of saprotrophic ancestors. In this study, we seek to identify genomic signatures of the transition to the ECM habit within the hyper-diverse Russulaceae. We present comparative analyses of the genomic architecture and the total and secreted gene repertoires of 18 speci...
Article
Full-text available
Background Grapevine is a woody, perennial plant of high economic importance worldwide. Like other plants, it lives in close association with large numbers of microorganisms. Bacteria, fungi and viruses are structured in communities, and each individual can be beneficial, neutral or harmful to the plant. In this sense, microorganisms can interact w...
Article
Full-text available
Legumes form root mutualistic symbioses with some soil microbes promoting their growth, rhizobia, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). A conserved set of plant proteins rules the transduction of symbiotic signals from rhizobia and AMF in a so-called common symbiotic signaling pathway (CSSP). Despite considerable efforts and advances over the pas...
Article
Full-text available
Modern agriculture is currently undergoing rapid changes in the face of the continuing growth of world population and many ensuing environmental challenges. Crop quality is becoming as important as crop yield and can be characterised by several parameters. For fruits and vegetables, quality descriptors can concern production cycle (e.g. conventiona...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhiza, one of the oldest interactions on earth (~ 450 million years old) and a first-class partner for plants to colonize emerged land, is considered one of the most pervasive ecological relationships on the globe. Despite how important and old this interaction is, its discovery was very recent compared to the long story of land pla...
Preprint
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), the mutualistic symbionts with most crops, constitute a research system of human-associated fungi whose relative simplicity and synchrony are conducive to experimental ecology. However, little is known about the shifts in adaptive strategies of sorghum associated AMFs where strong AMF succession replaces initiall...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ectomycorrhizal symbiosis is an essential guild of many forested ecosystems and has a dynamic evolutionary history across kingdom Fungi, having independently evolved from diverse types of saprotrophic ancestors. In this study, we seek to identify genomic features of the transition to the ectomycorrhizal habit within the Russulaceae, one of the...
Article
For many plants, their symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi plays a key role in the acquisition of mineral nutrients such as inorganic phosphate (Pi), in exchange for assimilated carbon. To study gene regulation and function in the symbiotic partners, we and others have used compartmented microcosms in which the extra-radical mycelium (ERM),...
Article
Full-text available
While plants mainly rely on the use of inorganic nitrogen sources like ammonium and nitrate, soil-borne microorganisms like the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum can also take up soil organic N in the form of amino acids and peptides that they use as nitrogen and carbon sources. Following the previous identification and functional expr...
Article
De manière générale, un couvert végétal se définit par une espèce ou une communauté d’espèces végétales recouvrant le sol de manière permanente ou temporaire. L’agriculteur a la possibilité de semer ces couverts, selon un choix raisonné, ou bien de laisser la végétation spontanée se développer. Il existe 3 types de couverts semés avec des objectifs...
Article
In tree-based intercropping systems, roots of trees and crops are interacting and could influence ecosystem services provided by soil microorganisms. Here, the analysis of diversity of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) associated with roots of walnut and maize reveals differences. Of interest, Funneliformis genus is mainly associated with maize roo...
Chapter
In arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, the belowground mycelium that develops into the soil, not only provides extensive pathways for nutrient fluxes, the occupation of different niches, and dispersal of propagules, but also has strong influences upon biogeochemical cycling. By providing a valuable overview of expression changes of most proteins, sho...
Article
Woody plant (WP) declines have multifactorial determinants as well as a biological and economic reality. The vascular system of WPs involved in the transport of carbon, nitrogen, and water from sources to sinks has a seasonal activity, which places it at a central position for mediating plant-environment interactions from nutrient cycling to commun...
Book
Il y a 450 millions d’années, des algues vertes conquirent les terres émergées : elles allaient devenir les plantes que nous connaissons. Cette conquête des continents, n’a probablement été rendue possible que par le développement d’une association bénéfique entre les racines des plantes et des champignons. Cette association ancestrale, appelée la...
Article
Full-text available
In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, key components of nutrient uptake and exchange are specialized transporters that facilitate nutrient transport across membranes. As phosphate is a nutrient and a regulator of nutrient exchanges, we investigated the effect of P availability to extraradical mycelium (ERM) on both plant and fungus transcriptom...
Article
Full-text available
Le concept d’organisme pluricellulaire, qui décrit un être vivant comme un ensemble ordonné, composé de cellules assemblées en organes, montre actuellement ses limites. En effet, un organisme ne vit pas seul, mais associé plus ou moins intimement, à des communautés microbiennes qui vont interagir avec lui et moduler ses propriétés (physiologiques e...
Article
Serendipitous findings and studies on Tuber species suggest that some ectomycorrhizal fungi, beyond their complex interaction with ectomycorrhizal hosts, also colonize roots of non‐ectomycorrhizal plants in a loose way called endophytism. Here, we investigate endophytism of T. melanosporum and T. aestivum. We visualized endophytic T. melanosporum h...
Article
Drought is a limiting factor for crop plant production, especially in arid and semi-arid climates. In this study, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) was inoculated with two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, either the standard Rhizophagus irregularis or the desert-adapted Rhizophagus arabicus, and grown in experimental microcosms under well-watered or drought c...
Article
Plants interact throughout their lives with environmental microorganisms. These interactions determine plant development, nutrition, and fitness in a dynamic and stressful environment, forming the basis for the holobiont concept in which plants and plant-associated microbes are not considered as independent entities but as a single evolutionary uni...
Article
Full-text available
The majority of land plants have two suberized root barriers: the endodermis, and the hypodermis (exodermis). Both barriers bear non-suberized passage cells that are thought to regulate water and nutrient exchange between the root and the soil. While we learned a lot about endodermal passage cells during the last years, our knowledge on hypodermal...
Chapter
It is well established that arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiotic fungi contribute to the scavenging of soil mineral nutrients in exchange for photosynthetically fixed organic carbon in the large majority of land plants. However, plants are naturally interconnected by a common mycorrhizal network (CMN), and the terms of trade as well as developmenta...
Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis occurs between obligate biotrophic fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota and most of land plants. The exchange of nutrients between host plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is presumed to be the main benefit for the two symbiotic partners. In this review article, we outline the current concepts of nutrient exchanges...
Chapter
We developed a new protocol to study arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities in Bordeaux vineyards in a standardized way, in order to compare results obtained over years and between locations. To this end, we first used grapevine root samples instead of soil samples to avoid AMF spores or hyphae interacting with cover plants. We next increa...
Article
Drought is a limiting factor for crop production, especially in arid and semi-arid climates. In this study, Sorghum bicolor plants were inoculated, or not, with Rhizophagus irregularis, an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) strain typical for temperate climates, or Rhizophagus arabicus, a strain endemic to hyper-arid ecosystems. Plants were grown under we...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how soil pedogenesis affects microbial communities and their in situ activities according to ecosystem functioning is a central issue in soil microbial ecology, as soils represent essential nutrient reservoirs and habitats for the biosphere. To address this question, soil chronosequences developed from a single, shared mineralogical p...
Article
Most temperate green orchids form mycorrhizae with rhizoctonias fungi and are considered autotrophic. Some orchids, however, associate with fungi that also form ectomycorrhizae with surrounding trees and derive part of their carbon from these fungi. This evolutionarily derived condition, called mixotrophy, is characterized by natural ¹³C enrichment...
Article
Full-text available
In the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, plants satisfy part of their nitrogen (N) requirement through the AM pathway. In sorghum, the ammonium transporters (AMT) AMT3;1, and to a lesser extent AMT4, are induced in cells containing developing arbuscules. Here, we have characterized orthologs of AMT3;1 and AMT4 in four other grasses in addition...
Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonize up to 90% of all land plants and facilitate the acquisition of mineral nutrients by their hosts. Inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) and nitrogen (N) are the major nutrients transferred from the fungi to plants. While plant Pi transporters involved in nutrient transfer at the plant-fungal interface have been we...
Article
Full-text available
Two distinct nutritional syndromes have been described in temperate green orchids. Most orchids form mycorrhizas with rhizoctonia fungi and are considered autotrophic. Some orchids, however, associate with fungi that simultaneously form ectomycorrhizas with surrounding trees and derive their carbon from these fungi. This evolutionarily derived cond...
Data
Gel results from PCR analyses conducted for verification of Tulasnella species presence/absence in (A) Liparis loeselii and (B) Dactylorhiza root samples using an enhanced version of the Tulasnella specific primer combination for ITS (namely ITS1ngs/ITS4-Tul2, described in Oja et al., 2015). Similar results were obtained using the primer pair ITS1/...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) requires a fundamental reprogramming of root cells for symbiosis. This involves the induction of hundreds of genes in the host. A recently identified GRAS-type transcription factor in Petunia hybrida, ATA/RAM1, is required for the induction of host genes during AM, and for morphogenesis of the...