Philo U Saunders

Philo U Saunders
Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) · Division of Physiology

PhD

About

85
Publications
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Publications

Publications (85)
Article
Full-text available
We implemented a multi-pronged strategy (MAX) involving chronic (2 weeks high carbohydrate [CHO] diet + gut-training) and acute (CHO loading + 90 g·h −1 CHO during exercise) strategies to promote endogenous and exogenous CHO availability, compared with strategies reflecting lower ranges of current guidelines (CON) in two groups of athletes. Ninetee...
Article
Introduction: Athletes engaged in repeated-sprint training in the heat can be at an increased risk of gastrointestinal ischemia and damage in response to a redistribution of blood to working skeletal muscles and the skin. This study investigated the effects of repeated sprinting in hot and cool conditions on markers of gastrointestinal damage. Me...
Article
Purpose: The risk of exercise-induced endotoxemia is increased in the heat and is primarily attributable to changes in gut permeability resulting in the translocation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) into the circulation. The purpose of this study was to quantify the acute changes in gut permeability and LPS translocation during submaximal continuous a...
Article
The use of rolling averages to analyse training data has been debated recently. We evaluated two training load quantification methods (five-zone, seven-zone) fitted to performances over two race distances (50 m and 100 m) using four separate longitudinal models (Banister, Busso. rolling averages and exponentially weighted rolling averages) for thre...
Article
PURPOSE: Critical speed (CS) and supra-CS distance capacity (D') are useful metrics for monitoring changes in swimmers' physiological and performance capacities. However, the utility of these metrics across a season has not been systematically evaluated in high level swimmers. METHODS: Twenty-seven swimmers (18 female; age 19.1 ± 2.9 y, 9 male; 19...
Article
High-level athletes are always looking at ways to maximize training adaptations for competition performance, and using altered environmental conditions to achieve this outcome has become increasingly popular by elite athletes. Furthermore, a series of potential nutrition and hydration interventions may also optimize the adaptation to altered enviro...
Article
Purpose: To quantify, for an elite-level racewalker, altitude training, heat acclimation and acclimatization, physiological data, and race performance from January 2007 to August 2008. Methods: The participant performed 7 blocks of altitude training: 2 "live high:train high" blocks at 1380 m (total = 22 d) and 5 simulated "live high:train low" b...
Article
The questionable efficacy of Live High Train High altitude training (LHTH) is compounded by minimal training quantifica-tion in many studies. We sought to quantify the training load (TL) periodization in a cohort of elite runners completing LHTH immediately prior to competition. Eight elite runners (6 males, 2 females) with a V ̇ O2peak of 70 ± 4 m...
Article
Purpose:: To determine whether combining training in heat with 'Live High, Train Low' hypoxia (LHTL) further improves thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses to a heat tolerance test compared to independent heat training. Methods:: Twenty-five trained runners (VO2peak = 64.1 ±8.0 ml·min·kg-1) completed three-weeks training in one of three...
Article
Purpose:: To compare the effects of natural altitude training and simulated live high: train low training on road race-walking performance (min), as well as treadmill threshold walking speed (km.h-1) at 4 mmol.L-1 (THRESH), and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), at 1380 m. Methods:: Twenty-two elite-level, male (n = 15) and female (n = 7) race...
Article
Purpose: To determine the effect of altitude training at 1600 and 1800 m on sea-level (SL) performance in national-level runners. Methods: After 3 wk of SL training, 24 runners completed a 3-wk sojourn at 1600 m (ALT1600, n = 8), 1800 m (ALT1800, n = 9), or SL (CON, n = 7), followed by up to 11 wk of SL racing. Race performance was measured at S...
Article
Introduction: We sought to determine the effect of low and moderate normobaric hypoxia on oxygen consumption and anaerobic contribution during interval running at different exercise intensities. Methods: Eight runners (age: 25 ± 7 years, V˙O2max: 72.1 ± 5.6 ml.kg.min) completed three separate interval sessions at threshold (4 x 5 min, 2 min reco...
Article
Objectives In elite age-group swimming it is unclear to what degree common assessments of anthropometric, jump performance and front-crawl critical speed (CS) correlate with competition performance. Design Cross-sectional field study. Methods Forty eight elite national-level junior swimmers (22 males, age 16.5 ± 1.2 y, 26 females, age 15.5 ± 1...
Article
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In search of their optimal performance athletes will alter their pacing strategy according to intrinsic and extrinsic physiological, psychological and environmental factors. However, the effect of some of these variables on pacing and exercise performance remains somewhat unclear. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to provide an overview...
Article
Introduction: Independent heat and hypoxic exposure can enhance temperate endurance performance in trained athletes, although their combined effects remain unknown. This study examined whether the addition of heat interval training during 'Live High, Train Low' (LHTL) hypoxic exposure would result in enhanced performance and physiological adaptati...
Article
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Purpose: This investigation sought to determine the effect of training at 2100 metres natural altitude on running speed (RS) during training sessions over a range of intensities relevant to middle-distance running performance. Methods: In an observational study, 19 elite middle-distance runners (mean ± SD; Age, 25 ± 5 years; VO2 max, 71 ± 5 ml.k...
Article
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High altitude exposure can increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) and induce weight loss in obese populations, but there is a lack of research regarding RMR in athletes at moderate elevations common to endurance training camps. The present study aimed to determine whether four weeks of classical altitude training affects RMR in middle-distance runne...
Article
The influence of low natural altitudes (< 2000 m) on erythropoietic adaptation is currently unclear, with current recommendations indicating that such low altitudes may be insufficient to stimulate significant increases in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass). As such, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of 3 weeks of live high, train hig...
Conference Paper
Introduction: While critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic distance capacity (ADC) have been measured in swimming for many years, the relationship between these two measures of performance capacity, as well as their relationship to competition performance, has not been thoroughly detailed. Methods: National level junior swimmers (22 males, 26 females...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To determine the effect of intravenous iron supplementation on performance, fatigue and overall mood in runners without clinical iron deficiency. Methods Fourteen distance runners with serum ferritin 30–100 µg·L−1 were randomly assigned to receive three blinded injections of intravenous ferric-carboxymaltose (2 ml, 100 mg, IRON) or normal...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of resear...
Article
Full-text available
Background Endurance athletes have been using altitude training for decades to improve near sea-level performance. The predominant mechanism is thought to be accelerated erythropoiesis increasing haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) resulting in a greater maximal oxygen uptake (). Not all studies have shown a proportionate increase in as a result of increased...
Article
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Objective To characterise the time course of changes in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) in response to altitude exposure. Methods This meta-analysis uses raw data from 17 studies that used carbon monoxide rebreathing to determine Hbmass prealtitude, during altitude and postaltitude. Seven studies were classic altitude training, eight were live high trai...
Data
Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of resear...
Article
Live High: Train Low (LHTL) altitude training is a popular ergogenic aid amongst athletes. An alternative hypoxia protocol, acute (60-90 min daily) Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure (IHE), has shown potential for improving athletic performance. The aim of this study was to compare directly the effects of LHTL and IHE on the running and blood characteri...
Article
Iron deficiency is prevalent in distance runners and may impair endurance performance. Current practice of oral supplementation is slow and often not well tolerated. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of intravenous iron supplementation (ferric carboxymaltose) compared to oral supplementation (ferrous sulphate) on iron status, haemogl...
Article
This study sought to quantify the effects of reduced training, surgery and changes in body mass on haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) in athletes. Hbmass of 15 athletes (6 males, 9 females) was measured 9±6 (mean±SD) times over 162±198 days, during reduced training following injury or illness. Additionally, body mass (n=15 athletes) and episodes of altitude...
Article
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Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in running mechanics that occur when highly trained runners run barefoot and in a minimalist shoe, and specifically if running in a minimalist shoe replicates barefoot running. Methods: Ground reaction force data and kinematics were collected from 22 highly trained runners during overgr...
Article
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Although some laboratory-based studies show an ergogenic effect with beta-alanine supplementation, there is a lack of field-based research in training and competition settings. Elite/Sub-elite swimmers (n = 23 males and 18 females, age = 21.7 ± 2.8 years; mean ± SD) were supplemented with either beta-alanine (4 weeks loading phase of 4.8 g/day and...
Article
Sensitivity of the Athlete Blood Passport for blood doping could be improved by including total haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)), but this measure may be unreliable immediately following strenuous exercise. We examined the stability of Hb(mass) following ultra-endurance triathlon (3.8 km swim, 180 km bike, 42.2 km run). 26 male sub-elite triathletes, 18...
Article
Objectives: To determine which commonly measured variables of cycling intensity are related to subsequent running economy in triathletes. Design: Cross-sectional laboratory study. Methods: Running economy was compared between a control run (no preceding cycle) and a run performed after a 45 min high-intensity cycle in eighteen triathletes. Pow...
Article
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to the editor: Siebenmann and colleagues ([13][1]) found that 4 wk of simulated altitude (16 hr/day, 3,000 m) failed to increase Hbmass. We believe their methodology to quantify Hbmass was suboptimal, which confounds interpretation. In the mid-1990s, Finnish scientists reported increased red cell
Article
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We compared changes in performance and total haemoglobin mass (tHb) of elite swimmers in the weeks following either Classic or Live High:Train Low (LHTL) altitude training. Twenty-six elite swimmers (15 male, 11 female, 21.4 ± 2.7 years; mean ± SD) were divided into two groups for 3 weeks of either Classic or LHTL altitude training. Swimming perfor...
Article
Illicit autologous blood transfusion to improve performance in elite sport is currently undetectable, but the stability of longitudinal profiles of an athlete's hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) might be used to detect such practices. Our aim was to quantify within-subject variation of Hbmass in elite athletes, and the effects of potentially confounding fac...
Article
The sensitivity of the athlete blood passport to detect blood doping may be improved by the inclusion of total hemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)), but the comparability of Hb(mass) from different laboratories is unknown. To optimize detection sensitivity, the analytical variability associated with Hb(mass) measurement must be minimized. The aim of this stu...
Article
Running is the most important discipline for Olympic triathlon success. However, cycling impairs running muscle recruitment and performance in some highly trained triathletes; though it is not known if this occurs in elite international triathletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cycling in two different protocols on run...
Article
Altered neuromotor control during running after cycling has been associated with exercise-related leg pain and may have performance implications for triathletes. To investigate the effectiveness of adding plyometric training to regular endurance training on triathletes' neuromotor control and running economy in those in which it is aberrant. Random...
Article
To quantify physiological and performance effects of hypoxic exposure, a training camp, the placebo effect, and a combination of these factors. Elite Australian and International race walkers (n = 17) were recruited, including men and women. Three groups were assigned: 1) Live High:Train Low (LHTL, n = 6) of 14 h/d at 3000 m simulated altitude; 2)...
Article
Full-text available
Elite athletes often undertake altitude training to improve sea-level athletic performance, yet the optimal methodology has not been established. A combined approach of live high/train low plus train high (LH/TL+TH) may provide an additional training stimulus to enhance performance gains. Seventeen male and female middle-distance runners with maxim...
Article
Detailed monitoring of training sessions of elite athletes is an important component of their training. In this paper we describe an application that performs a precise segmentation and labeling of swimming sessions. This allows a comprehensive breakdown of the training session, including lap times, detailed statistics of strokes, and turns. To thi...
Article
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It is unclear whether physiological measures monitored in an incremental treadmill test during a training season provide useful diagnostic information about changes in distance running performance. To quantify the relationship between changes in physiological measures and performance (peak running speed) over a training season. Well-trained distanc...
Article
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To develop and evaluate a questionnaire that quantifies the self-reported frequency, duration and severity of illness symptoms in highly-trained athletes. We examined whether runners had more symptoms than recreationally-active individuals, and whether runners more prone to illness were undertaking more strenuous training programs. A daily illness...
Article
Emerging evidence suggests that cycling may influence neuromuscular control during subsequent running but the relationship between altered neuromuscular control and run performance in triathletes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if a 45 min high-intensity cycle influences lower limb movement and muscle recruitment duri...
Article
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In this study, the effects of Difflam Forte Anti-inflammatory Throat Spray on the incidence of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) and inflammatory responses after a half-marathon race were investigated. Double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial conducted in association with a half-marathon event. 45 well-trained half-marathon runners. Difflam...
Article
Elite athletes often undertake multiple altitude exposures within and between training years in an attempt to improve sea level performance. To quantify the reproducibility of responses to live high/train low (LHTL) altitude exposure in the same group of athletes. Sixteen highly trained runners with maximal aerobic power (VO2max) of 73.1 +/- 4.6 an...
Article
To validate VO2 and energy expenditure predictions by the Suunto heart rate (HR) system against a first principle gas analysis system, well-trained male (n = 10, age 29.8 +/- 4.3 years, VO2 65.9 +/- 9.7 ml x kg x min) and female (n = 7, 25.6 +/- 3.6 years, 57.0 +/- 4.2 ml x kg x min) runners completed a 2-stage incremental running test to establish...
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The effects of increased training (IT) load on plasma concentrations of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proinflammatory cytokines, and anti-LPS antibodies during exercise in the heat were investigated in 18 male runners, who performed 14 days of normal training (NT) or 14 days of 20% IT load in 2 equal groups. Before (trial 1) and after (trial 2) the tr...
Article
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Since the 1968 Olympic Games when the effects of altitude on endurance performance became evident, moderate altitude training ( approximately 2000 to 3000 m) has become popular to improve competition performance both at altitude and sea level. When endurance athletes are exposed acutely to moderate altitude, a number of physiological responses occu...
Article
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We quantified the effect of an extended live high-train low (LHTL) simulated altitude exposure followed by a series of training camps at natural moderate altitude on competitive performance in seven elite middle-distance runners (Vo2max 71.4 +/- 3.4 mL.min-1.kg-1, mean +/- SD). Runners spent 44 +/- 7 nights (mean +/- SD) at a simulated altitude of...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the time course of changes in haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) in well-trained cyclists in response to live high:train low (LHTL). Twelve well-trained male cyclists participated in a 3-week LHTL protocol comprising 3,000 m simulated altitude for ~14 h/day. Prior to LHTL duplicate baseline measurements were made of...
Article
There is conflicting evidence whether hypoxia improves running economy (RE), maximal O(2) uptake (V(O)(2max)), haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) and performance, and what total accumulated dose is necessary for effective adaptation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an extended hypoxic exposure on these physiological and performance me...
Article
Repeated sprint testing is gaining popularity in team sports, but the methods of data analysis and relationships to speed and endurance qualities are not well described. We compared three different methods for analyzing repeated sprint test results, and we quantified relationships between repeated sprints, short sprints, and endurance test scores....
Article
Analysis of approximately 100 years of home-and-away South American World Cup matches illustrate that football competition at moderate/high altitude (>2000 m) favors the home team, although this is more than compensated by the likelihood of sea-level teams winning at home against the same opponents who have descended from altitude. Nevertheless, th...
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To evaluate the ability of a probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 (PCC) to enhance the mucosal immune system of elite athletes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was conducted over a 4-month period of winter training. PARTICIPANTS; 20 healthy elite male distance runners. PCC was given at a daily dose of 1.26 x 10(10) as a fre...
Article
To characterize differences in cytokine responses to exercise of different intensities and durations between healthy and illness-prone runners. Trained distance runners were classified as healthy (no more than two episodes of upper-respiratory symptoms per year; N = 10) or illness-prone (four or more episodes per year; N = 8) and completed three tr...
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This methods paper outlines the overall design of a community-based multidisciplinary longitudinal study with the intent to stimulate interest and communication from scientists and practitioners studying the role of physical activity in preventive medicine. In adults, lack of regular exercise is a major risk factor in the development of chronic deg...
Article
Altitude training has been used regularly for the past five decades by elite endurance athletes, with the goal of improving performance at sea level. The dominant paradigm is that the improved performance at sea level is due primarily to an accelerated erythropoietic response due to the reduced oxygen available at altitude, leading to an increase i...
Article
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It is hypothesized that increased plasma or serum concentrations of extracellular heat shock proteins (eHSP) serve as a danger signal to the innate immune system. Cellular binding of eHSP leads to activation of NK cells and monocytes, as measured by their increased cytokine production, mitotic division and killing capacity. We examined whether eHSP...