Phoebe S Leboy

Phoebe S Leboy
University of Pennsylvania | UP · Department of Biochemistry

About

69
Publications
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5,639
Citations
Citations since 2016
0 Research Items
984 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Full-text available
Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Awards and prizes, which are critical for shaping scientific career trajectories, play a role in this stratification when they differentially enhance the status of scientists who already have large reputations: the 'Matthew Effect'. Contrary to...
Article
Full-text available
We examined whether bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated osteogenesis of adult human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation of Smad1. Adenoviral constructs carrying either unmodified human Smad1 or Smad1 mutated in the linker region to preclude extracellular signal-regulated kinase p...
Article
Full-text available
One area in which female scientists still have to confront sexism (Nature 468, 733; 2010) is in scholarly awards: women win fewer. Scientific societies must examine practices for selecting awardees. The proportion of women receiving service or teaching awards in the past two decades is roughly equivalent to the proportion of women within the cohort...
Article
Long-term administration of intravenous bisphosphonates like pamidronate is associated with jaw osteonecrosis but axial and appendicular bones remain unaffected. Pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-associated jaw osteonecrosis may relate to skeletal site-specific effects of bisphosphonates on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC...
Article
We have examined the ability of bioactive sol-gel glass ceramics to support both osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation from human bone marrow cells (HBMC). Nucleated cells from human bone marrow were cultured on tissue culture plastic and on two sol-gel coatings: A2 glass-ceramic containing 54 mol % CaO/40 mol % SiO(2) and S2 glass-ceramic cont...
Article
There are many gene products reported to promote osteoblast differentiation and thus increase bone formation, but only the transcription factor Runx2 and members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of growth/differentiation factors have been shown to be absolute requirements for osteogenesis. Mice lacking the transcription factor Runx2 (...
Article
A previous study demonstrated that the incorporation of bioactive glass (BG) into poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) can promote the osteoblastic differentiation of marrow stromal cells (MSCs) on PLGA by promoting the formation of a calcium-phosphate-rich layer on its surface. To further understand the mechanisms underlying the osteogenic effect...
Article
To examine age-related efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, ascorbate, and dexamethasone as osteogenic inducers in canine marrow-derived stromal cells (MSCs). Samples of femoral bone marrow obtained from 15 skeletally immature (< 1 year old) and 4 skeletally mature (> 1.5 years old) dogs. First-passage canine MSC cultures were treated wi...
Article
Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC) are the major source of osteoblasts for bone remodeling and repair in postnatal animals. Rodent MSC cultured with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) differentiate into osteoblasts, but most human MSC show a poor osteogenic response to BMPs. In this study we demonstrate that BMP-induced osteogenesis in poorly responsi...
Article
The goal of this investigation was to explore the mechanism by which NOS and NO serve to regulate events linked to chondrocyte terminal differentiation. NOS isoform expression and NO adducts in chick growth cartilage were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. All NOS isoforms were expressed in chick growth plate chondrocytes w...
Article
Tissue engineering offers a promising new approach to bone tissue grafting. One material that has received attention in this regard is the polymer poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). It has the advantage of controllable bioresorption and ease of processing. Another material of interest is bioactive glass (BG), which shows the ability to stimulat...
Article
Bioactive glass (BG) is an effective synthetic bone graft material. BG granules of narrow size range (300-355 mum) have the ability to form new bone tissue inside excavations produced by in vivo resorption. Previously, we demonstrated that BG stimulates the differentiation of cultured osteoblast precursors if the glass surface was biomimetically mo...
Article
Statistics in Brief publications present descriptive data in tabular formats to provide useful information to a broad audience, including members of the general public. They address topical issues and questions. They do not investigate more complex hypotheses, account for interrelationships among variables, or support causal inferences. We encourag...
Article
Full-text available
Background During endochondral bone formation, the hypertrophy of chondrocytes is accompanied by selective expression of several genes including type X collagen and alkaline phosphatase. This expression is stimulated by inducers including BMPs and ascorbate. A 316 base pair region of the type X collagen (Col X) promoter has been previously characte...
Article
Four kinds of gel-derived materials of the CaO–P 2 O 5 –SiO 2 (S2, II, I, A2) system were obtained in the form of thin coatings on microscope slides. The obtained materials differed from each other in the ratio of the basic components (CaO and SiO 2). The coatings were characterised with regard to the state of the surface as well as to the phase co...
Article
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) promote the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells, and also induce osteogenesis in bone marrow stromal cells (MSC) from rats and mice. However, compared to results with animal models, BMPs are relatively inefficient in inducing human MSC to undergo osteogenesis, and are much less effective in promoting bone for...
Article
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well known to induce bone formation in animal models and can promote osteogenesis in cultures of multipotential mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) isolated from rat and mouse bone marrow. However, clinical trials of BMPs suggest that BMPs are relatively ineffective inducers of osteogenesis in humans. Recent studies...
Article
Adherent bone marrow stromal cells are inducible osteoprogenitors, giving rise to cells expressing osteoblast markers including alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein. However, the potency of inducers varies in a species-specific manner. Glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone induce alkaline phosphatase activity in bot...
Article
Chondrocyte maturation and hypertrophy during endochondral bone formation are stimulated by both retinoids and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). The type-X collagen gene, which is expressed only in hypertrophic chondrocytes, provides an excellent marker for chondrocyte maturation. We previously identified a 651-base-pair region of the type-X coll...
Article
The attachment of human bone marrow stromal cells to titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surfaces was investigated. Titanium disks were polished and modified by surface roughening and by passivation in nitric add. Cell attachment to titanium surfaces and tissue culture plastic (TCP) was determined by tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at 2, 6, 24, and 48 hours a...
Conference Paper
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well known to induce bone formation in animal models and can promote osteogenesis in cultures of multipotential mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) isolated from rat and mouse bone marrow. However, clinical trials of BMPs suggest that BMPs are relatively ineffective inducers of osteogenesis in humans. Recent studies...
Article
Full-text available
Matrix vesicles (MV) play a key role in the initiation of cartilage mineralization. Although many components in these microstructures have been identified, the specific function of each component is still poorly understood. In this study, we show that metalloproteases (MMP), MMP-2, -9, and -13 are associated with MV isolated from growth plate carti...
Article
Cartilage from the upper, cephalic portion of embryonic chick sternums undergoes hypertrophy, while the lower, caudal portion of the sternum remains as cartilage. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce type X collagen (colX) in cultured upper but not lower sternal chondrocytes (LSCs). We have examined the utilization of BMP receptors (BMPRs) by...
Article
During development, mRNA for matrix metalloproteinase‐13 (MMP‐13) is found associated with cartilage undergoing hypertrophy, suggesting that this collagenase plays a role in cell enlargement and/or cartilage calcification. Using chondrocytes from prehypertrophic cartilage of chick embryo sternae, we have examined the relationship between MMP‐13 exp...
Article
During development, mRNA for matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) is found associated with cartilage undergoing hypertrophy, suggesting that this collagenase plays a role in cell enlargement and/or cartilage calcification. Using chondrocytes from prehypertrophic cartilage of chick embryo sternae, we have examined the relationship between MMP-13 exp...
Article
The membranes surrounding the chick embryo undergo striking morphological changes before hatching, which include structural degradation of the allantoic membrane. The fibrillar collagen content of the membranes declined by embryonic day (ED) 20 (the day of hatching). By ED 19, a 55-kDa matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity appeared in the extraem...
Article
Full-text available
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were originally identified by their ability to induce ectopic bone formation and have been shown to promote both chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy. BMPs have recently been found to activate a membrane serine/threonine kinase signaling mechanism in a variety of cell types, but the downstream effectors of B...
Article
Chondrocytes show an unusual ability to thrive under serum-free conditions as long as insulin, thyroxine, and cysteine are present. Studies with sternal chondrocytes from chick embryos indicate that thymidine incorporation in chondrocytes cultured under serum-free conditions is 30–50% of that seen with fetal bovine serum (FBS). In contrast, skin fi...
Article
In serum-containing medium, ascorbic acid induces maturation of prehypertrophic chick embryo sternal chondrocytes. Recently, cultured chondrocytes have also been reported to undergo maturation in the presence of bone morphogenetic proteins or in serum-free medium supplemented with thyroxine. In the present study, we have examined the combined effec...
Article
To examine possible mechanisms underlying osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells, we investigated bHLH functional activity in cell lines representing different stages of osteoblast maturation. Interaction of nuclear proteins with oligonucleotides corresponding to various bHLH binding sequences (known as E-boxes) was determined in mo...
Article
Although steroid hormones regulate mature osteoblast function, much less is known about their actions on osteoprogenitor cells. The possibility of steroid hormone regulation of early stages in osteoblast differentiation was investigated by measuring the growth and induction of the osteoblast marker enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP) in rat bone marro...
Article
Most investigators are cognizant of the problems inherent in counting cells embedded in a complex and abundant extracellular matrix. To overcome these obstacles, we developed a new method of isolating nucleic acids from chondrocytes which facilitates measurement of cell number by DNA analysis. Chondrocytes were isolated from chick embryo sterna and...
Article
Full-text available
During development and fracture repair, endochondral bone formation is preceded by an orderly process of chondrocyte hypertrophy and cartilage matrix calcification. Analysis of calcifying versus noncalcifying cartilage has identified several differences in matrix proteins; among these are appearance of a novel collagen, type X, and decreased synthe...
Article
During the process of endochondral bone formation, chondrocytes undergo a series of complex maturational changes. Our recent studies indicate that this maturational process is influenced by the vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA). To learn how this agent regulates chondrocyte development, we characterized matrix gene expression during maturatio...
Article
Adult vertebrates require a continuous supply of osteoblasts for both bone remodeling and regeneration during fracture repair. This implies the existence of a reservoir of cells in the body capable of osteogenesis. One source of these osteoprogenitors is the stem cells within the fibroblastic component of bone marrow stroma. Mature osteoblasts are...
Article
Numerous studies of experimental hypo- and hypervitaminosis A have long suggested that retinoic acid (RA) is involved in chondrocyte maturation during endochondral ossification and skeletogenesis. However, the specific and direct roles of RA in these complex processes remain unclear. Based on recent studies from our laboratories, we tested the hypo...
Article
Chondrocytes isolated from the cephalic region of sterna from 14-day-old chick embryos used beta 1 integrins and required either Mg2+ or Mn2+ for attachment to plates coated with type I collagen, type II collagen, and fibronectin. beta 1 integrin was concentrated in adhesion plaques of the chondrocytes plated on type I collagen, type II collagen, a...
Article
The differentiation of adipocytic and osteogenic cells has been investigated in cultures of adult rat marrow stromal cells. Adipocytic differentiation was assessed using morphological criteria, changes in expression of procollagen mRNAs, consistent with a switch from the synthesis of predominantly fibrillar (types I and III) to basement membrane (t...
Article
Bones grow in length because of the activities of cartilage cells in the epiphyseal growth plate. We have examined selected events that occur in the growth cartilage by the use of cultured epiphyseal cells; we have also evaluated the influence of ascorbate on these activities. Our studies indicate that 1) ascorbate induces the expression of a uniqu...
Article
During endochondral ossification, small rapidly proliferating chondrocytes mature into flattened disc-shaped cells and then into large round hypertrophic cells. These morphological changes are accompanied by a decrease in the rate of cell proliferation. Type X collagen synthesis is initiated during chondrocyte maturation and reaches very high level...
Article
We have examined the ability of dexamethasone, retinoic acid, and vitamin D3 to induce osteogenic differentiation in rat marrow stromal cell cultures by measuring the expression of mRNAs associated with the differentiated osteoblast phenotype as well as analyzing collagen secretion and alkaline phosphatase activity. Marrow cells were cultured for 8...
Article
Osteonectin is a calcium-binding matrix protein thought to play a role in regulating calcium distribution in a variety of biologic processes. To examine its role in endochondral bone formation, we examined the distribution of the protein during mineralization of the chicken tibial growth cartilage, using immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron micr...
Article
Chondrocytes emerging in the limb or other locations during embryogenesis are currently considered terminally differentiated cells and thus represent the last stage of differentiation in the chondrogenic cell lineage. Most chondrocytes, however, undergo further major phenotypic changes during late embryogenesis and early postnatal life as they take...
Article
Full-text available
During the process of endochondral bone formation, proliferating chondrocytes give rise to hypertrophic chondrocytes, which then deposit a mineralized matrix to form calcified cartilage. Chondrocyte hypertrophy and matrix mineralization are associated with expression of type X collagen and the induction of high levels of the bone/liver/kidney isozy...
Article
We have used in situ hybridization to examine expression of collagen type I, II, and X mRNA and osteonectin mRNA in the chick epiphysis. Tissue samples from the proximal tibial growth cartilage were fixed in modified Carnoy's solution, dehydrated in ethanol, and embedded in paraffin. Longitudinal and transverse sections were demineralized with HCl...
Article
Full-text available
The interaction of a high-molecular-weight salivary glycoprotein (agglutinin) with Streptococcus sanguis M5 leads to the formation of bacterial aggregates. We have previously shown that the SSP-5 surface antigen from S. sanguis M5 binds the salivary agglutinin and therefore may be involved in the aggregation process. Here we report the transformati...
Article
Full-text available
Human saliva contains a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein (agglutinin) which binds to specific streptococci in a calcium-dependent reaction leading to the formation of bacterial aggregates. We report the cloning of a gene encoding a surface antigen from Streptococcus sanguis M5 and show that the expressed protein inhibits agglutinin-mediated aggre...
Article
Full-text available
To map transcriptional events associated with mineralization in developing long bones, we have established protocols for preparing RNA from regions of chick epiphyseal cartilage. Using these RNA preparations, we have probed for appearance of mRNA coding for type I, II, and X collagen, as well as osteonectin and calmodulin. Type II collagen mRNA was...
Article
Full-text available
To map transcriptional events associated with mineralization in developing long bones, we have established protocols for preparing RNA from regions of chick epiphyseal cartilage. Using these RNA preparations, we have probed for appearance of mRNA coding for type I, II, and X collagen, as well as osteonectin and calmodulin. Type II collagen mRNA was...
Article
Analysis of codon usage for chick Type I collagen indicates that 89% of glycine codons are GGU/C. Since collagens are one-third glycine, chick Type I collagen synthesis should require large amounts of tRNAGly with the anticodon GCC. Earlier chromatographic studies of chick tRNA had indicated that connective tissues showed altered tRNAGly isoaccepto...
Article
A transplantable rat tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma 13762, accumulates tRNA which can be methylated in vitro by mammalian tRNA (adenine-1) methyltransferase. This unusual ability of the tumor RNA to serve as substrate for a homologous tRNA methylating enzyme is correlated with unusually low levels of the A 58-specific adenine-1 methyltransferase. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Methylation reactions carried out with mammalian transfer RNA (tRNA) methyltransferases and RNA prepared from the homologous source do not normally show significant incorporation of methyl groups into the tRNA. However, our studies with the transplantable mammary adenocarcinoma 13762 indicate that tRNA from this tumor can be methylated in vitro wit...
Article
We have previously demonstrated that (guanine-2-)-methyltransferase activity in extracts from 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-induced rat mammary tumors differs from that of nonneoplastic mammary tissue. In this report, we explore further the nature of these differences by purification and characterization of the two major transfer RNA (tRNA) (gua...
Article
Full-text available
A comparison of the transfer RNA (tRNA) methyltransferases from rat mammary gland and mammary tumors was carried out to explore possible tumor-specific differences in enzyme activity, substrate specificity, and capacity to methylate bacterial tRNA substrates. Enzymes from 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-induced mammary tumors had specific activiti...
Article
Of 17 base- or amino acid-modified analogues of S-adenosylhomocysteine, six were found to produce at least 50% inhibition of the activity of an unfractionated tRNA methyltransferase extract at concentrations of 200 micron. The inhibitory effects of these six analogues on five purified rat liver tRNA methyltransferases were examined. The purified en...
Article
tRNA(guanine-1-)-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.31) and tRNA(N2-guanine)-methyltransferase I (EC 2.1.1.32) were isolated from rat liver. The (guanine-1-)-methyltransferase preparation is 6800-fold purified and is free from contaminating methyltransferases or ribonuclease. The molecular weight of (guanine-1-)-methyltransferase is 83 000. Of seven purif...
Article
Full-text available
An S-adenosylmethionine-dependent tRNA(adenine-1)-methyltransferase has been purified 8,000-fold from rat liver. This preparation gives a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and is stable in long term storage. The enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 95,000. The single methylating capacity of this adenine-1 methyltransferase...
Article
Three tRNA methyltransferases, purified from rat liver, have been compared for their activity in the presence of various amines and Mg2+. The enzymes differ with respect to the ion which permits maximal activity; they also differ with respect to the concentration of a given ion necessary for maximal activity. The methyltransferase which forms N2-me...
Article
Three tRNA methyltransferases from rat liver have been fractionated and purified greater than 100-fold. These enzymes have been examined for their sensitivity to inhibition by S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). The methyltransferase which forms m2-guanine in the region between the dihydrouridine loop and the acceptor stem of tRNA (m2-guanine methyltrans...
Article
1.1. In experiments designed to investigate possible organ- and tumor-specific differences in methylation of soluble RNA reported in the literature, RNA methylase activity from dialyzed high-speed supernatant extracts of adult and newborn mouse organs and from mouse tumors was measured. Soluble RNA from Escherichia coli B was used as acceptor, and...

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